唐勇力

 唐勇力,1951年生 ,河北唐山人。著名画家,中国工笔人物画家领军人物,兼擅写意人物画。原中国美院中国画系主任,2000年调入中央美术学院,现为中央美术学院中国画学院院长、博士生导师,中国工笔画学会副会长,中国国家画院研究员。

  • 中文名唐勇力
  • 性别
  • 国籍中国
  • 民族汉族
  • 出生地河北唐山
  • 出生日期1951年
  • 职业画家
  • 毕业院校河北师范大学(美术系)
  • 主要成就中国工笔人物画家领军人物
  • 代表作品《工笔人体艺术》、《唐勇力工笔人物画》等
  • 字号字默苦,号大幽人
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从学院派谈起——画家唐勇力先生访谈

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王爱红(以下简称王):从中国美院到中央美院,自踏进美术学院的大门开始,学习、教学到创作,您始终没有离开过美术学院这个体系。因此,在很多人的眼里,您是典型的“学院派”画家。当然,这是在...
个人简介

 唐勇力,字默苦,号大幽人,河北唐山人。中国当代具有代表性的工笔人物画家,兼长写意人物画。毕业于河北师范大学美术系,并留校任教。1982年入中央美术学院国画系进修。1985年入浙江美术学院国画系研究生预备科,毕业后留系任教。中国美术家协会会员、浙江美术家协会理事、上海画院特聘画师。作品曾参加“第五、六、七、八、九届全国美展”,并多次获奖。1951年生。1985年考入浙江美术学院(现中国美术学院)中国画系工笔人物画专业研究生班。后留系任教;1988年开始任中国画系人物画教研室主任,主持人物画教学。主张加强人物画专业造型基础训练,并多次担任一、二年级素描教学。1996年开始任中国画系副主任,主抓教学工作,遵循潘天寿先生“中西绘画拉开距离”的学术思想,主张两端深入、中西融合、多元共进的教学方针,坚持以造型为基础、以笔墨为核心的教学路线。2000年调入中央美术学院中国画系任教。现为全国政协委员。中央美术学院教授、博士生导师、学术委员会委员、中国画学院院长。中国美术家协会理事,中国画艺委会副主任。中国工笔画学会副会长。中国国家画院院务委员。国家主题性美术创作研究中心主任。北京唐风美术馆高级顾问、特约画家。国家重点历史题材美术创作工程的贡献者。 

艺术特色

 身为具有代表性的工笔任务画家,唐勇力在回溯传统的同时对这一画种进行了深入的思考,作为画家,他很少将其思考宣之于口,但从他的画作中,我们或可以略窥一二。面对唐勇力的画作,我们可以明确的感到,笔管仿照了唐代任人物造型与色彩,他的画与唐画之间的变动之外,这种差异感最主要是由于唐勇力画中的那种被强调了的写意因素—这也正是他对传统工笔人物所作的一项重要的改造。

唐勇力:1951年出生,中国当代具有代表性的工笔画家,兼长写意画家,1985年考入中国美术学院国画系研究生,毕业后留系任教。曾任中国美术学院中国画系人物画教研室主任,中国画系副主任、院学位委员会委员,硕士研究生导师、教授。中国美术家协会会员。1999年12月调入中央美术学院国画系任教,现为国画系副主任。作品曾参加第五、六、七、八、九届全国美术作品展览并多次获奖。出版有《唐勇力工笔人物画创作赏析》、《唐勇力的画》、《唐勇力客课稿》、《工笔人体艺术》、《唐勇力工笔人物画》、《世纪之交中国著名国画家—唐勇力》、《唐勇力工笔人物画的写意性》、《中国画家丛书—唐勇力》等十余种。

