浮世绘

浮世绘,也就是日本的风俗画,版画。它是日本江户时代(1603~1867年间,也叫德川幕府时代)兴起的一种独特民族特色的艺术奇葩,是典型的花街柳巷艺术。主要描绘人们日常生活、风景、和演剧。浮世绘常被认为专指彩色印刷的木版画(日语称为锦绘),但事实上也有手绘的作品。浮世绘的艺术,初期原为肉笔浮世绘,即画家们用笔墨色彩所作的绘画,而非木刻印制的绘画。浮世绘的艺术渊源,一来自绘画,师承了中国的“春画”,房中术绘画也;二来自文学,浸染了“浮世草子”(草子:小说),西鹤《好色一代女》、《好色一代男》和近松《曾根崎情死》、《情死天网岛》等等,是文学“浮世写”直接彰显,主题和题材无非色情和妓女(当然,文学价值与作品题材并非正比例关系)。

  • 中文名浮世绘
  • 外文名うきよえ
  • 兴起时间日本江户时代(1603~1867年间)
  • 艺术类型花街柳巷艺术
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定义

浮世绘,也就是日本的风俗画,版画。它是日本江户时代(1603~1867年间,也叫德川幕府时代)兴起的一种独特民族特色的艺术奇葩,是典型的花街柳巷艺术。主要描绘人们日常生活、风景、和演剧。浮世绘常被认为专指彩色印刷的木版画(日语称为锦绘),但事实上也有手绘的作品。

