Is a Japanese Ukiyo-e, genre painting, printmaking. It is the Japanese Edo period (1603 to 1867 years, also called the Tokugawa Shogunate era) wonderful art a unique national characteristics of the rise, is a typical art red-light district. Mainly depicting the daily life of people, scenery, and drama. Ukiyo-e is often considered as color printing of woodcut (Japanese called Jin painted), but in fact there are hand-painted works.Ukiyoe
In Asia and the world of art, it presents a specific color and beauty, after more than three hundred years, and deep influence in Europe and Asia, Europe in nineteenth Century from classicism to Impressionism genre are all inspired by the master, this kind of style. So the Ukiyo-e has very high artistic value.
Ukiyo-e art, early Ukiyo-e pen was meat, which is used for color ink painters painting, rather than woodcut printed painting. Meat pen Ukiyo-e, prevalent in Kyoto and Osaka, began this painting, is a decorative. It is magnificent architectural murals, decorative indoor screen. In the content of the painting, there is a strong local flavor, there are four seasons scenery, places of interest, especially good at the performance of female beauty, there is a high realism skills for the community to enjoy. These technical achievement, and the artist and thereafter be handed down from age to age, Ukiyo-e art, enlighten the first road.
The Edo period is the Japanese feudal society of late, it matches the Qing Dynasty in china. As a result of economic growth, the city first produces a "chounin culture" (i.e. public culture). Because the public culture has been developed rapidly, the clouds, demand expansion, for the needs of a large number of printing. In order to make the meat into the Ukiyo-e prints Ukiyo-e pen stage. Ukiyo-e prints printed ink for a simple skill, early, after the development of Dan painted and painted with crayons, added. True color prints brocade painting, appeared around the year 1643 to the year 1765, ukiyoe printing technology, reached a climax, as beautiful flowers, colorful, highly representative of the achievements in the art of the Japanese nation. Ukiyoe ukiyoe theme extremely extensive, social events, folk legends, historical stories, drama scenes and a classical painting, some painters have depicted the lives of women in the war, recording events or describing mountains and scenery...... It is almost the Edo period living encyclopedia, and all of these themes is the embodiment of the new citizen tone of thoughts and feelings. Some of the pursuit of free love and feudal satire are quite popular in the folk works.
Ukiyo-e woodcut mainly has two forms: "picture" and "a painting". The so-called "picture", which is the illustration. It is in the early Edo to classical novel illustrations as a beginning, then gradually appear popular illustration, to treat people with thousand years, the novel production, the more rapid development of woodcut picture books. The Sichuan folk painter is the founder of Xuan Ling "picture".
"A painting", which is a single woodcut creation, it is to separate appreciating a painting created conditions, also some fine art. The size range, a total of twenty kinds of beam, according to the amount of different color engraving method, and is divided into "ink painting", "Dan painted" and "painted" and "Paintings", "brocade painting", "blue painted" etc..
Taste knife Ukiyo-e woodcut woodcut techniques do not pursue, but pay attention to wood texture performance, but also for the smooth lines in the main position, often need painting, carving and printing the three together to work to achieve the perfect position. They create wood method, gloss, mica powder, colorless printing method and so on are in line and color to get highly harmony this purpose summed up the painting experience, get rid of the past has always been to use the brush bound.
Japanese Ukiyo-e is produced with the public's growing economy and culture, has a profound impact on social life, therefore, it has strong vitality. Ukiyo-e author are born folk, not a painter, but by 1820s, the prevailing capitalist mode of operation, the art of lost health, the pursuit of pornographic and vulgar, finally gradually decline. Ukiyo-e although this has been replaced by modern printing, but its rich artistic achievements still cherished by people all over the world.
Not only is the most distinctive Ukiyo-e paintings of the Edo period, but also because of its role in promoting the western modern art and world famous, synonymous with western even as the Japanese painting. From the means of production, is divided into two types: Ukiyo-e woodblock prints and meat strokes. The former is engraved on the printed form, the latter is hand painted. The people of the Edo period is more expensive than the meat production of small print strokes, also left many excellent works. However, Ukiyo-e is able to maintain a strong vitality in for more than two centuries, largely because the painting possibilities unexplored in the pursuit of new techniques and new forms in the wood. Therefore, the Ukiyo-e style, mainly in print in.
