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素描

素描,广义上的素描,涵指一切单色的绘画,起源于西洋造型能力的培养。狭义上的素描,专指用于学习美术技巧、探索造型规律、培养专业习惯的绘画训练过程。
素描简而言之就是单色画。却又不尽然,毕竟素描涵盖与牵连的东西太多,解决的问题也太多,素描过程是同一时间要考虑许多问题的综合思维活动。当今美术院校各专业都把它作为基础课,虽然各专业的侧重点不同,油画重体积、调子,国画重线条,版画、设计重结构等;但素描的共性是差不多的。同时,素描作为独立的艺术种类,自有其独特的艺术价值,当然,专门的素描艺术家并不多,大都是兼职者,如诸位大师们,他廖寥几笔的创作草稿就已经价值不菲,你根本不用分是基础性强的速写还是独立的艺术品。这些即便看似寥寥几笔的素描作品,其后面的功力也非常了得,有时随便一条起伏弯曲的线条,体现的却是艺术家对形体、结构、特征、节奏、韵味、艺术史的深刻理解与掌握。

  • 中文名素描
  • 外文名the sketch
  • 别名literary sketch
  • 类型绘画
  • 素描美图以单色描绘出所想象的图像
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靳尚谊先生谈中国素描教学(作者:孙韬)

中国美术网 09-18 浏览

早期的中国素描教学主要受徐悲鸿带来的法国素描体系和马克西莫夫教授带来的俄罗斯契斯卡科夫素描体系的影响。我在建国之初,读大学的时候曾经和悲鸿先生学习,之后在马克西莫夫班完成了研究生课...
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简介

素描是人类历史上最早出现的绘画形式,也是最古老的艺术语言。15世纪文艺复兴时期,人们才发现了其独特的表现魅力。在这一时期,意大利画家马萨丘、达·芬奇米开朗基罗等人发明并运用了透视学、解剖学和构图学原理,为素描表现的立体感和空间感提供了科学的依据,逐步完善了素描。从此,素描便作为一种近乎完美的绘画形式在全世界画坛独树一帜。
1. 用线条描写或单色、不加彩色的绘画。是造型艺术的基础。鲁迅《书信集·致曹白》:“因为木刻究竟是绘画,所以先要学好素描。”丁玲《韦护》第一章:“韦护 不觉在心上,将这美的线条,作了一次素描,他愿意这女人没有睡着。”

2、文学上运用简洁朴素不加渲染的写法亦称素描。 郭沫若《李白与杜甫·杜甫的阶级意识》:“﹝ 杜甫《石壕吏》﹞诗,完全是素描。”萧乾《一本褪色的相册·未带地图的旅人》:“我的特写基本上是用文字从事的素描写生,艺术加工主要是在剪裁上。”

3、素描是指运用铅笔或者炭笔之类的单色调黑色美术用笔对物体进行刻画,运用线条将块面铺出,再进行黑白灰的刻画。从而让物体的明暗交界线、暗部、亮部.高光等把对象立体地表现在纸张上面,这就是素描的特征。

4、画法上,要从整体入手,先勾画出对象的外形比例,涂上大体的明暗,再详细的刻画局部,最后,再调整明暗的调整。

5、从定义上来讲,素描就是朴素的描绘,指的是用单色的线条或块面来塑造对象的形体、结构、质感、空感(空间感)、光感的绘画形式,是所有造型艺术的基础。来源于西方绘画,一般作为绘画、雕塑等艺术的基础训练手段。
6.从描绘内容上来划分,可以分为:石膏几何形体素描、静物素描、石膏头像素描、石膏半身像素描、石膏全身像素描、人物头像素描、人物半身像素描、人体素描等。按照绘画方法不同,还可分为全因素素描(也叫光影素描)、结构素描、超写实素描和设计素描等。