背景

浮世绘
在亚洲和世界艺术中,它呈现出特异的色调与丰姿,历经三百余年,影响深及欧亚各地,十九世纪欧洲从古典主义到印象主义诸流派大师也无不受到此种画风的启发,因此.浮世绘具有很高的艺术价值。
浮世绘的艺术,初期原为肉笔浮世绘,即画家们用笔墨色彩所作的绘画,而非木刻印制的绘画。肉笔的浮世绘,盛行于京都和大坂,这个画派的开始,是带有装饰性的。它为华贵的建筑作壁画,装饰室内的屏风。在绘画的内容上,有浓郁的本土气息,有四季风景、各地名胜,尤其善于表现女性美,有很高的写实技巧,为社会所欣赏。这些大和绘师的技术成就,代代相传,遂为其后的浮世绘艺术,开导了先路。
江户时代是日本封建社会的晚期,它和我国的清代相吻合。由于经济的增长,城市里首先产生一种“町人文化”(即市民文化).由于市民文化迅速得到发展,作者云起,需要量扩大,大量印制,以供需求。从而使肉笔浮世绘进入版画浮世绘阶段。浮世绘版画的印刷技巧,初为单纯的墨折本,以后发展有丹绘和漆绘,用彩笔添入的。真正的套色版画锦绘,在公元1643年至公元1765年前后出现,浮世绘的印刷技术,达到一个高潮,如锦绣万花,绚烂多彩,代表了日本民族在艺术上的高度成就。 浮世绘浮世绘的题材极其广泛,有社会时事、民间传说、历史掌故、戏曲场景和古典名着图绘,有些画家还专事描绘妇女生活,记录战争事件或抒写山川景物……它几乎是江户时代人民生活的百科全书,而所有这些题材的基调则是体现新兴市民的思想感情。一些追求自由恋爱和讽刺封建礼教的作品在民间流布极广。
浮世绘木刻归纳起来大致有两种形式:“绘本”和“一枚绘”。所谓“绘本”,即是插图画本。它在江户初期是以古典小说的插图为开端,后来陆续出现通俗的插图读物,到万治年间,随着市民小说的产生,这种木刻绘本更加迅速发展。民间画师菱川师宣便是这种“绘本”的创始人。
“一枚绘”,即单幅的创作木刻,它给单独欣赏一幅画开创了条件,画工也更精细一些。尺寸大小不等,总计有二十束种,均按刻制方法、套色多寡不同而分为“墨绘”、“丹绘”、“漆绘”、“浮绘”、“锦绘”、“蓝绘”等品种。
浮世绘木刻技法不追求木刻的刀味,却注意木质纹理的表现效果,而且对于线条的流畅放在极主要的地位,往往需要画、刻、印三者共同合作来使作品达到尽善尽美的境地。他们创造的木纹法、光泽法、云母粉法、无色印刷法等等都是在力求线条与配色取得高度和谐这一目的上总结出来的作画经验,摆脱了过去向来使用毛笔的束缚。
日本浮世绘是顺应市民经济文化高涨的年代而产生的,对社会生活有深刻的影响,因此,它具有很强的生命力。浮世绘的作者都出身民间,没有一个御用画家,但到了十九世纪二十年代,由于资本主义的经营方式盛行,致使这种艺术失去了健康的内容,追求色情和低级趣味,渐渐地终于走向衰亡。浮世绘今虽已被现代印刷术所代替,但它那丰富的艺术成果依然为各国人民所珍视。
浮世绘不仅是江户时代最有特色的绘画,而且还由于它对西方现代美术的推进作用而闻名世界,在西方甚至被作为整个日本绘画的代名词。从制作手段上看,浮世绘分为两种:木版画和肉笔画。前者是刻制印刷而成,后者是手绘而成。江户时代的人们更珍惜比版画产量小的肉笔画,也留下许多优秀作品。但是,浮世绘之所以能在长达两个世纪以上的时间内保持旺盛的生命力,很大程度上是因为在木版画这一未开拓的领域中追求新技法和新形式的各种可能性。因此,浮世绘样式的展开,主要是在版画中进行的。
在形式方面成为浮世绘版画母胎的,是木版插图本。在内容上成为其母胎的则是宽永风俗画。木版画在日本曾用于佛画,17世纪以来受到新传入的明朝木版插图本的影响,在宽永年间形成日本木版插图的初步阶段。17世纪后期,成为浮世草子前驱的新插图本适应新兴市民阶级的要求陆续刊行,并取宽永风俗画样式。江户以1657年的大火为契机,市民阶层掀起移植京都文化并创造独自文化的热潮,大量刊行各种色情插图本,在木版插图上也出现新鲜的创造意欲。
直至师宣出现时,风俗画制作的据点仍然在京都,与浮世绘版歪相关的插图本新动向也首先在京都兴起。但是由于传统环境的原因,木版单张印刷业不太发达,致使浮世绘木叛画始祖的桂冠戴到了菱川师宣的头上。京都的西川祐信(1671~1751)的业绩同样值得注意,但活动年代稍迟于师宣。袖信除了肉笔画外,还有大量的歪本、插图本,可与江户浮世绘师抗衡。并且大多为墨印,题材大部分是美人风俗图。他擅长以京都风格的细致柔软的曲线将女性柔美的姿态表现在版画上,因此具有新的意义。他的美人画极大的刺激了奥村政信、石川丰信等江户浮世绘师,特别是对于铃木春信美人画样式的建立起着重要的作用。
在江户继清信、清倍、安度等人后登场的是:奥村政信(1688~1754)、西村重长(?~1756)、石川丰信(1711~1785)、乌居清满(1755~1785)等。在他们活跃的时期内,浮世绘版画中又产生了红绘、漆绘,由原来的丹绘发展为更先进的手工着色方法,再发展为初级彩印——红印阶段,在表现方法上还受京都浮世绘的影响,整体上纤细化,抒情化。
浮世绘红绘,是用红颜料代替丹,再加上其他四五色细心分色描绘的方法。漆绘,是在红绘中的头发和衣带的着墨部分掺胶而发出漆一样的光泽,再撒金粉而增添光彩。由于红绘这一名称易与红印绘混同,故普遍将它包括在漆绘中。漆绘创造者,据说是奥村政信。他既是浮世绘师,又是出版商,富于幻想。起初采用西川袖信的画风,制作柔和的墨印和丹绘,1715~1720年间,用漆绘手法制作美人画和演员画,直接推广了这种新方式。比这稍迟而于1730年代出现的浮绘,据说也由政信首创。
浮绘是将欧洲的透视远近法好奇地用于描绘街景、游廊、剧场,大概最早采用了当时京都和江户市民引为珍贵的“蒂机械”(一种聚光观测镜)。这充分反映出他注意社会动向的性格。
发明红印,大约是1740年,受到从长崎输入的中国彩印版画的启迪。当初是采用红和绿及其他少数色彩,奥村政信、西村重长很早就吸取这种新手法制作出优秀作品。红印从1760年顷逐渐增加色彩,向多色彩印发展。它作为以后锦绘的准备阶段具有重要意义。
它的渊源来自原有的“大和绘”。“大和绘”是专供贵族鉴赏和在上层社会中盛行的一种带有浓厚装饰性的艺术;而浮世绘是表现民间日常生活和情趣的一种艺术形式。浮世绘最初以“美人绘”和“役者绘”(戏剧人物画)为主要题材,后来逐渐出现了以相扑、风景、花鸟以及历史故事等为题材的作品。画面的着色,开始只有黑白两色,逐步发展为简单彩色,最后成为多色的“锦绘”。
日本元禄时期的菱川师宣是浮世绘艺术的创始人。为日本绘画史打开了新的境界。浮世绘一经出世,就受到了广大市民的喜爱。
这种版画的构成,与我国古代版画的画印方法相同,由画师、雕师、拓师按顺序分工合作来完成。首先由画师作画,再由雕师刻版,最后由拓师按照画面不同的色彩分别拓印成画。这种在木板平面上刻出复杂而又精致的线条,再彩拓成画的高超技术,曾被西方画家视为一种不可思议的技艺。
随着浮世绘艺术的发展,涌现出许多著名画师,除了创始人菱川师宣外,比较著名的还有揭开浮世绘的黄金时代帷幕的铃木春信;美人绘大师鸟居清长与喜多川歌磨;戏剧绘巨匠东洲斋写乐:还有写实派大师葛饰北斋,以及将风景绘技巧推向顶峰的一立斋广重等名师。以上六人被称为“六大浮世绘师”。
浮世绘艺术占据日本画坛二百六十余年,直至明治维新拉开序幕前逐渐消退。这颗跨越三个世纪的东洋艺术明珠,在世界美术史上占有它光辉的一页。
东之师宣,西之祐信
早期浮世绘有“东之师宣,西之祐信”之说,与东都的菱川师宣相对应,西京的西川祐信也创作颇丰,只是由于许多场景均已在师宣的作品中出现过,因此祐信的名声不逮。然而他的粉丝也不少,《独寝》的作者柳泽淇园便对他便相当欣赏:“若论绘之名家,除西川祐信外更无他人。西川祐信诚为浮世绘之圣手也。”《江户四十八手》的作者白仓敬彦认为“师宣描绘的色恋世界,是以武家为背景;而祐信所描绘的,则属町家社会的色恋样貌。”
禁令时期的西川祐信,影响力不断向东延伸。菱川师宣的风格渐渐没落,两股力量并为一枝。而深受祐信影响的铃木春信,开创了彩色版画,五彩斑斓的“色恋”风格,一下席卷了整个江户的浮世绘世界。日后的浮世绘大师,包括葛饰北斋、喜多川歌磨、鸟居清信、奥村政信等均有创作颇丰的“春宫”。然而在构图上大多模仿为主,各种不同的色恋样态却早已被菱川师宣和西川祐信都画完了。
然而喜多川歌磨、鸟居清信又发展了多色套印的“锦绘”,将美女画发挥到了极致。张爱玲曾在文章《忘不了的画》中,描写过喜多川歌磨记录艺伎24小时生活的《青楼十二时》,“《青楼十二时》里我只记得丑时的一张,深宵的女人换上家用的木屐,一只手捉住胸前的轻花衣服,防它滑下肩来,一只手握着一炷香,香头飘出细细的烟。有丫头蹲在一边伺候着,画得比她小许多。她立在那里,像是太高,低垂的颈子太细,太长,还没踏到木屐上的小白脚又小得不适合,然而她确实知道她是被爱着的,虽然那时候只有她一个人在那里。因为心定,夜显得更静了,也更悠久。”
待到19世纪,马奈莫奈塞尚等印象派画家更是浮世绘画家那里学得“前缩透视法”、“散点透视法”,及“重叠透视法”,一举改变了欧洲“定点透视法”主导的艺术景观。野史上说,当时日本向欧洲出口许多瓷器,而那些用来塞箱缝的纸上,便描绘着浮世绘,遂立刻走红欧洲,成为上流社会的最爱。
与鲁迅同时代的日本散文家永井荷风的名篇《邪与媚——关于浮世绘》中,总结了早已凋零的浮世绘,“最耐人寻味的东西,它的身上可能具备两种品质:邪与媚。浮世绘就有这样的品质。邪与媚的统一,让感观的享乐的世界有了丰富的质感,沉甸甸地,如晚熟的高粱,所有的穗子都垂下来了,富足的,殷实的,直达天边。”