As Ukiyo-e prints mother in form, is the woodcut illustrations. In the content as its mother is kuanyong custom painting. In Japanese woodblock used in Buddhist paintings influence since seventeenth Century by the new incoming woodcut illustrations of the Ming Dynasty, in the initial stage between kuanyong formation of Japanese woodblock illustrations. In late seventeenth Century, a new illustration ukiyososhi precursor the adapt to the demands of the public gradually emerging class distribution, and kuanyong custom painting style. Edo to fire in 1657 as an opportunity to set off the townspeople culture and create the culture of Kyoto transplantation alone has a variety of pornographic illustrations in this publication, woodblock illustrations also appeared on the desire to create fresh.Until the teacher declared, custom painting made stronghold still in Kyoto, and the ukiyoe version of crooked related illustrations of the new trend is also the first rise in kyoto. But because of the traditional woodblock printing industry environment, leaflets not developed, resulting in a wood painting ukiyoe ancestor crown to wear on the head of Ryokawa Shinobu. Kyoto Nishikawa Yunobu (1671 ~ 1751) the performance of it is also worth noting that, but in later activities in the division. The sleeve channel in addition to meat pen painting, there are a lot of the crooked, illustrated, and Edo Ukiyo-e master contend. And most of the Indian ink, the subject matter is the most beautiful custom map. He is good at Kyoto style meticulous soft curves of the feminine attitude in print, it has new meaning. His beauty painting stimulated Okumura Masanobu, Ishikawa Toyonobu and other Ukiyo-e Edo divisions, especially for the establishment of Suzuki Haru letter beauty painting style plays an important role.
In the old times, Edo Jishinobu, et al. After the appearance of the Olympic Village: Masanobu (1688 ~ 1754), weight (Nishimura long? ~ 1756), Shi Xin letter (from 1711 to 1785), the home of the full Qing (1755 ~ 1785), etc.. In the period of their activity, and produced a version of Ukiyo-e painting red painted, painted, painted by the original Dan for the manual development coloring method is more advanced, and then developed into the primary color - red printing stage, in the performance of methods is also affected by the overall Kyoto Ukiyo-e, filament, lyric.
Ukiyo-e is painted red, Confidante material instead of Dan, and then added four other colored painted color carefully. Lacquer painting is painted in red, in the hair and even the inking part of mixed plastic and paint the same a gloss, and then threw powder and add luster. Because the name red painted red painted and easily confused, so generally include it in paint painting. Painted painter, is said to be Okumura Masanobu. He is not only the Ukiyo-e division, and publishers, full of fantasy. At first the Xichuan sleeve letter style, making soft printing ink and Dan painting, 1715 ~ 1720 years, making beauty painting and painting painted cast technique, direct extension of this new style. Paintings in 1730s appeared later than this, is said to have first letter by the government.
Is the distance perspective paintings Europe curiously to describe streetscape, veranda, theater, probably the earliest use of the Kyoto and Edo people cited as "precious" (machinery with a light observation mirror). This fully reflects the character of his social trends.
The invention of red, is about 1740, was imported from Nagasaki Chinese color prints inspiration. It is the red and green color and other minorities, Okumura Masanobu, Xi weight length early absorb the novice made outstanding works. Red marks from 1760 are gradually increased to the development of multi color printing color. It is of great significance as the preparatory stage of Jin painting.
Its origin comes from the original "big draw". "Yamato-e" is for the noble appreciation and prevailed in the upper society in a decorative art; and Ukiyo-e is a folk art form of daily life and taste. Ukiyo-e initially in the "beauty painting" and "yakusha painted" (Drama figure painting) as the main theme, then gradually appeared in sumo, landscape, flower and bird paintings and historical stories as the theme of the works. The picture color, began only in black and white, gradually developed into a simple color, finally become multicolored brocade painting "".