7.绘画工具包括各种软硬不同的铅笔,如10B--B,H--8H,炭精条,碳铅,可塑橡皮,各类克数不同的素描纸或绘图纸等。

分类

铅笔素描
铅笔素描常是素描练习的开始,不论是精细素描或是速写,都可以由易于修改的铅笔开始。并练习运用不同标志的铅笔,铅笔标志B表示质地软,前面标志的数字越大,质地越软,可用来画较暗的部分。H表示质地较硬,前面标志的数字越大,质地越硬。
铅笔素描的画纸可选用纸面较粗的画纸,如150磅或200磅的模造纸,以软质橡皮为佳。
常见的素描习作可以静物写生、风景写生来作练习。
木炭素描
木炭素描的炭条通常是用柳条烧制而成,画纸可选用150磅或200磅的模造纸,可用软橡皮、馒头、面包等作擦拭修改。
木炭素描常以石膏像作为练习的对象,因为石膏像为纯化的物体,无色泽,无强烈的纹理变化,经由光线照射后,可产生清楚的明暗对比。初学者常由头像入手。

概念

广义上的素描,涵指一切单色的绘画;狭义上的素描,专指用于学习美术技巧、探索造型规律、培养专业习惯
的绘画训练过程。美术是表现事物的一种手段。

美术的基础是造型,艺术造型是人按照自然方式进行的复杂劳动,是一项需要长期训练才能形成的特殊技能。艺术造型不只是塑造孤立静止的物体形态,更重要的是表现物体中各种形式的有机关系。

掌握艺术造型的方法,需要恢复人的自然思维方式和操作方式,需要研究自然物体的形式特点和认识它的变化规律及条件。素描是解决这些造型问题的最佳途径,这在艺术造型的实践中得到了完全证明,因此,素描被称为“造型艺术的基础”。

材料工具

由木炭,铅笔, 钢笔等,以线条来画出物象明暗的单色画,称做素描。素描是一切绘画的基础,这是研究的过程中所必须经过的一个阶段。
素描通常意味着可于平面留下痕迹的方法,如蜡笔,炭笔,钢笔,画笔,墨水,及纸张,其它还包括在湿濡的陶土,沾了墨水的布条,金属,石器,容器或布的表面所造成的磨损

素描工具
铅笔素描
在铅笔素描中,通常要备齐以下几种工具:铅笔(6B-2H)、橡皮(可塑橡皮和白橡皮两种)、炭笔、擦布(纸)以及纸张。了解这些材料的性能,掌握使用它们的技巧,能提高作画效率,取得良好的画面效果。现介绍如下:铅笔:从6B至2H的铅笔各有用途。软铅用作铺大调子时,能轻松快捷地拉开亮暗部色调差别和营造画面色调氛围。它宜用于描绘深色及暗部,但由于它的笔灰附着力差,易弄脏画面硬铅在处理画面肌理,勾勒变化丰富的线条以及表现亮调子的细微变化方面能起到软铅难以企及的作用但如果使用时用力过度,易损伤纸面,破坏画面效果。画素描时,单一地使用软铅,易将暗部画闷、画腻;单一地使用硬铅,深调子无法暗下去,重复遍数多了,又容易画腻及伤纸.两者结合起来使用时,就可扬长避短,发挥各自的优点。使用时,通常以软铅铺调“打底”画深色,以硬铅深入,压肌理画浅色,遵循先软后硬的顺序,如果顺序颠倒,软铅就无法在硬铅画过多遍的地方深入.天阴雨时,纸张软,宜多用软铅画;天晴朗时,纸张硬挺.2B的铅笔就能画出很深的调子。
橡皮
常用的橡皮有白橡皮和可塑橡皮两种,主要起清除误笔的作用。白橡皮的清除能力比可塑橡皮强;在同种橡皮里.软质的橡皮要比硬质橡皮清洁能力强。对于有些深且发腻的调子若要清除的话,必须先用可塑橡皮提去表层发亮的“腻子”,再用白橡皮清除。此外,白橡皮用刀切出尖角或可塑橡皮捏出尖角可以用来提亮高光及小的细节,还可在灰底上像排线条那样,拉出一组漂亮的白色肌理:可塑橡皮还可用来吸去大面积画过头的调子,调整调子花的部分,使调子过渡自然。用橡皮以一定的力度按擦灰调子,还可使局部的灰调子变深。