绘画素材

从其绘画素材看,70%以上内容是妓画(暂称为“美人画”)和伎画(暂称为“艺人画”),也就是说,作品主角是娼妓和艺伎,女性,裸体,性感美,色情是其标志性特征。用现代艺术眼光看,可算“人体绘画艺术”,其中的大胆的性爱题材引起注意,成为古代东方一种人本主义的新研究方向。在日本,存在着对这类作品的争议,也有的认为是乐而不淫,肯定其价值。
浮世绘的艺术渊源,一来自绘画,师承了中国的“春画”,房中术绘画也;二来自文学,浸染了“浮世草子”(草子:小说),西鹤《好色一代女》、《好色一代男》和近松《曾根崎情死》、《情死天网岛》等等,是文学“浮世写”直接彰显,主题和题材无非色情和妓女(当然,文学价值与作品题材并非正比例关系)。
因此,“浮世绘”是一个绘画艺术的专有名词,有其特定的内涵外延。印象派大师如德加等也受到浮世绘的感染,模仿当时日本的出口商品的包装的风格创作了不少绘画。近现代西方人体绘画艺术借鉴了日本“浮世绘”主题和技法,这是积极的方面,有着艺术审美的价值。
望文生义的理解“浮世绘”,想当然的以为就是关于尘世风俗的绘画,类似于《清明上河图》那种风俗画。再扩大到文学领域运用这个专有名词,泛化为关于尘世风俗的描写,则偏离约定俗成的语义越来越远,差不多等于是错别字了。搞绘画的人很难接受这样的定义,日本人当诧异一个日本词汇出口到中国以后居然发生了那么大的歧义。

发展

浮世绘的字面意思为“虚浮的世界绘画”。“浮世”来自佛教用语,本意指人的生死轮回和人世的虚无缥缈。即,此岸或秽土,即忧世或尘世。日本语言中自“浮世”一词出现开始,就一直含有暗指艳事与放荡生活之意。因此浮世绘即描绘世间风情的画作。
浮世绘画师以狩野派、土佐派出身者居多,这是因为当时这些画派非常显赫,而被这些画派所驱逐、排斥的画师很多都转向浮世绘发展所致。
初期
明历大火(1657年3月2日)至宝历年间(1751年~1763年)。此时期的浮世绘以手绘及墨色单色木版画印刷(称为墨折絵)为主。
菱川师宣绘制的代表作《见返り美人図》
17世纪后半,后世尊为“浮世絵の祖”的菱川师宣绘制了许多人气绘本及浮世草子,其中《见返り美人図》为其代表作。
在井原西鹤所撰的《好色一代男》(1682年刊行)中,有一段关于浮世绘绘在有12根扇骨的折扇上的描述,是目前(2005年)已知的资料中最早出现浮世绘一词的文献。
到了鸟居清信时代,使用墨色以外的颜色创作的作品开始出现,主要是以红色为主。使用丹色(红褐色)的称丹絵,使用红色的称红絵,也有在红色以外又增加二、三种颜色的作品,称为红折絵。
值得一提的是,当时鸟居派与歌舞伎业紧密合作,为歌舞伎设计、绘制看板,直至今日,现代歌舞伎的看板仍保有当时流传下来的风格。
中期
明和2年(1765年)至文化3年(1806年)。锦絵在此时期诞生。
因为画历(絵暦)在俳句诗人及爱好者间十分受欢迎,明和2年开始有了画历交换会的社交活动。为因应这种大量需求,铃木春信等人以多色印刷法发明了东锦絵,浮世绘文化正式迈入鼎盛期。
由于多色印刷法需反复上色,因此开发出印刷时如何标记“见当(记号之意)”的技巧和方法,并且开始采用能够承受多次印刷的高品质纸张,例如以楮为原料的越前奉书纸、伊予柾纸、西野内纸等。另外在产能及成本的考量下,原画师(版下絵师)、雕版师(雕师)、刷版师(刷师,或写做折师)的专业分工体制也在此时期确立。
此时期的人物绘画风格也发生变化,由原本虚幻的人偶风格转趋写实。
安永年间(1772年—1780年),北尾重政写实风格的美人画大受好评。胜川春章则将写实风带入称为“役者絵”的歌舞伎肖像画中。之后著名的喜多川歌麿更以纤细高雅的笔触绘制了许多以头部为主的美人画。
宽政2年(1790年),幕府施行了称为“改印制度”的印刷品审查制度,开始管制印刷品的内容。宽政7年(1795年),因触犯禁令而被没收家产的出版家茑屋重三郎为了东山再起,与画师东洲斎写楽合作,出版了许多风格独特、笔法夸张的役者絵。虽然一时间造成话题,但毕竟风格过于特异,并未得到广泛回响。同时期最受欢迎的风格是歌川豊国所绘的《役者舞台之姿絵》的歌舞伎全身图系列。而歌川的弟子们也一跃形成浮世绘的最大画派—“歌川派”。
后期
文化4年(1807年)至安政5年(1858年)。
蒲原夜之雪《东海道五十三次》之一,歌川广重绘。
喜多川歌麿死后,美人画的主流转变为渓斎英泉的情色风格。而胜川春章的门生葛饰北斋则在旅行话题盛行的带动下,绘制了著名的《冨岳三十六景》。受到葛饰北斋启发,歌川广重也创作了名作《东海道五十三次》、《富士三十六景》。此二人确立了浮世绘中称为“名所絵”的风景画风格。
冨岳三十六景在役者絵方面,歌川国贞师承歌川豊国,以更具力道的笔法绘制。另外,伴随着草双纸(类似现代的漫画书)所引发的传奇小说热潮,歌川国芳等人开始创作描绘武士姿态的“武者絵”。歌川国芳的水浒传系列非常受欢迎,在当时的日本引爆了水浒传风潮。
在嘉永6年(1853年)所刊行的《江戸寿那古细见记》中有一句“豊国にがほ(似颜絵)、国芳むしや(武者絵)、広重めいしよ(名所絵)”,简单而直接地为此时期的风格做了总结。
末期
安政6年(1859年)至明治45年(1912年)。
此时期因为受到美国东印度舰队司令佩里(或译:培里)率领舰队强行打开锁国政策(此事件日本称为“黒船来航”)的冲击,许多人开始对西洋文化产生兴趣,因此发轫于当时开港通商之一的横滨的“横滨絵”开始流行起来。
另一方面,因为幕末至明治维新初期社会动荡的影响,也出现了称为“无残絵(或写做无惨絵)”的血腥怪诞风格。这种浮世绘中常有腥风血雨的场面,例如歌川国芳的门徒月冈芳年和落合芳几所创作的《英名二十八众句》。
河锅暁斎等正统狩野派画师也开始创作浮世绘。而后师承河锅暁斎的小林清亲更引入西画式的无轮廓线笔法绘制风景画,此画风被称为光线画。
歌川派的歌川芳藤则开始为儿童创作称为玩具絵的浮世绘,颇受好评,因而被称为“おもちゃ芳藤(おもちゃ为玩具之意)”。
但是由于西学东渐,照相技术传入,浮世绘受到严苛的挑战。虽然很多画师以更精细的笔法绘制浮世绘,但大势所趋,终究无法力抗历史的潮流。
其中,月冈芳年以非常细腻的笔法和西洋画风绘制了许多画报(锦絵新闻)、历史画、风俗画,有“最后の浮世絵师”之称。月冈本人也鼓励门徒多多学习各式画风,因而产生了许多像镝木清方等集插画、传统画大成的画师,浮世绘的技法和风格也得以以不同形式在各类艺术中继续传承下去。