Japan period Sichuan Xuan Ling Yuan Lu is the founder of Ukiyo-e art. Open a new realm for the history of Japanese painting. Ukiyo-e was born, by the majority of the public's favorite.
This print, the same with the ancient Chinese engraving picture printing method, by the painter, sculptor, in order to complete the extension division division. First by the painters painted by the extension division division block, according to the picture of different colors are rubbing into painting. This in the plane of the board to carve out the complex and delicate lines, and then color into the painting of superb technology, has been regarded as an incredible western art skills.
With the development of Ukiyo-e art, the emergence of many famous painter, founder of Xuan Ling in addition to Sichuan, there are more famous curtain golden age of Ukiyo-e Suzuki Harunobu; beauty painting master torii kiyonaga and Utamaro; drama painting masters Dongzhou Sharaku: there's also a realist master Hokusai, as well as the scenery drawing skills to the pinnacle of the Li Zhai Guang teacher a heavy. The above six is known as "the big six Ukiyo-e division".
Ukiyo-e art held Japanese painting for two hundred and sixty years, until the Meiji Reform kicked off before gradually subsided. It spans three centuries of Oriental Art pearl, it occupies a glorious page in the history of world art.
East Division Xuan, Nishino Yunobu
Early Ukiyo-e "East Division Xuan, West Wooshin", corresponding to the East Sichuan Ling Xuan, Nishikawa Yunobu also created a lot of Xijing, just as many scenes have been in the division of Xuan works, so you don't believe the reputation. However, his fans a lot, "Liu Zeqi Park" to the author sleep alone he would appreciate: "if the theory of the famous painting, in addition to Xichuan Wooshin outside without others. Nishikawa Yunobucheng is the master of ukiyoe is." "Forty-eight hand" of the Edo author Shirakura Takahiko that depicts the selian world Xuan division, in Wu family background; and Wooshin shows, is Machiya social selian appearance."Nishikawa Yunobu during the prohibition period, the influence of the eastward extension. Ryokawa Shinobu's style gradually declined, two forces and a branch. By Wooshin influence Suzuki Harunobu, created a colorful color prints, "color love" style, it swept the whole world of Ukiyo-e edo. The day after the Ukiyo-e master, including Kita Kawakama, Hokusai and torii Kiyonobu, Okumura Masanobu has created a lot of "pornography". However, most of the imitation in the composition of the main, a variety of different color love like the state has long been the same as Ling Ling Nishikawa Yunobu painted.
However, Kita Kawakama has developed a torii Kiyonobu multicolor overprint "Jin painted, painting beauty will play to the extreme. Eileen Chang said in an article of "forget the painting", described the Utamaro record 24 hours of life "brothel geisha twelve", "twelve" "brothel in Choushi I only remember a woman for the night, the household clogs, a hand caught the chest light flower clothes anti slide, it shoulders, a hand holding a stick of incense, incense wafting tiny cigarettes. There is a girl squatting on the side of waiting, painting much smaller than her. She stood there, like is too high, low neck too thin, too long, not to step on the foot and small white clogs do not fit, but she did know that she is loved, although at that time, she was the only person there. Because the heart is fixed, the night seems more static, but also more long."
Until nineteenth Century, Manet, Monet, Cezanne and other impressionist painter is Ukiyo-e artist learns "foreshortening" and "cavalier perspective", and "overlapping perspectives", changed the European fixed perspective dominated landscape art. The unofficial history said, Japanese exports to Europe many porcelain, while those used to plug box joints on paper, it depicts the Ukiyo-e, then immediately became popular in Europe, has become the favorite of the upper class.
Lu Xun and Contemporary Japanese essayist nagaikafuu's famous "evil and pro -- on the Ukiyo-e", summarizes the already withered Ukiyo-e, "the most intriguing thing, its body may have two qualities: evil and charming. Ukiyoe have the quality. The unity of evil and charming, make sense of the enjoyment of the world have rich texture, heavy, such as late maturing sorghum, all ears are hanging down, rich, rich, to the horizon."From the painting materials, more than 70% of the content is a painting (tentatively called "beauty painting") and Kabuki painting (called "artist painting"), that is to say, the protagonist is prostitutes and Geisha, female nude, sexy beauty, sex is the hallmark feature. From the perspective of modern art, it can be regarded as "the art of human body painting", in which the Bold Theme of love attracts attention. In Japan, the existence of this kind of works of the controversy, and some think that is joyous but not indecent affirming its value.