素描作品(14张)擦布(纸)
布(质地要软、干燥)可用来掸淡过头的深调;用来揉擦深调可以去腻,并使之丰富柔和;用来擦拭过硬、跳、乱的铅笔痕可使之虚化柔和;如用来擦拭灰调,可以使灰调变深,运用得当还能产生丰富的效果。铺完大调子后,再布擦--遍,能怏捷地使色调变深.变丰富,拉开色调差,加快作画速度。有的作者喜欢以铅笔铺一遍调子,再用布擦一遍,两者反复交替进行.能快速地营造出画面效果擦灰调时,通过控制擦的力度大小与时间长短来控制调子的变化万一出现花的现象,可以用可塑橡皮和铅笔来调整,擦布蘸铅笔灰还可用来起大幅尺寸的画稿和铺大面积的深调子。素描纸可以甩来画素描的纸张很多,国内常用的有铅画纸、卡纸和水彩画纸.铅画纸表面颗粒粗,纸质松,易上铅,宜于画短期作业。双面白卡纸表面颗粒细微,较光滑,能显示丰富的色调变化,加上纸质密实硬挺,经得起反复修改、刻画,适合用来画中、长期作业,水彩画纸表面有网状纹路,适合用来制作一些特殊的画面效果。

素描技巧

(1)画面太“空”或太”满”。这是由于构图不当造成的错误。物体太小太集中,就会造成画面的“空”;而物体太大太散,画面就会“满”,甚至有时画面会“盛不开”物体。解决的办法是:在一开始就要把整个物体的组合外形找准,按照构图的要求做好定位辅助线,在进一步深入的时候,不要轻易改动构图的定位线,否则,就会破坏构图的初衷。
(2)形体画得“歪”。这是由于起草不严格造成的错误。静物素描中物体的特点就是要“静”。每一个物体都有自己的位置和重心、对称物体的重心,在它的中心垂直线位置,垂直线画不垂直,就会使物体重心不稳,产生“歪”的错误。画“歪”的错误还有另一个原因:对称物体画得不对称。解决的办法是:起草时,左右两边要同时起草,不要等到起完一边,再起另一边。
(3)轮廓线过“虚”。这是因为画者错误地认为:越是立体的物体,它的轮廓越虚;越是后面的物体,它的形体越虚。解决的办法是:依靠观察,依靠感受,了解视觉的“双眼视差”现象,学习造型的“线面”转换关系,不受 “主观”影响,客观地表现对象。
(4)轮廓线太“粗”。这是因为画者还没有树立起“体面”观念,不懂得物体的轮廓是由“面”的转折形成的,不懂得形体是用明暗对比出来的。解决的办法是:加强观察感受,排除非素描习惯的干扰,将“粗线”的一侧向暗部或背景过渡。
(5)透视面过“大”。初学者常常把物体的侧面画大,这是因为他们对视觉透视缩变现象理解的少,主观地认为,原来“那个面”没有那么小,没有完全按照客观观察的结果去画。这说明,生活中的习惯还影响着画者。纠正的方法是:认真学习透视规律,严格掌握比例关系,客观地表现对象。
(6)画面太“灰”。灰的直接原因是物体亮部画重了,这是由于明暗对比观察不足造成的,应该在调整时加重明暗交界线,提高亮部的明度。
(7)画面太“碎”、太“平”、太“板”。造成这三种错误的主要原因是,表现物体主次不清。其中“碎”的原因是,物体刻画的部分太多、太强。“平”的原因是物体刻画不充分。“板”的原因是,物体刻画缺少变化。以上这些错误的主要原因是没有整体观察,整体表现,主次技术掌握不够。解决的办法是:在素描步骤的熟悉造型阶段,就应该综合整理出静物的
学习
在素描的练习过程中,素描必须着重光线、物体的关系,笔触的描绘手法,将自己眼睛所观察到的形体,具体而微的呈现出来。所以,素描需培养自己的观查力。另外,素描也可以解释为“存在”与“绘画”之间一切的努力,亦即所谓“绘画之描写力”。例如,描绘桌上的静物,除了可以发现静物上不同的色彩外,亦可发现放在桌上的安全感,和背景间的协调性,这些存在的形、色、线条、明暗,质感,量感、存在感、空间、动态……等等复杂的因素,互相交织,构成一个美的秩序。绘画就是要将那些自然的秩序,导换成美的、入画的秩序,这也是素描的意义和目的。素描是绘画的基础,是最能体现人的绘画水平的画种。因此,在学习中要踏踏实实,持之以衡,不可浮躁。

