柳公权

柳公权(778年-865年),字诚悬,汉族,京兆华原(今陕西铜川市耀州区)人。唐代著名书法家、诗人,兵部尚书柳公绰之弟。柳公权二十九岁时进士及第,早年曾任秘书省校书郎,并入李听幕府。于穆宗、敬宗、文宗三朝官居侍书,长在朝中。共历仕七朝,官至太子少师,封河东郡公,以太子太保致仕,故世称“柳少师”。咸通六年(865年),柳公权去世,年八十八,追赠太子太师。
       柳公权书法以楷书著称,与颜真卿齐名,人称“颜柳”,又与欧阳询、颜真卿、赵孟頫并称“楷书四大家”。他的书法初学王羲之,后来遍观唐代名家书法,吸取了颜真卿、欧阳询之长,溶汇新意,自创独树一帜的“柳体”,以骨力劲健见长,后世有 “颜筋柳骨”的美誉。传世碑刻有《金刚经刻石》、《玄秘塔碑》、《冯宿碑》等,行草书有《伏审》、《十六日》、《辱向帖》等,另有墨迹《蒙诏帖》、《王献之送梨帖跋》。柳公权亦工诗,《全唐诗》存其诗五首,《全唐诗外编》存诗一首。

  • 中文名柳公权
  • 别名柳少师、柳学士、柳尚书
  • 性别
  • 民族汉族
  • 祖籍京兆华原(今陕西铜川市耀州区)人
  • 出生日期778年
  • 逝世日期865年
  • 职业。唐代著名书法家、诗人
  • 主要成就“楷书四大家”之一、创“柳体”书
  • 代表作品《金刚经碑》、《玄秘塔碑》、《神策军纪圣德碑》
  • 所属年代唐代
  • 诚悬
  • 官 职太子少师、太子太保
  • 封 爵河东郡开国公
  • 追 赠太子太师
人物生平

少有才学
       大历十三年(778年),柳公权出生。他的祖父柳正礼,曾任邠州士曹参军;父亲柳子温,曾任丹州刺史;其兄为中唐名臣柳公绰。柳公权从小就喜欢学习,十二岁就能作辞赋。
元和三年(808年),柳公权登进士第,初仕为秘书省校书郎。李听镇守夏州时,柳公权入其幕府,任掌书记。
       三朝侍书
       元和十五年(820年),唐宪宗暴死,由唐穆宗李恒即位,柳公权进京回奏政事,穆宗召见,对他说:“朕在佛寺中看到你的笔迹,想见你很久了。”就升任他为右拾遗,补翰林学士,后又升为右补阙、司封员外郎。
       柳公权历事穆宗、敬宗、文宗三朝,都在宫中担任侍书之职。他的哥哥柳公绰在太原任职,写信给宰相李宗闵说:“我的弟弟苦心钻研文章书法,先朝只任他为侍书,这种职务,和占卜小吏没有什么区别,我也以此为耻,请给他调换一个闲散职位。”于是升任右司郎中,又转为司封郎中、兵部郎中、弘文馆学士。文宗思念他,又召他为侍书,升任谏议大夫。不久又改为中书舍人,充任翰林书诏学士。每次在浴堂回答文宗的提问,常常是蜡烛烧完了,而谈兴正浓,不肯花工夫去取蜡烛,宫中婢女便用蜡油谌纸来照明。
       一次,文宗在便殿召见六位学士,文宗说起汉文帝的节俭,便举起自己的衣袖说:“这件衣服已经洗过三次了。”学士们都纷纷颂扬文宗的节俭品德,只有柳公权闭口不说话,文宗留下他,问他为什么不说话,柳公权回答说:“君主的大节,应该注意起用贤良的人才,黜退那些不正派的佞臣,听取忠言劝戒,分明赏罚。至于穿洗过的衣服,那只不过是小节,无足轻重。”当时周墀也在场,听了他的言论,吓得浑身发抖,但柳公权却理直气壮。文宗对他说:“我深知你这个舍人之官不应降为谏议,但因你有谏臣风度,那就任你为谏议大夫吧。”第二天下旨,任他为谏议大夫兼知制诰,仍任学士,掌撰写诏书。
       劝谏文宗
       开成三年(838年),柳公权经调转任工部侍郎,但不过是备员而已。文宗曾召他问事,问他:“外边有什么议论?”柳公权回答说:“自从郭旼被任为邠宁节度使,人们议论纷纷,有的说好,有的说不好。”文宗说:“郭旼是尚父(郭子仪)的侄子,太皇太后(懿安郭皇后)的叔父,在职也没有过错。从金吾大将升任小小的邠宁节度使,还议论什么呢?”柳公权说:“凭郭旼的功绩和品德,任命为节度使是合适的。人们议论的原因,据说是郭旼把两个女儿献入宫中,因此才升官,这是真的吗?”文宗说:“他的两个女儿进宫,是来看望太后的,并不是他进献女儿。”柳公权说:“常言说,瓜田不拾履,李下不整冠,如没有嫌疑,为什么这事嚷得家谕户晓?”他因而举出王珪劝太宗送卢江王妃出宫的事例来说明利害,文宗当即派内使张日华把二女送还郭旼家。后经屡次升迁,担任学士承旨。
       晚年仕途
       开成五年(840年),文宗驾崩,由唐武宗李炎即位。武宗即位后罢去内府学士官职,任命柳公权为右散骑常侍。宰相崔珙举荐他为集贤殿学士、判院事。李德裕本来对柳公权不错,但当柳公权被崔珙举荐时,他很不高兴,便将柳公权降为太子詹事,改为太子宾客。经屡次升迁任金紫光禄大夫、上柱国,封河东郡开国公,食邑二千户。又任为左常侍、国子祭酒。历任工部尚书。
       大中(847年—860年)初年,柳公权转任少师。
       大中十二年(858年)正月一日,宣宗在元旦举行朝会,柳公权年已八十,便在群臣之首向宣宗称颂祝贺,因含元殿较远,柳公权到时因年迈已感疲惫,在称贺之后,本要为宣宗上尊号“圣敬文思和武光孝皇帝”,但柳公权误称“光武和孝”,因此御史弹劾,罚了一季的俸禄[16]  ,议事官恨他不退休。直到唐懿宗咸通(860年—874年)初年,柳公权才以太子太保之职致仕。
       咸通六年(865年),柳公权去世,时年八十八岁,获赠太子太师。

