1. 用线条描写或单色、不加彩色的绘画。是造型艺术的基础。鲁迅《书信集·致曹白》：“因为木刻究竟是绘画，所以先要学好素描。”丁玲《韦护》第一章：“韦护 不觉在心上，将这美的线条，作了一次素描，他愿意这女人没有睡着。”
Sketch is the earliest painting form in human history and the oldest art language. During the Renaissance of fifteenth Century, people found their unique charm. During this period, Masuccio, the Italy painter Da Finch, Michelangelo et al of the invention and the use of perspective, anatomy and composition principle, for drawing performance of three-dimensional feeling and space to provide the scientific basis for perfecting the sketch. Since then, the sketch as a near perfect form of painting in the world painting become an independent school.
1 line description or monochrome, non color painting. It is the foundation of plastic arts. Lu Xun "Chit Chicabeth" letters: "because what is woodcut painting, it must first learn sketch." Ding Ling "Wei Bao" first chapter: "Wei protects not to feel in the heart, will this beautiful line, made a sketch, he is willing this woman not to fall asleep."
2, the literature on using simplicity without rendering writing or drawing. Guo Moruo "class consciousness" Li Bai and Du Fu Du Fu: "Du Fu", "poetry, Shihao official, is completely sketch." Xiao Qian "by the album traveler without a map": "my close-up basically is written in the sketch, art processing is mainly in tailoring."
3, the sketch refers to the use of a pencil or charcoal like monochrome black art pen on the object characterization, application of lines will block surface spread out, and then describe the black and white ash. In order to make objects terminator, dark light, high light. The three-dimensional object is demonstrated in the paper above, this is the sketch features.
4, drawing, from the overall start, first sketched out the shape of the object proportion, painted on the general light and shade, and then detailed characterization of the local, and finally, adjust the adjustment of light and shade.
5, by definition, painted sketch is simple, refers to the use of monochromatic lines or block surface shape of the object shape, structure, texture and space sense (space), light painting form, is the foundation of all plastic arts. Originated from western painting, as a basic training means of painting, sculpture and other arts.
6 from the description of the content divided up, can be divided into: Gypsum geometric sketch, the still life sketch, sketch, gypsum plaster, gypsum body like bust sketch sketch, portrait sketching, character bust sketch, body sketch etc.. According to the different painting methods, can also be divided into full factor sketch (also called light sketch), structural sketch, super realistic sketch and design sketch, etc..
7 drawing tools include a variety of different soft and hard pencil, such as 10B--B, H--8H, carbon, carbon, lead, plastic rubber, various grams of different sketch paper or drawing paper.
Pencil sketch is often start sketching practice, whether it is fine or sketch is a sketch, can be easily modified by the pencil. And practice the use of different signs of the pencil, pencil mark B said soft texture, the number of signs in front of the larger, softer texture, can be used to draw the darker part. H indicates that the texture is hard, the larger the number of front marks, the harder the texture.
Pencil sketch paper can choose paper coarse paper, such as paper 150 pounds or 200 pounds, with soft rubber.
Common practice sketch can still life sketch, landscape sketch to practice.
Charcoal sketch charcoal is usually made with wicker, paper can choose paper 150 pounds or 200 pounds, available for bread, soft rubber, Steamed Buns wipe modification.
Charcoal sketch often with plaster as the object of practice, because gypsum as a purified object, no color, no strong texture changes, through light irradiation, can produce clear light and shade contrast. Beginners often start by avatar.
Sketch in broad sense, refers to all monochrome painting; drawing on the narrow sense, refers specifically for studying art skills, explore other laws, cultivate professional habits
Painting training process. Art is a means of presenting things.
Art is based on modeling, art modeling is a complex way of labor according to the natural way, is a need for long-term training to form a special skill. Artistic modeling is not only to shape the isolated static object form, but also to show the various forms of organic relations.
To master the method of artistic modeling needs to restore people's natural thinking mode and operation mode, needs to study the form characteristics of natural objects and understand its changing rules and conditions. Sketch is the best way to solve these modeling problems, which has been fully proved in the practice of artistic modeling ".
By charcoal, pencil, pen, with lines to draw images of light and dark color painting, called sketch. Sketch is the basis of all painting, this is a stage in the process of research must go through.
The sketch usually means that the method can leave traces to the plane, such as charcoal, crayon, pen, pen, ink, and paper, the other is also included in the clay wet ink, cloth, metal, stone, cloth or surface of the vessel caused by wear
In the pencil sketch, usually to prepare the following tools: pencil (6B-2H), rubber (plastic rubber and white rubber two), charcoal, cloth and paper (paper). Understand the performance of these materials, master the use of their skills, can improve the efficiency of painting, get good picture effect. Here are as follows: pencils: pencils from 6B to 2H have their uses. Soft lead is used as the shop tune, can easily open the bright dark hue difference and color picture to create atmosphere. It should be used for depicting the dark and dark, but because it is the pen dust adhesion, easy to dirty hard lead in the processing of image texture, outline varied lines and subtle changes in the performance of light tone can play a lead role in soft hard but if the use of excessive force, easy to damage the paper, destroy the picture effect. Sketch, single use of soft lead, easy to draw, draw the dark stuffy and greasy; use the single hard lead, deep tone cannot go dark, repetition number, and easy to draw greasy and injury paper. Combined use, you can avoid weaknesses, play to their respective advantages. When in use, with adjustable "grounding" dark painting usually with soft lead, lead to hard pressure depth, texture painting color, followed after the first hard soft order, if the order is reversed, will not be able to lead soft hard lead painted many times the local depth. The rainy days, the paper should be more soft, with a soft lead painting; fine long, stiff paper.2B pencil can draw a deep tone.