素描大观

素描不仅是学习绘画的基础,一幅好的素描作品本身就是一件独立的艺术品。由于它使用的工具较为简便,又是在较短的时间内完成的,因此往往比经过很多加工的绘画作品更直接地传达作者瞬间的灵感和激情,捉取所画对象的生动气韵。在一些素描杰作中,能得到在其它画作中不易领略到的那种直觉的艺术感受。
西方美术史上的很多绘画大师,曾留下大量的素描作品,如文艺复兴三杰、鲁本斯伦勃朗、哥雅、安格尔、列宾、门采尔等等;而有的大画家则流传极少,象提香、委拉斯兹,由于他们长于直接在画布上起稿,所以没有留下多少素描稿;但从仅见的少数作品上仍能窥见他们在素描方面独到的功夫。

English Introduction

Sketch is the earliest painting form in human history and the oldest art language. During the Renaissance of fifteenth Century, people found their unique charm. During this period, Masuccio, the Italy painter Da Finch, Michelangelo et al of the invention and the use of perspective, anatomy and composition principle, for drawing performance of three-dimensional feeling and space to provide the scientific basis for perfecting the sketch. Since then, the sketch as a near perfect form of painting in the world painting become an independent school.
1 line description or monochrome, non color painting. It is the foundation of plastic arts. Lu Xun "Chit Chicabeth" letters: "because what is woodcut painting, it must first learn sketch." Ding Ling "Wei Bao" first chapter: "Wei protects not to feel in the heart, will this beautiful line, made a sketch, he is willing this woman not to fall asleep."
2, the literature on using simplicity without rendering writing or drawing. Guo Moruo "class consciousness" Li Bai and Du Fu Du Fu: "Du Fu", "poetry, Shihao official, is completely sketch." Xiao Qian "by the album traveler without a map": "my close-up basically is written in the sketch, art processing is mainly in tailoring."
3, the sketch refers to the use of a pencil or charcoal like monochrome black art pen on the object characterization, application of lines will block surface spread out, and then describe the black and white ash. In order to make objects terminator, dark light, high light. The three-dimensional object is demonstrated in the paper above, this is the sketch features.
4, drawing, from the overall start, first sketched out the shape of the object proportion, painted on the general light and shade, and then detailed characterization of the local, and finally, adjust the adjustment of light and shade.
5, by definition, painted sketch is simple, refers to the use of monochromatic lines or block surface shape of the object shape, structure, texture and space sense (space), light painting form, is the foundation of all plastic arts. Originated from western painting, as a basic training means of painting, sculpture and other arts.
6 from the description of the content divided up, can be divided into: Gypsum geometric sketch, the still life sketch, sketch, gypsum plaster, gypsum body like bust sketch sketch, portrait sketching, character bust sketch, body sketch etc.. According to the different painting methods, can also be divided into full factor sketch (also called light sketch), structural sketch, super realistic sketch and design sketch, etc..
7 drawing tools include a variety of different soft and hard pencil, such as 10B--B, H--8H, carbon, carbon, lead, plastic rubber, various grams of different sketch paper or drawing paper.

Pencil sketch
Pencil sketch is often start sketching practice, whether it is fine or sketch is a sketch, can be easily modified by the pencil. And practice the use of different signs of the pencil, pencil mark B said soft texture, the number of signs in front of the larger, softer texture, can be used to draw the darker part. H indicates that the texture is hard, the larger the number of front marks, the harder the texture.
Pencil sketch paper can choose paper coarse paper, such as paper 150 pounds or 200 pounds, with soft rubber.
Common practice sketch can still life sketch, landscape sketch to practice.
charcoal drawing
Charcoal sketch charcoal is usually made with wicker, paper can choose paper 150 pounds or 200 pounds, available for bread, soft rubber, Steamed Buns wipe modification.
Charcoal sketch often with plaster as the object of practice, because gypsum as a purified object, no color, no strong texture changes, through light irradiation, can produce clear light and shade contrast. Beginners often start by avatar.
Sketch in broad sense, refers to all monochrome painting; drawing on the narrow sense, refers specifically for studying art skills, explore other laws, cultivate professional habits
Painting training process. Art is a means of presenting things.
Art is based on modeling, art modeling is a complex way of labor according to the natural way, is a need for long-term training to form a special skill. Artistic modeling is not only to shape the isolated static object form, but also to show the various forms of organic relations.
To master the method of artistic modeling needs to restore people's natural thinking mode and operation mode, needs to study the form characteristics of natural objects and understand its changing rules and conditions. Sketch is the best way to solve these modeling problems, which has been fully proved in the practice of artistic modeling ".