The origin of art of Ukiyo-e, from a painting, China inherits "spring painting", fangzhongshu painting; two from the literature, the dip "ukiyososhi" (Caozi: novel), West Crane "lascivious generation girl", "lewd generation male" and "Ceng Genqi" cases near pine and "double suicide" and so on, is literature "Ukiyo-e writing" shows, theme and nothing more than pornography and prostitutes (of course, literary value and the theme is not proportional).
Therefore, "Ukiyo-e" is a term used in painting art, has its specific connotation and denotation. The Impressionist masters such as Degas were ukiyoe infection, the imitation of the then Japanese exports packaging style created many paintings. The modern western art of painting body from the Japanese theme "Ukiyo-e" and techniques, it is positive, with the aesthetic value.
As the understanding of "Ukiyo-e", think about the earth is most probably it did not actually happen in custom painting, similar to the "painting" the custom painting. To expand into the field of literature the use of the term, as a generalization of earthly custom description, deviate from the conventional semantics more and more far, is almost equal to the typos. It is very difficult to engage in such a definition of the painting, the Japanese surprised when a Japanese word exports to China after the occurrence of such a large ambiguity.Ukiyo-e literally means "empty world of painting". "Floating" from Buddhism, meaning refers to the cycle of life and death and life with no reality whatever. That is, the shore or dirt that worry about the world or the world. The Japanese language from "Ukiyo-e" appeared, has been brilliant and dissolute life with implied meaning. So that the Ukiyo-e style paintings depicting the world.
Ukiyo-e master to Kano school, who sent a Tosa majority, this is because the school very prominent, and expelled, these artists are turning to a lot of rejection painting ukiyoe development caused by.
Great fire of meireki (March 2, 1657) to calendar years (1751 ~1763). This period of Ukiyo-e hand-painted and monochrome woodcut printing ink (called ink from%).
On behalf of Ryokawa Shinobu as the "return this rendering of beauty"
The second half of seventeenth Century, later known as "the world of both Zu Ling Xuan Sichuan drawing many popular books and ukiyososhi", which saw this beauty and return "as its representative works.
In Ihara Saikaku s "lewd generation male" (published in 1682), there is a section on the Ukiyo-e described in 12 painted on the root fan fan, is currently (2005) Ukiyo-e word literature appears the earliest known data.
The torii Kiyonobu era, using ink colors other than works began to appear, is mainly in red. The use of red color (red brown) said Dan from the use of red, red is from, also has increased two or three color works in red, called the red fold from.
It is worth mentioning that the torii school and Kabuki industry closely, for drawing the Kabuki design, Kanban, until today, the modern Kabuki remains the Kanban was handed down in style.
Ming and 2 years (1765) to culture for 3 years (in 1806). Jin was born from this period.
Because the picture calendar (from spent) is very popular in the haiku poet and enthusiasts, and began 2 years to the exchange of social activities calendar painting. Due to the large demand, Suzuki Harunobu et al in multicolor printing method invented Mika from Ukiyo-e, officially entered the heyday of culture.
The multicolor printing method repeatedly developed printing color, so how to mark "(see when Mark Italy)" skills and methods, and begin to use can withstand multiple high-quality printing paper, such as mulberry as raw material in paper, the former iyo Jiu paper, paper in the west. In addition to the capacity and cost considerations, the original artist (from version Division), printing division (Division), brush (brush version of the division division, or write fold division) of the professional division of labor system is also established in this period.
During this period, the figure painting style also changed, from the original unreal doll style become more realistic.
Ernst (1772 - 1780), from the north end Shigemasa realist style beauty painting acclaimed. Katsukawa Haruakinori will bring realistic wind called "yakusha from" Kabuki portraits. After the famous Utamaro with slim and elegant strokes drawn by many head based beauty painting.