传统的工笔人物画只能在轮廓线的内部平涂、渲染,但唐勇力却多采取内外皆染的方法,轮廓线在许多地方被淹没在一片墨氤氲之中,人物与背景之间、人物和衣饰的各部分之间的边界由清晰变的朦胧起来,一切都被自然的融入如烟的神秘氛围之中。另外,唐勇力在任务面部及身体各部分的皴染中也这适当的把握了虚、实关系。而在传统的工笔画中,一切都必须被工整的刻画出来。对某些细节的虚化处理使整个画面烘托了传统工笔画的那种工艺刻板的匠气,从而变的生动起来。

事实上,长期以来笼罩在我们头脑中的意笔与工笔之分仅是手法与气味的分野,从更深的层次上说,工笔与意笔一样也在写“意”。只不过它们挥写时所依赖的程式不同罢了。顾恺之画裴揩4,在其头上添了三毫,使得其形象“神明珠胜”,可谓中国古代人物画家追求和表现对象本身之内在意储的典范。在工笔与意笔的简单对立中,人们似乎全然忘记另外这些动人故事所以 蕴含着的深意,不但如此,在文人画理论的笼罩下,人们也往往忽视了一个画学史上的重要事实,既最早的绘画理论大都是就任务画而提出的。正是从早期人物画的实践品评中,古人才引发出了“意与象”、“形与神”等诸种对立。最初的写意,最高妙的写意存在与对“目送归鸿”的敏锐把握之中,只是在元代之后,“写意”才成为自由、粗率的代名词。无疑,正是在这种认识的基础上,唐勇力的画才打破了工笔与意笔的传统对立模式,为现代工笔人物画开拓出个异常自由的创作空间。

在中国上千年的美术活动中,美术的一元和多元的时期都是短暂的。中国文人画是美术一元的产物,它的高度纯熟、完美,也伴随着封闭、保守,难以让人领略丰富、自由;我们处于一个多元的时代,我们希望有什么样的美术风貌留于后世呢?但我们一代是无法回答这个问题的。我们的探索还未成熟、完美,大丰富性、多样性是能做到的。我们要以行动去创造多样性色艺术概念,多样性的风格流派,多样性的艺术语言。只要我们做了,就会在中国美术史上留下痕迹。在进入新的世纪的时候,沉着的做法是少提口号,多做实事,平心静气去做画家该做的事,在一种自然状态下,让画家自由选择,积蓄力量,在数量和质量积累到一定程度时,各派都会有大家出现。只有这样,中国美术才能走向未来。

艺术思想

 中国人物画创作思考

画画是一件很愉快的事,但也是一件很累很苦的事,画一幅又一幅,不断创作,不断动脑筋,不断又有新的想法,思索总是伴随着自己,欢乐是暂时的。不甘心踏步走,想方设法地开阔眼界,提高修养,不断地探索和追求,不断地督促自己,这样,在长期的创作实践中积累了一些经验,也思考了一些问题。

一、生活

对生活的理解:生活是什么,作为画家要有自己的理解和认识。人的一生每时每刻都是生活,人一天的活动、吃饭、睡觉、工作、生病、接触人、接触事等等酸甜苦涩,人生中的风风雨雨,坑坑坎坎,情感的起伏变化等等,这都是生活。生活这个词含义十分广泛、深奥,决不是简单的表面的去体验生活,到生活中去搜集创作素材这样的概念。画家本身就在生活中,创作的源泉也就在画家的生活中。

生活与情感:在生活中,情感总是在不断地变化着,这是因为生活也是千变万化的。画家用眼睛审视生活是第一位的,当不同时间、不同外部环境引起情感变化时,所看到的物象对心里的感受是不一样的。生活引起情感的变化,情感离不开生活,画家在生活中创作,创作也是画家的生活,生活中不断地有新的感悟,创作中画家在表达着自己的情感,表达着对生活的热爱,对生活的真诚。