By charcoal, pencil, pen, with lines to draw images of light and dark color painting, called sketch. Sketch is the basis of all painting, this is a stage in the process of research must go through.
The sketch usually means that the method can leave traces to the plane, such as charcoal, crayon, pen, pen, ink, and paper, the other is also included in the clay wet ink, cloth, metal, stone, cloth or surface of the vessel caused by wear
sketch tool
Pencil sketch
In the pencil sketch, usually to prepare the following tools: pencil (6B-2H), rubber (plastic rubber and white rubber two), charcoal, cloth and paper (paper). Understand the performance of these materials, master the use of their skills, can improve the efficiency of painting, get good picture effect. Here are as follows: pencils: pencils from 6B to 2H have their uses. Soft lead is used as the shop tune, can easily open the bright dark hue difference and color picture to create atmosphere. It should be used for depicting the dark and dark, but because it is the pen dust adhesion, easy to dirty hard lead in the processing of image texture, outline varied lines and subtle changes in the performance of light tone can play a lead role in soft hard but if the use of excessive force, easy to damage the paper, destroy the picture effect. Sketch, single use of soft lead, easy to draw, draw the dark stuffy and greasy; use the single hard lead, deep tone cannot go dark, repetition number, and easy to draw greasy and injury paper. Combined use, you can avoid weaknesses, play to their respective advantages. When in use, with adjustable "grounding" dark painting usually with soft lead, lead to hard pressure depth, texture painting color, followed after the first hard soft order, if the order is reversed, will not be able to lead soft hard lead painted many times the local depth. The rainy days, the paper should be more soft, with a soft lead painting; fine long, stiff paper.2B pencil can draw a deep tone.
rubber
Commonly used rubber has two kinds of white rubber and plastic rubber, mainly from the role of removing the wrong pen. White rubber removal ability than plastic rubber strong; in the same kind of rubber. Soft rubber than hard rubber cleaning ability. For some deep and cloying tones to clear it, you must use the plastic rubber to the surface shiny "putty", and then clear the white rubber. In addition, the white rubber with a knife to cut out the sharp corners or plastic rubber can be used to make sharp bright high light and small details, but also in the bottom ash as a cable, pull out a group of beautiful white texture: plastic rubber can also be used to absorb large area painting head tone, tone adjustment took part the tone, natural transition. With a certain amount of rubber by rubbing the gray tone, but also to make the local gray tone becomes darker.
Sketch (14) cloth (paper)
(soft, dry cloth texture) can be used to adjust the light deep Shan head; used to rub the deep tone can go greasy, and the rich soft; used to wipe the excellent, jump, pencil marks can make chaos virtual soft; such as wiping grey, can make the gray modulation depth, the proper use of can produce rich effect. Puwan big tone, then wipe - times, can make the dark tone Yang Jie. Rich, opened the hue difference, accelerate the speed of painting. Some authors love to spread over the pencil tone, then wipe it again, the two repeated alternately. Can quickly create a picture effect of dust transfer, change by controlling the size and length of time cleaning efforts to control the tone of the event of flower phenomenon, can use plastic eraser and pencil to adjust, deep tone cloth with the pencil ash can also be used to play a size and a large area of the shop drawings. Sketch paper can be thrown to sketch the paper many commonly used lead paper, cardboard and watercolor paper. Surface coarse grain lead paper, paper loose, easily lead to short-term operation, painting. Double white cardboard fine particles, is smooth, can show the rich color changes, in addition to paper compacting stiffness, can withstand the repeated modification, characterization, suitable for painting, long-term operation, watercolor paper surface mesh lines, suitable for the production of some special picture effect.