风格变化

江户时代,描写风景及百姓的风俗人情,主要是多彩的版画被称为“浮世绘”。此名称的由来是因为当时描绘“浮世”的歌舞伎和花街柳巷的风俗。1670年菱川师宣将单一墨色印刷的木版画卖出,故被称为“浮世绘”的创始人。浮世绘的特点是以木版印刷,大量生产,价钱廉宜,并易于购买。起初,市场上仅有单一墨色印的画(墨折绘),但不久出现了[赤版],以红为主色,再加印黄和绿,在日本绘画史上打开了新的境界。
18世纪中叶,由于歌舞伎的繁盛、木版技术的进步以及浮世画深受人们欢迎,铃木春信创造出彩色印刷的浮世绘----锦绘。于是以画美女而闻名的大师铃木春信、鸟居清长和喜多川歌磨先后出现。他们都能绘画出非常雅致而美丽的日本女性,但是他们的作品没有个性、缺乏活力,而且往往暗示出那是个颓废的社会。
东洲斋写乐也是一位有名的绘画家,他以高度的艺术性描绘出歌舞伎演员的表情变化乃至内在的性格,但他的作品在他自己的时代并不太受欢迎。
正当人物和风俗的主体已近枯竭时,葛饰北斋和安藤广重为浮世绘带来了新的风格——风景画。葛饰北斋受到西洋铜版画的影响,立志风景画的创作,他在《富岳三十六景》,采用大胆的构图和色彩,受到了人们的喜爱,此后描写了各地的名胜系列画。安藤广重在《东海道五十三次》的系列里,以叙情的笔调丰富地描绘了日本的自然的旅行者,他的名望甚至超过了北斋。以后又创作了《木曾路六十九》等以日本各地为题材的系列画。

制作方法

浮世绘是版画的一种,由原画师、雕版师、刷版师三者分工协力完成。原画师将原图完成后,由雕版师在木板上雕刻出图形,再由刷版师在版上上色,将图案转印到纸上。要上多少色就必须刻多少版,因此颜色越多,制程就越繁杂。虽然是协力完成的作品,但一开始只有原画师才能落款,后来也有刻版师的落款。另外由于幕府实行的审查制度,准许刊行的浮世绘上也会有幕府审查标章及刊行者的印记。
浮世绘的制作过程可分为5个步骤。
一、绘制原图
由原画师构思设计,然后以黑色描绘轮廓。古时此步骤完成后即需送交幕府审查内容。审查通过的话,幕府就会盖上合格印记。
二、雕刻墨板
审查过的原图交给雕版师后,雕版师会将原图反过来贴在山樱木制的木板上并浮雕出图案,此板即称为墨板。为应付将来反复印刷、多次上色的制程需要,日本人发明了标示“见当(记号之意)”的方法。该方法的起源有2说:
1744年出版物批发商上村吉右卫门所发明。
1765年一名叫做金六的刷版师所发明。
三、选定色彩
墨板交给刷版师后,刷版师会用薄美浓纸印出做为雕刻色板的底图之用的校合折数张,张数则依原画师计划使用的颜色数目而决定。原画师会在校合折上以红笔指定心中所构思的色彩。
四、雕刻色板
校合折交给雕版师后,雕版师会以同样的方法雕出所需的色板。
五、刷版
墨板和色板都到齐后,刷版师便开始一色一色反复印刷上色。依画面所用的颜色多寡,印刷次数也不同,一般约需刷10到20多次。色彩重叠的部份以由淡而浓、由小(面积)而大的原则处理。

代表画师

铃木春信、东洲斋写乐、歌川广重、葛饰北斋、喜多川歌麿、菱川师宣、月冈芳年、溪斋英泉
歌川国芳,日本江户时代人,是浮世绘歌川派晚期的大师之一。他出身丝绸染坊家庭,本名井草孙三郎,幼名芳三郎。在帮助父亲料理生意的同时对艺术产生兴趣。先从师歌川国直,后来为版画大师歌川丰国所看中,于1811年被收为弟子,1814年出师并取艺名歌川国芳。和歌川派其他画家一样,他开始是创作戯画,但生意不佳,几年后不得不以修理榻榻米为生。后来偶遇歌川国贞,觉得自己的才能其实高过对方,于是刻苦努力,画出的一些武者三联画得到好评。1827年开始创作著名的水浒传豪杰百八人系列。30年代早期工于山水、40年代创作了大量的美人绘和武者絵。歌川国芳还因为画猫而著名,经常在画面角落里带上猫。据弟子说他爱猫到作坊里到处养猫的地步。
19世纪日本浮世绘大师歌川国芳根据中国古典文学作品《水浒传》中108个梁山好汉的人物性格,生动地描]绘出富有个性的典型人物肖像。威武繁复,细腻浓烈,丝丝入扣,格外受人欢迎。留下大量鬼怪画,风格繁复,形象生动。