书法成就

柳公权是楷书书体的总结者和创新家,他在研究和继承钟繇、王羲之等人楷书风格的基础上,遍阅近代书法,学习颜真卿,溶汇自己新意,自创独树一帜的“柳体”楷书,为后世百代楷模,成为“唐书尚法”的突出代表之一。
       他的字取匀衡瘦硬,追魏碑斩钉截铁势,点画爽利挺秀,骨力遒劲,结体严紧。“书贵瘦硬方通神”他的楷书,较之颜体,则稍均匀瘦硬,故有“颜筋柳骨”之称。
       自唐代元和年间以后,柳公权声誉日高。唐宣宗尤为珍爱柳公权的墨宝,曾召柳公权到殿前,由军容使西门季玄捧着砚台,枢密使崔巨源拿着笔,柳公权用真书在一张纸上写了“卫夫人传笔法于王右军”十字;用行书在一张纸上写了“永禅寺真草千字文得家法”十一字;用草书在一张纸上写了“谓语助者焉哉乎也”八字。宣宗赏给他锦彩及瓶盘等银器。又让他自写谢状,不拘真书、草书。当时公卿大臣家为先人立碑,如果得不到柳公权亲笔所书的碑文,人们会认为是不孝行为。而且柳公权声誉远播海外,外夷入贡时,都专门准备钱财来购买柳公权的书法。唐文宗曾称赞其书法连钟繇、王羲之再生,也超不过。
       今人学书入门,依然首选唐代颜、柳、欧、褚、虞等书法家,特别是柳公权所建立的一整套楷书的规范,今天仍然是人们学习的榜样。 柳公权在书法艺术的改革和发展中,做出了突出的贡献,为唐代书法发展进行总结,也为整个楷书的发展奠定了基础。

个人作品

文学:柳公权工诗,有出口成章之才,文宗称其“子建七步,尔乃三步焉”。《全唐诗》有其存诗五首,《全唐诗外编》存诗一首,《全唐文》、《唐文拾遗》亦有收录其作品。 
碑刻:《金刚经碑》《平西郡王李晟碑》《大唐回元观钟楼铭》《冯宿碑》《羲阳郡王苻璘碑》《玄秘塔碑》《神策军碑》《刘沔碑》《原道碑》《魏公先庙碑》《高元裕碑》《复东林寺碑》
行草:《伏审》《十六日》《辱向帖》。