写生随想

创意写生的教学是我在二十年工笔人物画教学中不断总结经验、提升理论而进行的一个课题式的教学实践。

“教学要传统,创作要现代”也即为教学要求严格,创作思维活跃,这应该是当下美术院校中国画教学的宗旨。

“创意”写生的教学正是从严格到活跃的法门。是全面培养学生创造性和个性的钥匙。创意写生要求学生始终把“创意”即“写意”放到首位,把“意”的观念融合在写生的全过程。面对模特儿,学生以什么样的心态和思维体会他,依据模特的性别、年龄、相貌特点、精神状态、动作姿势、服装等,以自己平时的积累、修养、想象力和模特有一种深层的交流,通过自己的感受,完成特思形成主题立意。“舒意畅神”通过自己的感受,完成构思。造型构图配景布势都围绕着“创意”而行,从形式到技法语言,可坚持传统技法,也可创新,随意的随性,作业的完成应当具有主题立意,语言技法完整。即是写生又是一幅肖像的写意性创作。多幅作业摆在一起对比,各有主题和个性面貌,又看得出画的是同一模特儿。

创意写生课的实践结果是理想的、活跃了学生的创作思维,培养了学生的创作修养,提升了学生的语言技法水平,完成了从写生到创作的实践课程。

 

新工笔画

唐勇力的画作中,至少有两点与这一观念紧密相联。首先,肌理已不仅仅是一种塑造形体、表现质感的手段,它本身已成为一种特定的审美对象,具有独立的审美价值,以至于在画面上展开的是"双重叙述"--一方面,作者通过线条与肌理描绘人物与背景、讲述故事;另一方面则是肌理与线条在讲述自身。在西方现代绘画观念的影响下,唐勇力找到了现代工笔与意笔的另一个契合点。(在意笔画中,笔墨的地位与此时的肌理大致相当,同样具有高度独立的审美价值。另外,"援书入画"理论中的所谓"石如飞自木如箱"也在一个侧面说明了这一点。)其次,唐勇力的画具有很强的装饰性,这是与"绘画平面"的观念密切相关的。在传统人物画中,轮廓线是异常清晰的,人物的一切特征几乎全部通过线条来刻画。在清晰的轮廓线之外,是一片虚静空灵的留白,即使偶尔有一些示意性的景物,也绝不会破坏画面整体的空灵(见王绎与倪瓒合画的《杨竹西小像》)。但在唐勇力的画中,居主导地位的是色彩的晕染与皴擦,轮廓线隐入弥漫的色彩之中。背景也不再是单纯的留白,而具有同样斑驳陆离的肌理效果。于是,人物与背景融为一体,共同构成了一个极富装饰性的、满构图的"画面"。

唐勇力对传统工笔人物画的改造令人不由得想起沃尔夫林提出的关于秩序的第一对概念:线描性对图绘性(Linear und ma1erisch)。诚然,将这对概念移用到一传统工笔画与现代工笔画之上,无疑会有生搬硬套之嫌。然而,在关于中国画的传统与创新、关于中西艺术的对抗与融合等问题的争论如此激烈的今天,唐勇力的作品或许向我们提示了一个现实--在当代,尽管西方传统与中国的传统有着巨大的差异,但对每个画家而言,它们却同样作为我们的传统存在着。如何继承和改造这两种传统却又不落入"融合论"的圈套,如何将他们纳入到创作之中,使之成为个人创作的有机部分?这是必须在实践中加以解答的问题。

English Introduction

 Tang Yongli was born in Tangshan, Hebei Province in 1951. Famous painter, leading figure painter of Chinese meticulous brushwork, and good at freehand figure painting. Former Director of the Department of Chinese Painting of the Chinese Academy of Fine Arts, he was transferred to the Central Academy of Fine Arts in 2000. He is now the dean and doctoral supervisor of the Academy of Chinese Painting of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Fine Brushwork, and a researcher of the Chinese National Academy of Painting.

