年画

年画是中国画的一种,始于古代的“门神画”,汉族民间艺术之一,亦是常见的民间工艺品之一。清光绪年间,正式称为年画,是中国汉族特有的一种绘画体裁,也是中国农村老百姓喜闻乐见的艺术形式。大都用于新年时张贴,装饰环境,含有祝福新年吉祥喜庆之意,故名。传统民间年画多用木板水印制作。旧年画因画幅大小和加工多少而有不同称谓。整张大的叫“宫尖”,一纸三开的叫“三才”。加工多而细致的叫“画宫尖”、“画三才”。颜色上用金粉描画的叫“金宫尖”、“金三才”。六月以前的产品叫“青版”,七、八月以后的产品叫“秋版”。

  • 中文名年画
  • 外文名New Year paintings
  • 形成时间北宋
  • 来 源“门神画”
  • 用 途用于新年时张贴,装饰环境
  • 产 地几乎遍及全国
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简介

中国的年画(new year paintings),作为年节装饰绘画,年画的内容多为“表吉祥、志喜庆”一类,形式上则是红火活泼,单纯明快,色彩亦鲜艳明亮,多用单色平涂,题材上则包罗一切具有喜庆色彩的风俗生活,新闻轶事、传统戏曲小说、民间故事等,其创作与群众生活密切相关,地区特色显著。其中,以天津的杨柳青年画与江苏苏州桃花坊年画以及山东潍坊的杨家埠年画著称于世。
年画是中国画的一种。始于古代的“门神画”清光绪年间,正式称为年画,是中国特有的一种绘画体裁,也是中国农村老百姓喜闻乐见的艺术形式。大都用于新年时张帖,装饰环境,含有祝福新年吉祥喜庆之意,故名。传统民间年画多用木板水印制作。旧年画因画幅大小和加工多少而有不同称谓。整张大的叫“宫尖”,一纸三开的叫“三才”。加工多而细致的叫“画宫尖”、“画三才”。颜色上用金粉描画的叫“金宫尖”、“金三才”。六月以前的产品叫“青版”,七、八 月以后的产品叫“秋版”。
年画
 年画艺术,是中国民间艺术的先河,同时也是中国社会的历史、生活、信仰和风俗的反映。每逢过农历新年时买两张年画贴在大门上,差不多每家都是如此,由大门到厅房,都贴满了各种花花绿绿、象征吉祥富贵的年画,新春之所以充满欢乐热闹的气氛,年画在这里面起着一定的作用。大抵比较富厚人家,在厅房总喜欢悬挂老寿星、紫微星、福、禄、寿等。至与梅兰竹菊等花鸟图,自然亦在欢迎之列。
旧年画因画幅大小和加工多少而有不同称谓。整张大的叫“宫尖”,一纸三开的叫“三才”。加工多而细致的叫“画宫尖”、“画三才”。颜色上用金粉描画的叫“金宫尖”、“金三才”。六月以前的产品叫“青版”,七、八 月以后的产品叫“秋版”。年画画面线条单纯、色彩鲜明、气氛热烈愉快,如春牛图、岁朝图、嘉穗图、戏婴图、合家欢、看花灯,胖娃娃等,并有以神仙、历史故事、戏剧人物作题材的。颇多作为门画张贴之用,夹杂着“神祗护宅”的观念,如“神荼郁垒”、“天官”、“秦琼敬德”等,体裁(或形式)有门画(独幅和对开)四屏条和横竖的单开独幅等。宋代已有关于年画的记载,目前见到最早的一幅木版年画是南宋刻印的《随朝窈窕呈倾国之芳容》。清代中期,尤见盛行。建国后,年画在传统的基绌上推陈出新,丰富多采,更为人民群众所喜爱。


 