人物评价

李恒:我于佛寺见卿笔迹,思之久矣。
柳公绰:家弟苦心辞艺。
李昂:卿有诤臣风。辞清意足,不可多得。钟(钟繇)、王(王羲之)复生,无以加焉!
李煜:善法书者,各得右军(王羲之)之一体……柳公权得其骨而失於生犷。
岑宗日:柳公权得其劲,故如辕门列兵,森然环卫。
范仲淹:延年之笔,颜筋柳骨。散落人间,宝为神物。
苏轼:柳少师书本出于颜,而能自出新意。
米芾柳公权如深山道人,修养已成,神气清健,无一点尘俗。
朱长文:盖其法出于颜(颜真卿),而加以遒劲丰润,自名一家。
王世贞:所书《兰亭》帖,去山阴室虽远,大要能师神而离迹者也。
丰坊:昔人传笔诀云:“双钩悬腕,让左侧右,虚掌实指,意前笔后。”论书势云:“如屋漏痕,如壁坼,如锥画沙,如印印泥,如折钗股。”自钟、王以来,知此秘者……唐则欧阳信本(欧阳询)、虞伯施(虞世南)、褚登善(褚遂良)、薛纯陀、薛嗣通(薛稷)、孙过庭、钟绍京、贾膺福、李泰和(李邕)、贺季真(贺知章)、李太白(李白)、张伯高(张旭)、杜子美(杜甫)、颜清臣(颜真卿)、柳诚悬、钱藏真(怀素)、张从申...虽所就不一,要之皆有师法,非孟浪者。[31]
董其昌:柳诚悬书,极力变右军法,盖不欲与《禊帖》面目相似。所谓神奇化为臭腐,故离之耳。人学书,以姿态取媚,鲜能解此。余于虞、褚、颜、欧,皆曾仿佛十一,自学柳诚悬,方悟用笔古淡处。自今以往,不得舍柳法而趋右军也。
爱新觉罗·弘历:公权以敢言着闻,文宗亦嘉其风采。然彼时宦寺弄权,朝臣植党,未闻有所纠弹,则亦杜钦谷永之流耳。区区不谀澣衣,托词笔谏,亦所云末节而已。
康有为:诚悬则欧之变格者。

轶事典故

写诗助人
        唐武宗曾长时间对一名宫中女官生气,后来把她召来,对柳公权说:“朕对这个人很不满意,如果能得到学士你的一篇作品,朕就不怪罪她了。”于是把御案上的几十张蜀郡产的纸递给他。柳公权不假思索,立即写成一首绝句:“不分前时忤主恩,已甘寂寞守长门。今朝却得君王顾,重入椒房拭泪痕。”皇帝非常高兴,赏赐给他二百匹锦缎,并命女官上前向他拜谢。
       以笔为谏
       唐穆宗荒淫,行政乖僻,他曾向柳公权问怎样用笔才能尽善尽美,柳公权回答说:“用笔的方法,全在于用心,心正则笔法自然尽善尽美。”穆宗为之改容,明白他这是借用笔法来进行劝诫。宋代苏轼在诗中曾说:“何当火急传家法,欲见诚悬笔谏时。” 
       三步之才
       柳公权曾随从唐文宗去未央宫花园中游玩,文宗停下车子对柳公权说:“有一件使我高兴的事。过去赐给边兵的服装,常常不能及时发下,现在二月里就把春衣发放完毕。”柳公权上前祝贺,文宗说:“只是祝贺一下,还不能把你的心意表达清楚,你应作首诗向我祝贺。”宫人催他亲口念给文宗听,柳公权应声念道:“去岁虽无战,今年未得归。皇恩何以报,春日得春衣。”文宗高兴地说:“曹子建七步吟诗,你竟只需三步。”
       致力学术
       柳公权特精于《左传》、《国语》、《尚书》、《毛诗》、《庄子》,每讲说一词一义,常写满好几篇纸。他通晓音律,却不喜欢听演奏,他常说:“这是由于听音乐容易使人产生骄慢情绪的缘故。"

家族成员

祖父:柳正礼,官至邠州士曹参军。
父亲:柳子温,官至丹州刺史。
兄长:柳公绰,字起之,官至兵部尚书,卒赠太子太保,谥曰成。
弟弟:柳公谅,官至南郑县令。
儿子:柳仲宪,生平不详。
孙子:柳瑗,字虚中,生平不详。