Commonly used rubber has two kinds of white rubber and plastic rubber, mainly from the role of removing the wrong pen. White rubber removal ability than plastic rubber strong; in the same kind of rubber. Soft rubber than hard rubber cleaning ability. For some deep and cloying tones to clear it, you must use the plastic rubber to the surface shiny "putty", and then clear the white rubber. In addition, the white rubber with a knife to cut out the sharp corners or plastic rubber can be used to make sharp bright high light and small details, but also in the bottom ash as a cable, pull out a group of beautiful white texture: plastic rubber can also be used to absorb large area painting head tone, tone adjustment took part the tone, natural transition. With a certain amount of rubber by rubbing the gray tone, but also to make the local gray tone becomes darker.
Sketch (14) cloth (paper)
(soft, dry cloth texture) can be used to adjust the light deep Shan head; used to rub the deep tone can go greasy, and the rich soft; used to wipe the excellent, jump, pencil marks can make chaos virtual soft; such as wiping grey, can make the gray modulation depth, the proper use of can produce rich effect. Puwan big tone, then wipe - times, can make the dark tone Yang Jie. Rich, opened the hue difference, accelerate the speed of painting. Some authors love to spread over the pencil tone, then wipe it again, the two repeated alternately. Can quickly create a picture effect of dust transfer, change by controlling the size and length of time cleaning efforts to control the tone of the event of flower phenomenon, can use plastic eraser and pencil to adjust, deep tone cloth with the pencil ash can also be used to play a size and a large area of the shop drawings. Sketch paper can be thrown to sketch the paper many commonly used lead paper, cardboard and watercolor paper. Surface coarse grain lead paper, paper loose, easily lead to short-term operation, painting. Double white cardboard fine particles, is smooth, can show the rich color changes, in addition to paper compacting stiffness, can withstand the repeated modification, characterization, suitable for painting, long-term operation, watercolor paper surface mesh lines, suitable for the production of some special picture effect.
(1) the picture is too empty or too full". This is due to improper composition errors. Objects too small too concentrated, will cause the picture "empty"; and objects too large too scattered, the picture will be full, and sometimes even the screen will not open objects. The solution is: at the outset to identify the combination of shape objects, good positioning auxiliary line according to the requirements, in the further time, positioning line, do not easily change the composition of the otherwise, will destroy the original composition.
(2) the figure painting is crooked". This is due to the drafting of not strict errors. The characteristics of the object in the still life sketch is "static". Each object has its own position and center of gravity, the center of gravity of symmetrical objects, in the center of its vertical line position, vertical line painting is not vertical, it will make the object center of gravity instability, resulting in "crooked" error. There is another reason for painting "crooked" errors: asymmetric objects are asymmetrical. The solution is: when drafting, both sides will also draft, don't wait up side, the other side again.
(3) the contour is too faint". This is because the artist mistakenly believe that: the more three-dimensional objects, the contours of the more virtual; the more the object behind, the more virtual its body. The solution is: to rely on observation, rely on experience, understand the visual "parallax" phenomenon, the conversion between the learning type "line", from the "subjective" effect, objective performance of the object.
(4) the contour is too thick". This is because the painter has not set up a "decent" concept, do not know the outline of the object is formed by the "face" of the turning point, do not know the shape of the light and shade contrast. The solution is: to strengthen the observation and experience, to eliminate the interference of non sketching habits, "one thick line" to the dark background or transition.
(5) the perspective surface is too big". Beginners often side of the painting object, this is because their understanding of the visual perspective of shrinkage phenomenon, imagine that the original "the face" not so small, not completely in accordance with the objective observation to draw. This shows that habits in life also affect the painter. The correct method is: seriously study the perspective of law, strictly grasp the proportion of relations, objective performance of the object.
(6) the picture is too "grey". The direct reason is the object of light gray painted heavy, this is due to the inadequacy of the contrast observed in the adjustment, should increase the terminator, improve the brightness of light.
(7) the picture is too "broken", too "flat", too "plate". The main cause of these three errors is that the performance of primary and secondary objects unclear. One of the reasons for "broken" is that the object depicts too many parts, too strong. "Flat" is because the object is not fully portrayed. "Board" reason is that object characterization lack of change. The main reasons for these errors are no overall observation, overall performance, primary and secondary technical mastery is not enough. The solution is: in the sketch steps should be familiar with other stage, comprehensive sort out of still life.
In the process of practice of sketch, sketch must of light, object descriptions, strokes, their eyes observed form, show small but complete. Therefore, sketch need to develop their own ability to view. In addition, the sketch can also be interpreted as the "existence" and "painting" between all efforts, that is, the so-called "descriptive power of painting". For example, depict still life on the table, but still can be found in different colors, a sense of security can be found on the table, and the coordination between the background, these are the shape, color, line, light, texture, feeling, sense, space, dynamic...... And so on complex factors, intertwined, constitute a beautiful order. The painting is to the natural order, as the guide for painting, order, meaning and purpose of this is to sketch. Sketch is the basis of painting, is the most able to reflect the level of painting. Therefore, in the process of learning to do, hold to the value can not be impetuous.
Sketch is not only the basis of learning painting, a good sketch works itself is an independent art. Because it uses the tool is simple, and is completed in a relatively short period of time, so more often than after processing a lot of paintings more directly convey inspiration and passion of the moment, and take the vivid painting object. In some sketch masterpieces, the intuitive artistic feelings that are not readily available in other paintings.
Many painting masters of Western art history, has left a lot of sketch works, such as Lubensi, Rembrandt, Renaissance heroes, Angell, Repin, Menzel, Goya and so on; but some big artists rarely spread, like Titian, Wei Lasz, due to their longer than direct drafting on the canvas, so leaving no sketch but from a few works; only can still get a glimpse of their original work in terms of the sketch.