English Introduction

Is a Japanese Ukiyo-e, genre painting, printmaking. It is the Japanese Edo period (1603 to 1867 years, also called the Tokugawa Shogunate era) wonderful art a unique national characteristics of the rise, is a typical art red-light district. Mainly depicting the daily life of people, scenery, and drama. Ukiyo-e is often considered as color printing of woodcut (Japanese called Jin painted), but in fact there are hand-painted works.Ukiyoe
In Asia and the world of art, it presents a specific color and beauty, after more than three hundred years, and deep influence in Europe and Asia, Europe in nineteenth Century from classicism to Impressionism genre are all inspired by the master, this kind of style. So the Ukiyo-e has very high artistic value.
Ukiyo-e art, early Ukiyo-e pen was meat, which is used for color ink painters painting, rather than woodcut printed painting. Meat pen Ukiyo-e, prevalent in Kyoto and Osaka, began this painting, is a decorative. It is magnificent architectural murals, decorative indoor screen. In the content of the painting, there is a strong local flavor, there are four seasons scenery, places of interest, especially good at the performance of female beauty, there is a high realism skills for the community to enjoy. These technical achievement, and the artist and thereafter be handed down from age to age, Ukiyo-e art, enlighten the first road.
The Edo period is the Japanese feudal society of late, it matches the Qing Dynasty in china. As a result of economic growth, the city first produces a "chounin culture" (i.e. public culture). Because the public culture has been developed rapidly, the clouds, demand expansion, for the needs of a large number of printing. In order to make the meat into the Ukiyo-e prints Ukiyo-e pen stage. Ukiyo-e prints printed ink for a simple skill, early, after the development of Dan painted and painted with crayons, added. True color prints brocade painting, appeared around the year 1643 to the year 1765, ukiyoe printing technology, reached a climax, as beautiful flowers, colorful, highly representative of the achievements in the art of the Japanese nation. Ukiyoe ukiyoe theme extremely extensive, social events, folk legends, historical stories, drama scenes and a classical painting, some painters have depicted the lives of women in the war, recording events or describing mountains and scenery...... It is almost the Edo period living encyclopedia, and all of these themes is the embodiment of the new citizen tone of thoughts and feelings. Some of the pursuit of free love and feudal satire are quite popular in the folk works.
Ukiyo-e woodcut mainly has two forms: "picture" and "a painting". The so-called "picture", which is the illustration. It is in the early Edo to classical novel illustrations as a beginning, then gradually appear popular illustration, to treat people with thousand years, the novel production, the more rapid development of woodcut picture books. The Sichuan folk painter is the founder of Xuan Ling "picture".
"A painting", which is a single woodcut creation, it is to separate appreciating a painting created conditions, also some fine art. The size range, a total of twenty kinds of beam, according to the amount of different color engraving method, and is divided into "ink painting", "Dan painted" and "painted" and "Paintings", "brocade painting", "blue painted" etc..
Taste knife Ukiyo-e woodcut woodcut techniques do not pursue, but pay attention to wood texture performance, but also for the smooth lines in the main position, often need painting, carving and printing the three together to work to achieve the perfect position. They create wood method, gloss, mica powder, colorless printing method and so on are in line and color to get highly harmony this purpose summed up the painting experience, get rid of the past has always been to use the brush bound.
Japanese Ukiyo-e is produced with the public's growing economy and culture, has a profound impact on social life, therefore, it has strong vitality. Ukiyo-e author are born folk, not a painter, but by 1820s, the prevailing capitalist mode of operation, the art of lost health, the pursuit of pornographic and vulgar, finally gradually decline. Ukiyo-e although this has been replaced by modern printing, but its rich artistic achievements still cherished by people all over the world.
Not only is the most distinctive Ukiyo-e paintings of the Edo period, but also because of its role in promoting the western modern art and world famous, synonymous with western even as the Japanese painting. From the means of production, is divided into two types: Ukiyo-e woodblock prints and meat strokes. The former is engraved on the printed form, the latter is hand painted. The people of the Edo period is more expensive than the meat production of small print strokes, also left many excellent works. However, Ukiyo-e is able to maintain a strong vitality in for more than two centuries, largely because the painting possibilities unexplored in the pursuit of new techniques and new forms in the wood. Therefore, the Ukiyo-e style, mainly in print in.
As Ukiyo-e prints mother in form, is the woodcut illustrations. In the content as its mother is kuanyong custom painting. In Japanese woodblock used in Buddhist paintings influence since seventeenth Century by the new incoming woodcut illustrations of the Ming Dynasty, in the initial stage between kuanyong formation of Japanese woodblock illustrations. In late seventeenth Century, a new illustration ukiyososhi precursor the adapt to the demands of the public gradually emerging class distribution, and kuanyong custom painting style. Edo to fire in 1657 as an opportunity to set off the townspeople culture and create the culture of Kyoto transplantation alone has a variety of pornographic illustrations in this publication, woodblock illustrations also appeared on the desire to create fresh.Until the teacher declared, custom painting made stronghold still in Kyoto, and the ukiyoe version of crooked related illustrations of the new trend is also the first rise in kyoto. But because of the traditional woodblock printing industry environment, leaflets not developed, resulting in a wood painting ukiyoe ancestor crown to wear on the head of Ryokawa Shinobu. Kyoto Nishikawa Yunobu (1671 ~ 1751) the performance of it is also worth noting that, but in later activities in the division. The sleeve channel in addition to meat pen painting, there are a lot of the crooked, illustrated, and Edo Ukiyo-e master contend. And most of the Indian ink, the subject matter is the most beautiful custom map. He is good at Kyoto style meticulous soft curves of the feminine attitude in print, it has new meaning. His beauty painting stimulated Okumura Masanobu, Ishikawa Toyonobu and other Ukiyo-e Edo divisions, especially for the establishment of Suzuki Haru letter beauty painting style plays an important role.