 

Tang Yongli, the character is silent and bitter, the name of Dayou Ren, Tangshan people in Hebei Province. Chinese contemporary representative meticulous figure painter, and long freehand figure painting. He graduated from the Department of Fine Arts of Hebei Normal University and stayed at the University as a teacher. In 1982, he entered the Department of Traditional Chinese Painting of the Central Academy of Fine Arts for further study. In 1985, he joined the Preparatory Department of the Department of Traditional Chinese Painting of Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts, and taught in the Department after graduation. Member of China Artists Association, Director of Zhejiang Artists Association and Special Artist of Shanghai Academy of Painting. His works have participated in the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth National Art Exhibition and won many awards. Born in 1951. In 1985, he was admitted to the postgraduate class of fine brushwork figure painting in the Department of Chinese Painting of Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts (now China Academy of Fine Arts). Since 1988, he has been the director of the teaching and Research Department of figure painting in the Department of Chinese Painting, presiding over the teaching of figure painting. He advocates strengthening the basic training of figure painting and has been teaching sketch in grade one and grade two for many times. Since 1996, he has been the deputy director of the Department of Chinese Painting, focusing on teaching, following Mr. Pan Tianshou's academic thought of "drawing a distance between China and the West", advocating the teaching policy of deepening the two ends, integrating China and the West, and joining together in a pluralistic way, and adhering to the teaching line based on shape and centered on brush and ink. In 2000, he was transferred to the Department of Chinese Painting of the Central Academy of Fine Arts to teach. He is now a member of the CPPCC National Committee. Professor of Central Academy of Fine Arts, Doctoral Tutor, Member of Academic Committee and Dean of Chinese Painting Academy. Director of the Chinese Artists Association and Deputy Director of the Chinese Painting Arts Committee. Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Fine Brushwork. Member of the Chinese National Academy of Painting. Director of National Thematic Art Creation Research Center. Senior Consultant and Special Artist of Beijing Tangfeng Art Museum. Contributor of National Key History Art Creation Project.

 

In Tang Yongli's paintings, at least two points are closely related to this idea. Firstly, texture is not only a means of shaping body and expressing texture, but also a specific aesthetic object with independent aesthetic value, so that "double narration" is developed on the screen - on the one hand, the author describes characters and backgrounds and tells stories through lines and textures; on the other hand, texture and lines are telling themselves. Under the influence of western modern painting concept, Tang Yongli found another conjunction point between modern Meticulous Brushwork and free brushwork. (In caring about strokes, the status of brush and ink is roughly the same as the texture at this time, and also has a highly independent aesthetic value. In addition, the so-called "stone like a box flying from a wood" in the theory of "drawing from books" also illustrates this point on one side. Secondly, Tang Yongli's paintings are very decorative, which is closely related to the concept of "painting plane". In traditional figure painting, the outline is very clear, and almost all the characters are depicted by lines. Beyond the clear outline, there is a blank space of emptiness and spirituality. Even if there are occasional illustrative scenery, it will never destroy the holistic spirit of the picture (see The Portrait of Yang Zhuxi, painted by Wang Yi and Ni Zan). But in Tang Yongli's paintings, the dominant position is the colour halo and chaff, and the outline is hidden in the diffuse colour. The background is no longer a simple blank, but has the same mottled texture effect. As a result, the characters and the background merge together to form a highly decorative and full-composition "picture".

 

Tang Yongli's transformation of traditional meticulous figure painting reminds us of Wolflin's first pair of concepts about order: Linear und ma1erisch. Admittedly, it is doubtful to apply these concepts to traditional Meticulous Brushwork and modern Meticulous brushwork. However, in today's fierce debate about the tradition and innovation of Chinese painting, the confrontation and integration of Chinese and Western art, Tang Yongli's works may remind us of a reality that, in contemporary times, although there are great differences between Western tradition and Chinese tradition, for every painter, they also exist as our tradition. How to inherit and reform these two traditions without falling into the trap of "integration theory"? How to incorporate them into creation and make them an organic part of individual creation? This is a question that must be answered in practice.

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