Wide political 2 years (1790), the implementation of the shogunate called "censorship printing printing system change", began to control the content of the presswork. Wide political 7 years (1795), publishing house Ya Shigemiro confiscated property for violating the ban to stage a comeback, in cooperation with the Dongzhou Zhai artist Sharaku, has published a number of unique style, style exaggerated yakusha inc.. Although the topic of a time, but after all, the style is too specific, not widely heard. At the same time, the most popular style is the song in the painting of "Feng Chuan yakusha stage posture from" Kabuki body map series. The song Chuan disciples has formed the largest group of Ukiyo-e - "song of sichuan".
The culture of 4 years (1807) to anzheng 5 years (1858).
Kambara night snow "fifty-three times" of the Tokaido, Kagawa Hiroshige painted.
Utamaro after the death of the mainstream beauty painting to change Xi Zhai English spring erotic style. The katsukawa chapter of the students in the spring of Hokusai travel topics popular drive, rendering the famous "thirty-six Yue king". By Hokusai inspired song, Sichuan Guangzhong also created fifty-three times "," famous Tokaido "Fuji thirty-six king". The two men set a Ukiyo-e called "the name from" landscape painting style.
Thirty-six Yue Fu Jing in yakusha Inc., Kagawa Kunizhen from the song Chuan Toyohashi country, draw more power strokes. In addition, with the grass double paper (similar to modern comic books) caused by the legendary novel boom, Kagawa Kunishi et al began writing attitude of "Wu Zhehui depicting samurai". The water margin series of utagawa kuniyoshi is very popular in Japan then detonated a wave of water margin.
In 6 years (1853) kaei issued "Jiang Hushou kenki" in the ancient fine have a "country in (like, Feng Yan, Fang Mutsu. China Inc.), (Wu Zhehui), Hiroshige will last. (by name from), simple and direct for the period style to do a summary.
Ansei 6 years (1859) to the Meiji 45 years (1912).
This period because of East India fleet commander Perry (or: Perry) led the fleet to force open the closed door policy (this event in Japan known as the "black ship to air") impact, many people became interested in western culture, it was originated in the opened trade of Yokohama "from Yokohama" became popular up.On the other hand, because in the early Meiji Restoration effect to social unrest, also appeared as "no residual from (or write to do badly from the bloody grotesque style)". The ukiyoe often reign of terror scene, such as the disciples and Ochiai utagawa kuniyoshi yoshitoshi Fang several creation "fame" the twenty-eight words.
Kawanabe Xiao Zhai and other orthodox Kano school painter also began writing ukiyo-e. Then from the Zhai Xiao kawanabe Kobayashi Kiyochika - no more introduction of Western painting contour drawing brushwork landscape painting, painting wind called light painting.
Song of Sichuan Kagawa Yoshito began composing for children called toys from the Ukiyo-e, popular, so it is called the "moo and UTI fortunei (Chan and Chan as the moo UTI toys)".
But because of Western learning, photography to face many difficult challenges, ukiyoe. Although many more fine brushwork painter to draw Ukiyo-e, but represent the general trend, the trend of history can not resist.
Among them, with yoshitoshi very delicate brushwork and Western style rendering many pictorial (Kam from news), history painting, genre painting, "the last of the world from teachers". I also encourage Tsukioka disciples learn all kinds of style, thus producing a lot of kaburagi kiyokata set as illustration, a traditional painting artist, Ukiyo-e style and skill can be in different forms in various art continue to pass.The Edo period, describing the scenery and people are colorful custom and human feelings, known as "Ukiyo-e prints". The origin of this name because it was "Ukiyo-e" depicting Kabuki and customs red-light district. 1670 will be a single color printing Sichuan Ling Xuan woodblock prints sold, it was known as the founder of "Ukiyo-e". The characteristics of Ukiyo-e woodblock printing in mass production, price, cheap and easy to buy. At first, only a single printing ink painting (painting, ink market discount) but soon appeared [red] version, red in color, and then printed with yellow and green, in Japanese painting history has opened a new realm.