In the old times, Edo Jishinobu, et al. After the appearance of the Olympic Village: Masanobu (1688 ~ 1754), weight (Nishimura long? ~ 1756), Shi Xin letter (from 1711 to 1785), the home of the full Qing (1755 ~ 1785), etc.. In the period of their activity, and produced a version of Ukiyo-e painting red painted, painted, painted by the original Dan for the manual development coloring method is more advanced, and then developed into the primary color - red printing stage, in the performance of methods is also affected by the overall Kyoto Ukiyo-e, filament, lyric.
Ukiyo-e is painted red, Confidante material instead of Dan, and then added four other colored painted color carefully. Lacquer painting is painted in red, in the hair and even the inking part of mixed plastic and paint the same a gloss, and then threw powder and add luster. Because the name red painted red painted and easily confused, so generally include it in paint painting. Painted painter, is said to be Okumura Masanobu. He is not only the Ukiyo-e division, and publishers, full of fantasy. At first the Xichuan sleeve letter style, making soft printing ink and Dan painting, 1715 ~ 1720 years, making beauty painting and painting painted cast technique, direct extension of this new style. Paintings in 1730s appeared later than this, is said to have first letter by the government.
Is the distance perspective paintings Europe curiously to describe streetscape, veranda, theater, probably the earliest use of the Kyoto and Edo people cited as "precious" (machinery with a light observation mirror). This fully reflects the character of his social trends.
The invention of red, is about 1740, was imported from Nagasaki Chinese color prints inspiration. It is the red and green color and other minorities, Okumura Masanobu, Xi weight length early absorb the novice made outstanding works. Red marks from 1760 are gradually increased to the development of multi color printing color. It is of great significance as the preparatory stage of Jin painting.
Its origin comes from the original "big draw". "Yamato-e" is for the noble appreciation and prevailed in the upper society in a decorative art; and Ukiyo-e is a folk art form of daily life and taste. Ukiyo-e initially in the "beauty painting" and "yakusha painted" (Drama figure painting) as the main theme, then gradually appeared in sumo, landscape, flower and bird paintings and historical stories as the theme of the works. The picture color, began only in black and white, gradually developed into a simple color, finally become multicolored brocade painting "".
Japan period Sichuan Xuan Ling Yuan Lu is the founder of Ukiyo-e art. Open a new realm for the history of Japanese painting. Ukiyo-e was born, by the majority of the public's favorite.
This print, the same with the ancient Chinese engraving picture printing method, by the painter, sculptor, in order to complete the extension division division. First by the painters painted by the extension division division block, according to the picture of different colors are rubbing into painting. This in the plane of the board to carve out the complex and delicate lines, and then color into the painting of superb technology, has been regarded as an incredible western art skills.
With the development of Ukiyo-e art, the emergence of many famous painter, founder of Xuan Ling in addition to Sichuan, there are more famous curtain golden age of Ukiyo-e Suzuki Harunobu; beauty painting master torii kiyonaga and Utamaro; drama painting masters Dongzhou Sharaku: there's also a realist master Hokusai, as well as the scenery drawing skills to the pinnacle of the Li Zhai Guang teacher a heavy. The above six is known as "the big six Ukiyo-e division".
Ukiyo-e art held Japanese painting for two hundred and sixty years, until the Meiji Reform kicked off before gradually subsided. It spans three centuries of Oriental Art pearl, it occupies a glorious page in the history of world art.
East Division Xuan, Nishino Yunobu
Early Ukiyo-e "East Division Xuan, West Wooshin", corresponding to the East Sichuan Ling Xuan, Nishikawa Yunobu also created a lot of Xijing, just as many scenes have been in the division of Xuan works, so you don't believe the reputation. However, his fans a lot, "Liu Zeqi Park" to the author sleep alone he would appreciate: "if the theory of the famous painting, in addition to Xichuan Wooshin outside without others. Nishikawa Yunobucheng is the master of ukiyoe is." "Forty-eight hand" of the Edo author Shirakura Takahiko that depicts the selian world Xuan division, in Wu family background; and Wooshin shows, is Machiya social selian appearance."Nishikawa Yunobu during the prohibition period, the influence of the eastward extension. Ryokawa Shinobu's style gradually declined, two forces and a branch. By Wooshin influence Suzuki Harunobu, created a colorful color prints, "color love" style, it swept the whole world of Ukiyo-e edo. The day after the Ukiyo-e master, including Kita Kawakama, Hokusai and torii Kiyonobu, Okumura Masanobu has created a lot of "pornography". However, most of the imitation in the composition of the main, a variety of different color love like the state has long been the same as Ling Ling Nishikawa Yunobu painted.
However, Kita Kawakama has developed a torii Kiyonobu multicolor overprint "Jin painted, painting beauty will play to the extreme. Eileen Chang said in an article of "forget the painting", described the Utamaro record 24 hours of life "brothel geisha twelve", "twelve" "brothel in Choushi I only remember a woman for the night, the household clogs, a hand caught the chest light flower clothes anti slide, it shoulders, a hand holding a stick of incense, incense wafting tiny cigarettes. There is a girl squatting on the side of waiting, painting much smaller than her. She stood there, like is too high, low neck too thin, too long, not to step on the foot and small white clogs do not fit, but she did know that she is loved, although at that time, she was the only person there. Because the heart is fixed, the night seems more static, but also more long."
Until nineteenth Century, Manet, Monet, Cezanne and other impressionist painter is Ukiyo-e artist learns "foreshortening" and "cavalier perspective", and "overlapping perspectives", changed the European fixed perspective dominated landscape art. The unofficial history said, Japanese exports to Europe many porcelain, while those used to plug box joints on paper, it depicts the Ukiyo-e, then immediately became popular in Europe, has become the favorite of the upper class.
Lu Xun and Contemporary Japanese essayist nagaikafuu's famous "evil and pro -- on the Ukiyo-e", summarizes the already withered Ukiyo-e, "the most intriguing thing, its body may have two qualities: evil and charming. Ukiyoe have the quality. The unity of evil and charming, make sense of the enjoyment of the world have rich texture, heavy, such as late maturing sorghum, all ears are hanging down, rich, rich, to the horizon."From the painting materials, more than 70% of the content is a painting (tentatively called "beauty painting") and Kabuki painting (called "artist painting"), that is to say, the protagonist is prostitutes and Geisha, female nude, sexy beauty, sex is the hallmark feature. From the perspective of modern art, it can be regarded as "the art of human body painting", in which the Bold Theme of love attracts attention. In Japan, the existence of this kind of works of the controversy, and some think that is joyous but not indecent affirming its value.