后世纪念

柳公权墓在耀州区阿子乡让义村北约1公里处。东西82米,南北64米,圜丘。柳公绰墓在东,柳公权墓在西,相距46米。墓前各立石碑1通。1碑上款楷书“赐进士及第兵部侍郎兼副都御史陕西巡抚毕沅书”,中行隶书大字“唐兵部尚书柳公公绰墓”,下款楷书“大清乾隆岁次丙申孟秋知耀州事张凤鸣立石”;另一通上、下款与前碑相同。中行隶书大字“唐太子师河东郡王柳公公权墓”。碑距墓丘均5米。1956年公布为省级文物保护单位。1990年,陕西省文物事业管理局批准成立柳公权墓文管所。

English is introduced


Liu Gongquan (778 years - 865 years), the word hanging Cheng, Han, Jing Zhao Hua Yuan (now Shaanxi Tongchuan City Yaozhou District) people. The Tang Dynasty famous calligrapher, poet, Bingbushangshu Liu Gongchuo's brother. Liu public right 29-year-old Scholars and the first, early secretary of the provincial school Shu Lang, incorporated into the shogunate. In Mouzong, Jingzong, Wenzong three official residence book, long in the DPRK. A total history of seven dynasties, the official to the Prince less division, closure Hedong County public, to Prince Edward Taibao, known as the "Liu Shishi." Xiantong six years (865 years), Liu Gongquan died, eighty-eight, Taizi Taishi divisions.
       Liu Gongquan calligraphy to regular script known, and Yan Zhenqing par, known as "Yan Liu", and Ouyang, Yan Zhenqing, Zhao Mengfu and said "regular script four people." His calligraphy novice Wang Xizhi, later through the famous Tang Dynasty calligraphy, drawing Yan Zhenqing, Ouyang Long, dissolve new ideas, create their own unique "Liu body" to bone strength Jianjian, later "Yan tendon bone" The reputation. The inscription on the inscriptions on the inscriptions on the inscriptions on the inscriptions on the inscriptions on the inscriptions on the inscriptions on the inscriptions on the inscriptions on the inscriptions on the inscriptions are "Fu Shen", "16th" Zhao Tie, "" Wang Xianzhi to send Pear Postscript. " Liu Gongquan also work poems, "Tang poetry" save its five poems, "the Tang poetry" a poem.

Biography

Less talent
       Dali thirteen years (778 years), Liu Gongquan was born. His grandfather, Liu Zhengli, served as the state of Cao Cao Jun; his father, Liu Ziwen, served as governor of the Dan state; his brother for the Mid-Tang Ren Liu Gongchao. Liu Gongquan from an early age like to learn, twelve years old will be able to resign.
Yuan and three years (808 years), Liu Gongquan board the first person, the official school secretary for the Secretary-Lang. Li listen to guarding Xiazhou, the Liu Gongquan into the shogunate, any palm secretary.
       Three North Korea paternity book
       Yuan and fifteen years (820 years), Tang Xianzong violent death, by the Tang Mouzong Li Heng ascended the throne, Liu Gongquan back to Beijing to play political affairs, Mu Zong summoned, said to him: "I see your handwriting in the temple, want to see you for a long time . "He was promoted to the right pick-up, make up the Hanlin Bachelor, and later promoted to the right to fill Que, Secretary of the foreign minister.
       Liu Gongzhang history Mouzon, King were, Wenzong three dynasties, are in the palace as a paternity book. His brother Liu Gongchao served in Taiyuan, wrote to the prime minister Li Zongmin said: "My brother painstakingly study the article calligraphy, first served only as he served as a book, this position, and divination Xiaoli no different, I also This was ashamed, please give him exchange an idle position. "So was promoted to the right Secretary, and then into the Secretary Fenglang, Bingbang Lang, Hongwen Museum Bachelor. Wenzong thoughts of him, and called him a paternity book, was promoted to Jian Yi doctor. Soon changed to the book Scheeren, as Hanlin Shuzhao bachelor. Each time in the bath hall to answer Wenzong's question, often the candle burned over, and talk is strong, refused to spend time to get candles, Palace maid will use wax Chen paper to lighting.
       Once, Wenzong summoned six bachelors in the hall, the emperor spoke Hanwen thrift, then raised his sleeves, said: "This dress has been washed three times." Bachelor who have praised the text of the thrift character, only Liu Gongquan Liu Zongquan replied: "The monarch of the section, should pay attention to the use of virtuous talent, dismissed those who are not decent eloquent minister, to listen to advice and advice, clearly reward and punishment. As for the wear "Zhou was also present, after listening to his remarks, scared trembling, but Liu Gongquan is justifiably strong. Wenzong said to him: "I know that you should not be reduced to the scapegoat of the official, but because you have Jianchen demeanor, then any of you as an advisor doctor it." The next day decreed, he served as a suggestion Doctor and know Patent, still bachelor, palm write edict.