(1) the picture is too empty or too full". This is due to improper composition errors. Objects too small too concentrated, will cause the picture "empty"; and objects too large too scattered, the picture will be full, and sometimes even the screen will not open objects. The solution is: at the outset to identify the combination of shape objects, good positioning auxiliary line according to the requirements, in the further time, positioning line, do not easily change the composition of the otherwise, will destroy the original composition.
(2) the figure painting is crooked". This is due to the drafting of not strict errors. The characteristics of the object in the still life sketch is "static". Each object has its own position and center of gravity, the center of gravity of symmetrical objects, in the center of its vertical line position, vertical line painting is not vertical, it will make the object center of gravity instability, resulting in "crooked" error. There is another reason for painting "crooked" errors: asymmetric objects are asymmetrical. The solution is: when drafting, both sides will also draft, don't wait up side, the other side again.
(3) the contour is too faint". This is because the artist mistakenly believe that: the more three-dimensional objects, the contours of the more virtual; the more the object behind, the more virtual its body. The solution is: to rely on observation, rely on experience, understand the visual "parallax" phenomenon, the conversion between the learning type "line", from the "subjective" effect, objective performance of the object.
(4) the contour is too thick". This is because the painter has not set up a "decent" concept, do not know the outline of the object is formed by the "face" of the turning point, do not know the shape of the light and shade contrast. The solution is: to strengthen the observation and experience, to eliminate the interference of non sketching habits, "one thick line" to the dark background or transition.
(5) the perspective surface is too big". Beginners often side of the painting object, this is because their understanding of the visual perspective of shrinkage phenomenon, imagine that the original "the face" not so small, not completely in accordance with the objective observation to draw. This shows that habits in life also affect the painter. The correct method is: seriously study the perspective of law, strictly grasp the proportion of relations, objective performance of the object.
(6) the picture is too "grey". The direct reason is the object of light gray painted heavy, this is due to the inadequacy of the contrast observed in the adjustment, should increase the terminator, improve the brightness of light.
(7) the picture is too "broken", too "flat", too "plate". The main cause of these three errors is that the performance of primary and secondary objects unclear. One of the reasons for "broken" is that the object depicts too many parts, too strong. "Flat" is because the object is not fully portrayed. "Board" reason is that object characterization lack of change. The main reasons for these errors are no overall observation, overall performance, primary and secondary technical mastery is not enough. The solution is: in the sketch steps should be familiar with other stage, comprehensive sort out of still life.
Study
In the process of practice of sketch, sketch must of light, object descriptions, strokes, their eyes observed form, show small but complete. Therefore, sketch need to develop their own ability to view. In addition, the sketch can also be interpreted as the "existence" and "painting" between all efforts, that is, the so-called "descriptive power of painting". For example, depict still life on the table, but still can be found in different colors, a sense of security can be found on the table, and the coordination between the background, these are the shape, color, line, light, texture, feeling, sense, space, dynamic...... And so on complex factors, intertwined, constitute a beautiful order. The painting is to the natural order, as the guide for painting, order, meaning and purpose of this is to sketch. Sketch is the basis of painting, is the most able to reflect the level of painting. Therefore, in the process of learning to do, hold to the value can not be impetuous.

Sketch is not only the basis of learning painting, a good sketch works itself is an independent art. Because it uses the tool is simple, and is completed in a relatively short period of time, so more often than after processing a lot of paintings more directly convey inspiration and passion of the moment, and take the vivid painting object. In some sketch masterpieces, the intuitive artistic feelings that are not readily available in other paintings.
Many painting masters of Western art history, has left a lot of sketch works, such as Lubensi, Rembrandt, Renaissance heroes, Angell, Repin, Menzel, Goya and so on; but some big artists rarely spread, like Titian, Wei Lasz, due to their longer than direct drafting on the canvas, so leaving no sketch but from a few works; only can still get a glimpse of their original work in terms of the sketch.

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