The origin of art of Ukiyo-e, from a painting, China inherits "spring painting", fangzhongshu painting; two from the literature, the dip "ukiyososhi" (Caozi: novel), West Crane "lascivious generation girl", "lewd generation male" and "Ceng Genqi" cases near pine and "double suicide" and so on, is literature "Ukiyo-e writing" shows, theme and nothing more than pornography and prostitutes (of course, literary value and the theme is not proportional).
Therefore, "Ukiyo-e" is a term used in painting art, has its specific connotation and denotation. The Impressionist masters such as Degas were ukiyoe infection, the imitation of the then Japanese exports packaging style created many paintings. The modern western art of painting body from the Japanese theme "Ukiyo-e" and techniques, it is positive, with the aesthetic value.
As the understanding of "Ukiyo-e", think about the earth is most probably it did not actually happen in custom painting, similar to the "painting" the custom painting. To expand into the field of literature the use of the term, as a generalization of earthly custom description, deviate from the conventional semantics more and more far, is almost equal to the typos. It is very difficult to engage in such a definition of the painting, the Japanese surprised when a Japanese word exports to China after the occurrence of such a large ambiguity.Ukiyo-e literally means "empty world of painting". "Floating" from Buddhism, meaning refers to the cycle of life and death and life with no reality whatever. That is, the shore or dirt that worry about the world or the world. The Japanese language from "Ukiyo-e" appeared, has been brilliant and dissolute life with implied meaning. So that the Ukiyo-e style paintings depicting the world.
Ukiyo-e master to Kano school, who sent a Tosa majority, this is because the school very prominent, and expelled, these artists are turning to a lot of rejection painting ukiyoe development caused by.
initial stage
Great fire of meireki (March 2, 1657) to calendar years (1751 ~1763). This period of Ukiyo-e hand-painted and monochrome woodcut printing ink (called ink from%).
On behalf of Ryokawa Shinobu as the "return this rendering of beauty"
The second half of seventeenth Century, later known as "the world of both Zu Ling Xuan Sichuan drawing many popular books and ukiyososhi", which saw this beauty and return "as its representative works.
In Ihara Saikaku s "lewd generation male" (published in 1682), there is a section on the Ukiyo-e described in 12 painted on the root fan fan, is currently (2005) Ukiyo-e word literature appears the earliest known data.
The torii Kiyonobu era, using ink colors other than works began to appear, is mainly in red. The use of red color (red brown) said Dan from the use of red, red is from, also has increased two or three color works in red, called the red fold from.
It is worth mentioning that the torii school and Kabuki industry closely, for drawing the Kabuki design, Kanban, until today, the modern Kabuki remains the Kanban was handed down in style.
Metaphase
Ming and 2 years (1765) to culture for 3 years (in 1806). Jin was born from this period.
Because the picture calendar (from spent) is very popular in the haiku poet and enthusiasts, and began 2 years to the exchange of social activities calendar painting. Due to the large demand, Suzuki Harunobu et al in multicolor printing method invented Mika from Ukiyo-e, officially entered the heyday of culture.
The multicolor printing method repeatedly developed printing color, so how to mark "(see when Mark Italy)" skills and methods, and begin to use can withstand multiple high-quality printing paper, such as mulberry as raw material in paper, the former iyo Jiu paper, paper in the west. In addition to the capacity and cost considerations, the original artist (from version Division), printing division (Division), brush (brush version of the division division, or write fold division) of the professional division of labor system is also established in this period.
During this period, the figure painting style also changed, from the original unreal doll style become more realistic.
Ernst (1772 - 1780), from the north end Shigemasa realist style beauty painting acclaimed. Katsukawa Haruakinori will bring realistic wind called "yakusha from" Kabuki portraits. After the famous Utamaro with slim and elegant strokes drawn by many head based beauty painting.
Wide political 2 years (1790), the implementation of the shogunate called "censorship printing printing system change", began to control the content of the presswork. Wide political 7 years (1795), publishing house Ya Shigemiro confiscated property for violating the ban to stage a comeback, in cooperation with the Dongzhou Zhai artist Sharaku, has published a number of unique style, style exaggerated yakusha inc.. Although the topic of a time, but after all, the style is too specific, not widely heard. At the same time, the most popular style is the song in the painting of "Feng Chuan yakusha stage posture from" Kabuki body map series. The song Chuan disciples has formed the largest group of Ukiyo-e - "song of sichuan".
Later stage
The culture of 4 years (1807) to anzheng 5 years (1858).
Kambara night snow "fifty-three times" of the Tokaido, Kagawa Hiroshige painted.
Utamaro after the death of the mainstream beauty painting to change Xi Zhai English spring erotic style. The katsukawa chapter of the students in the spring of Hokusai travel topics popular drive, rendering the famous "thirty-six Yue king". By Hokusai inspired song, Sichuan Guangzhong also created fifty-three times "," famous Tokaido "Fuji thirty-six king". The two men set a Ukiyo-e called "the name from" landscape painting style.
Thirty-six Yue Fu Jing in yakusha Inc., Kagawa Kunizhen from the song Chuan Toyohashi country, draw more power strokes. In addition, with the grass double paper (similar to modern comic books) caused by the legendary novel boom, Kagawa Kunishi et al began writing attitude of "Wu Zhehui depicting samurai". The water margin series of utagawa kuniyoshi is very popular in Japan then detonated a wave of water margin.
In 6 years (1853) kaei issued "Jiang Hushou kenki" in the ancient fine have a "country in (like, Feng Yan, Fang Mutsu. China Inc.), (Wu Zhehui), Hiroshige will last. (by name from), simple and direct for the period style to do a summary.
Late
Ansei 6 years (1859) to the Meiji 45 years (1912).
This period because of East India fleet commander Perry (or: Perry) led the fleet to force open the closed door policy (this event in Japan known as the "black ship to air") impact, many people became interested in western culture, it was originated in the opened trade of Yokohama "from Yokohama" became popular up.On the other hand, because in the early Meiji Restoration effect to social unrest, also appeared as "no residual from (or write to do badly from the bloody grotesque style)". The ukiyoe often reign of terror scene, such as the disciples and Ochiai utagawa kuniyoshi yoshitoshi Fang several creation "fame" the twenty-eight words.