Since mid eighteenth Century, prosperous, woodcut technology progress and Kabuki genre painting popular, Suzuki Haru letter create color printing - brocade painting ukiyoe. So the famous master of painting beauty and Suzuki Harunobu, the birds of the Qing Dynasty and Kita Kawakama have appeared. They can draw very elegant and beautiful Japanese women, but their works are not personality, lack of vitality, and often suggest that it is a decadent society.
Dongzhou Sharaku is a famous painting, his high artistic expressions depicting kabuki actors and the inner personality, but his works in his own time is not too popular.
The main characters and customs as nearly exhausted, and Ando Hiroshige Hokusai brought new style landscape paintings ukiyoe. He influenced by Western Drypoint, to the creation of a landscape painting in his "thirty-six king" tomitake using bold, composition and color, popular, then describes the spots around the series of paintings. Ando Hiroshigenzai "fifty-three times" the Tokaido series, with Syrian intelligence style rich natural depicting a Japanese traveler, his fame even more than the North zhai. After the creation of the "Wood Road sixty-nine" and other places around the world for the theme of the painting series.Ukiyo-e is a print, completed by the original artist, printing division, division three division to brush version. The original artist of the original image after the completion of the printing division by carving a pattern on the board, and then by the brush on the color version of the division, transferring a pattern to paper. The number of colors to be engraved on the number of versions, so the more color, the more complex the process. Although the effort is to complete the work, but only the beginning of the original artist can be signed, later also signed the engraved version of the division. In addition the shogunate to review the implementation of the system, to allow the publication of Ukiyo-e will also have a review of the shogunate mark Walker and published in the mark.
The production process of Ukiyo-e can be divided into 5 steps.
A drawing of the original
The original artist design, and then to the black outline. In this step is completed which need to review the contents of the shogunate. Review by the shogunate, will cover the qualified mark.
Two, engraving ink plate
The original review to the printing division, the printing division will turn the original posted on the wooden plank and embossed pattern, this board is called ink plate. In order to meet the needs of the future repeated printing, multiple color of the process, the Japanese invented the sign "see when (mark)" method. The origin of the method is 2:
The invention of the 1744 publication wholesalers village kichiemon.
In 1765, the invention of a brush plate called Jin six.
Three, selected color
The ink plate to brush version of the division, the brush version of the division will use thin as the color printed Mino paper carving map for school break number, and decide the number of color number is in accordance with the original plan to use the painter. The school will close the discount on the original artist with a red pen named heart color design.
Four, color plate engraving
School break to the printing division, the printing division will be in the same way carved out required swatches.
Five, brush version
The ink plate and the swatches are assembled, brush version of the division began to color color printing color repeatedly. According to the color of the screen size, printing times are different, generally about 10 to 20 times the brush. The overlapping part of the color is treated by a light and thick, small (area).Suzuki Harunobu, Dongzhou Sharaku, Kagawa Hiroshige, Kita Kawaka, Ling Xuan, Hokusai, Sichuan, Xi Ying Quan Zhai yoshitoshi
The Edo period, utagawa kuniyoshi, is one of the masters of Ukiyo-e song Sichuan late. He came from the silk dyehouse family name wells grass sun Seizaburo, Yuna Yoshimiro. Interested in art while helping his father with his business. The first song from Sichuan in straight, and later as a print master utagawa fancy, in 1811 was received as a disciple, and in 1814 to take the stage name utagawa kuniyoshi. Sichuan and other artists, he began painting creation in China, but the business is poor, after a few years to repair the tatami for students. Later, he came across the country, and felt that his talent was higher than that of the other, so he worked hard to draw some of the martial arts. 1827 began writing the famous outlaws series hero eighty. The early 30s industry created a lot of beauty in the landscape painting and Wu Zhehui, 40s. He is also famous for drawing cats. He often takes a cat in the corner of the picture. According to his disciples, he loves cats to the cats in the workshop.
In nineteenth Century the Japanese Ukiyo-e master Kagawa Kunishi China according to classical literature "the Water Margin" in the 108 Liangshan hero character, vivid description] full of personality typical portrait drawn. The mighty complicated, delicate and strong, particularly welcome all threads neatly tied up. Left a lot of ghost paintings, vivid style complex.