Exhortation

Open into three years (838 years), Liu Gongzhuan by the transfer of any assistant minister, but it is only staff. "He has asked him to ask, and asked him," What is outside? "Liu Gongquan replied:" Since Guo Min was appointed as the minister of peace, people talked a lot, some said yes, some said bad. The emperor said: "Guo Min is still the father (Guo Ziyi) nephew, too Empress Dowager (Queen An Yi Guo) uncle, serving no fault from the Jin Wu general promoted to a small Jining Jiedushi, also talk about? "Liu Gongquan said:" With Guo Min's achievements and moral character, appointed Jiedushi is appropriate. "People talk about the reasons, is said to Guo Min two daughters into the palace, so only promoted, this is true? "The emperor said:" his two daughters palace, is to visit the Queen Mother, not his daughter. "Liu Gongquan said:" As the saying goes, melon fields do not pick up, Lee is not the crown, if there is no doubt why He cried out so that the family? "He then cited Wang Gui to persuade Taizong to send Lujiang Princess out of the palace to illustrate the case, the text immediately sent to Zhang Rihua to the two women returned to Guo Min home. After repeated promotions, as a Bachelor of Cheng purpose.
       Old age career
       Open into five years (840 years), Wenzong Jiabeng, by Tang Wu Zong Li Yan ascended the throne. Wu Zong ascended the throne after the banishment of the bachelor's office, the appointment of Liu Gongquan right Sanqi Changshi. Prime Minister Cui Gong recommended him as Jixian house bachelor, court. Li Deyu Liu public right had a good, but Liu Gongcui recommended by Cui Gong, he was very unhappy, put Liu Gongzhi down Prince Zhan matter, Prince Edward guests. After repeatedly promoted to gold Ziguang Lu doctor, on the column country, seal Hedong County founding country, food Yap two thousand. Also served as left Chang Shi, Guo Zi Jiu. Former minister of industry and commerce.
       Large and medium (847 years - 860 years), Liu Gongquan transferred to a small division.
       Large and medium-sized 12 years (858 years) the first month of the first month, Xuanzong in the New Year's Day will be held in the DPRK, Liu Gongquan years already 80, then in the ministers of the first to congratulate the Xuanzong, because Yuan Yuan far, Liu Gongquan due to age Tired, in the name of congratulation, the Xuanzong on the statue of "St. King Vince and Wu Guangxiao Emperor", but Liu Gongquan mistakenly called "Guangwu and filial piety", so the censor impeachment, fined a season of salary [16] retirement. Until the Tang Yizong Xian Tong (860 years - 874 years) in the early years, Liu Gongquan only to Prince Edward CPIC's post.
       Xiantong six years (865 years), Liu Gongquan died, when eighty-year-old, was given Prince Taishi.

关于美术网

美术网(www.meishu.com)专注解决美术家网络推广问题,全力打造美术家专属网络经纪人服务,美术网站内设美术搜索,网络美术展,美术报,美术知识库,美术家百科,美术视频库,资源库,美术论坛,美术高考网及书画衍生品的加工与分销等为一体的名画库等总共20余个栏目,我们以弘扬中华民族的文化事业为己任,以建设世界一流的美术文化生态系统为目标,诚邀合作共赢。

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
Copyright (c) 2013 美术网 Meishu.com All Rights Reserved 鲁ICP备12031715号-1 法律顾问:杨俊涛律师 客服QQ:800015090 微信①:meishubbs 微信②4081532
Copyright (c) 2013 美术网 Meishu.com All Rights Reserved
鲁ICP备12031715号-1 法律顾问:杨俊涛律师 客服QQ:800015090 微信:4081532