Kawanabe Xiao Zhai and other orthodox Kano school painter also began writing ukiyo-e. Then from the Zhai Xiao kawanabe Kobayashi Kiyochika - no more introduction of Western painting contour drawing brushwork landscape painting, painting wind called light painting.
Song of Sichuan Kagawa Yoshito began composing for children called toys from the Ukiyo-e, popular, so it is called the "moo and UTI fortunei (Chan and Chan as the moo UTI toys)".
But because of Western learning, photography to face many difficult challenges, ukiyoe. Although many more fine brushwork painter to draw Ukiyo-e, but represent the general trend, the trend of history can not resist.
Among them, with yoshitoshi very delicate brushwork and Western style rendering many pictorial (Kam from news), history painting, genre painting, "the last of the world from teachers". I also encourage Tsukioka disciples learn all kinds of style, thus producing a lot of kaburagi kiyokata set as illustration, a traditional painting artist, Ukiyo-e style and skill can be in different forms in various art continue to pass.The Edo period, describing the scenery and people are colorful custom and human feelings, known as "Ukiyo-e prints". The origin of this name because it was "Ukiyo-e" depicting Kabuki and customs red-light district. 1670 will be a single color printing Sichuan Ling Xuan woodblock prints sold, it was known as the founder of "Ukiyo-e". The characteristics of Ukiyo-e woodblock printing in mass production, price, cheap and easy to buy. At first, only a single printing ink painting (painting, ink market discount) but soon appeared [red] version, red in color, and then printed with yellow and green, in Japanese painting history has opened a new realm.
Since mid eighteenth Century, prosperous, woodcut technology progress and Kabuki genre painting popular, Suzuki Haru letter create color printing - brocade painting ukiyoe. So the famous master of painting beauty and Suzuki Harunobu, the birds of the Qing Dynasty and Kita Kawakama have appeared. They can draw very elegant and beautiful Japanese women, but their works are not personality, lack of vitality, and often suggest that it is a decadent society.
Dongzhou Sharaku is a famous painting, his high artistic expressions depicting kabuki actors and the inner personality, but his works in his own time is not too popular.
The main characters and customs as nearly exhausted, and Ando Hiroshige Hokusai brought new style landscape paintings ukiyoe. He influenced by Western Drypoint, to the creation of a landscape painting in his "thirty-six king" tomitake using bold, composition and color, popular, then describes the spots around the series of paintings. Ando Hiroshigenzai "fifty-three times" the Tokaido series, with Syrian intelligence style rich natural depicting a Japanese traveler, his fame even more than the North zhai. After the creation of the "Wood Road sixty-nine" and other places around the world for the theme of the painting series.Ukiyo-e is a print, completed by the original artist, printing division, division three division to brush version. The original artist of the original image after the completion of the printing division by carving a pattern on the board, and then by the brush on the color version of the division, transferring a pattern to paper. The number of colors to be engraved on the number of versions, so the more color, the more complex the process. Although the effort is to complete the work, but only the beginning of the original artist can be signed, later also signed the engraved version of the division. In addition the shogunate to review the implementation of the system, to allow the publication of Ukiyo-e will also have a review of the shogunate mark Walker and published in the mark.
The production process of Ukiyo-e can be divided into 5 steps.
A drawing of the original
The original artist design, and then to the black outline. In this step is completed which need to review the contents of the shogunate. Review by the shogunate, will cover the qualified mark.
Two, engraving ink plate
The original review to the printing division, the printing division will turn the original posted on the wooden plank and embossed pattern, this board is called ink plate. In order to meet the needs of the future repeated printing, multiple color of the process, the Japanese invented the sign "see when (mark)" method. The origin of the method is 2:
The invention of the 1744 publication wholesalers village kichiemon.
In 1765, the invention of a brush plate called Jin six.
Three, selected color
The ink plate to brush version of the division, the brush version of the division will use thin as the color printed Mino paper carving map for school break number, and decide the number of color number is in accordance with the original plan to use the painter. The school will close the discount on the original artist with a red pen named heart color design.
Four, color plate engraving
School break to the printing division, the printing division will be in the same way carved out required swatches.
Five, brush version
The ink plate and the swatches are assembled, brush version of the division began to color color printing color repeatedly. According to the color of the screen size, printing times are different, generally about 10 to 20 times the brush. The overlapping part of the color is treated by a light and thick, small (area).Suzuki Harunobu, Dongzhou Sharaku, Kagawa Hiroshige, Kita Kawaka, Ling Xuan, Hokusai, Sichuan, Xi Ying Quan Zhai yoshitoshi
The Edo period, utagawa kuniyoshi, is one of the masters of Ukiyo-e song Sichuan late. He came from the silk dyehouse family name wells grass sun Seizaburo, Yuna Yoshimiro. Interested in art while helping his father with his business. The first song from Sichuan in straight, and later as a print master utagawa fancy, in 1811 was received as a disciple, and in 1814 to take the stage name utagawa kuniyoshi. Sichuan and other artists, he began painting creation in China, but the business is poor, after a few years to repair the tatami for students. Later, he came across the country, and felt that his talent was higher than that of the other, so he worked hard to draw some of the martial arts. 1827 began writing the famous outlaws series hero eighty. The early 30s industry created a lot of beauty in the landscape painting and Wu Zhehui, 40s. He is also famous for drawing cats. He often takes a cat in the corner of the picture. According to his disciples, he loves cats to the cats in the workshop.
In nineteenth Century the Japanese Ukiyo-e master Kagawa Kunishi China according to classical literature "the Water Margin" in the 108 Liangshan hero character, vivid description] full of personality typical portrait drawn. The mighty complicated, delicate and strong, particularly welcome all threads neatly tied up. Left a lot of ghost paintings, vivid style complex.

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鲁ICP备12031715号-1 法律顾问:杨俊涛律师 客服QQ:800015090 微信:4081532