起源

 年画起源于古代的门神画,而门神画早在尧舜时期就出现。据东汉《独断》记载,汉代民间已有门上贴的“神荼”、“郁垒”升像。现存最早的年画是宋版的《随朝窈窕呈倾国之芳容》,画的是王昭君、赵飞燕、班姬、绿珠,习称《 四美图》。
另一说:始于唐代。沿至宋代才普遍流行,但仍以张贴门神为多,故年画可以包括门神在内。
民间年画、门神,俗称“喜画”,旧时人们盛行在室内贴年画,户上贴门神,以祝愿新年吉庆,驱凶迎祥。年画是中国民间最普及的艺术品之一,每值岁末,多数地方都有张贴年画、门神以及对联的习俗,以增添节日的喜庆气氛。年画因一年更换,或张贴后可供一年欣赏之用,故称“年画”。
年画是中国的一种古老民间艺术,和春联一样,起源于“门神”。据《山海经》载称:唐太宗李世民生病时,梦里常听到鬼哭神嚎之声,以至夜不成眠。这时,大将秦叔宝、尉迟恭二人自告奋勇,全身披挂地站立宫门两侧,结果宫中果然平安无事。李世民认为两位大将太辛苦了,心中过意不去,遂命画工将他俩人的威武形象绘之在宫门上,称为“门神”。东汉蔡邕《独断》记载,汉代民间已有门上贴“神荼”、“郁垒”神像,到宋代演变为木板年画。后来,民间争相仿效,几经演变,形成了自己的独特风格,便是现在的年画了。中国现存最早的年画是宋版《隋朝窈窕呈倾国之芳容图》。

历史

年画起源于中国,作为一种正式的民间画种,年画的约始于五代北宋,其渊源却可以上推至秦汉或更早的驱鬼、避邪之类的守护神门画,旧称“纸画”、“纸片”与“画张”等。

宋代镂版雕印的发展以及春节庆祝活动的丰富促使年画得到发展,题材丰富起来,有风俗、仕女、娃娃、戏曲等。
明初年间,在甘肃发现两种宋朝的年画:一幅就是《四美图》,都作高客长袖的宫装;另一幅是灶王爷和关圣帝君。两幅画上都盖有“平阳姬家雕郎”的店铺字样,足见在宋时人物年画已具规模。
由于朱元璋提倡过新年要贴春联,这样发展下来,年画也就特别发达起来。今日被保存下来的,还有明万历年间最流行的彩色套印的木刻福绿寿三星图、天官赐福图等,刻工颇精致,迄今仍为民间所师法。还有实用的历画,如:春牛、灶马、芒神等;更有历史故事的“孟母教子”、“岳飞枪挑小梁王”。“牛郎织女”,“白蛇传”等。至于三国演义、水浒等古典文学名著,也被采用作年画题材。及至明末崇祯间,天津杨柳青的年画极为驰名,图画内容也愈见丰富。
随着明代中后期版画的兴盛,彩色套印技术的成熟大大促进了木版年画的绘制与销行。明清时期可谓是木版年画的鼎盛期。
清代人才辈出,年画的题材更加广泛,除了人物、花卉、山水等艺术作品外,还有“老鼠嫁女”、“王婆骂鸡”等讽喻画,以及用歇后语构成的连环图画,予人以一种幽默感。印制方面亦有各种各样,有木板、有石印、有胶版、有国画、有水彩、有图案、有单线平涂。有炭彩、有仿古、有创作,甚至有翻印西洋画的,例如姑苏年画中之“西洋之剧场”就是。

清代末叶开始流行石印及胶版印刷的年画,盛行“月份牌年画”,主要集中在上海、天津等城市。
民间年画是中国民间美术中较大的一个艺术门类,它从早期的自然,崇拜和神祗信仰逐渐发展为驱邪纳祥、祈福禳灾和欢乐喜庆、装饰美化环境的节日风俗活动,表达了民众的思想情感和向往美好生活的愿望。民间年画历史源远流长,有着较多的产地,流行也十分广泛,通俗普及,而且拥有大量的读者,曾经有过颇为兴盛的发展。无论是题材内容、刻印技术,还是艺术风格,都具有自己鲜明的特色。它不仅对民间美术的其他门类曾产生深远的影响,而且与其他绘画形成相互融合成为一种成熟的画种,具有雅俗共赏的特点。
现在,年画更加成了一种为群众所喜闻乐见的艺术,无论在题材上,还是在表现手法上都日趋丰富。

特点

民间年画是中国民间美术中较大的一个艺术门类,它从早期的自然,崇拜和神祗信仰逐渐发展为驱邪纳祥、祈福禳灾和欢乐喜庆、装饰美化环境的节日风俗活动,表达了民众的思想情感和向往美好生活的愿望。民间年画历史源远流长,有着较多的产地,流行也十分广泛,通俗普及,而且拥有大量的读者,曾经有过颇为兴盛的发展。无论是题材内容、刻印技术,还是艺术风格,都具有自己鲜明的特色。它不仅对民间美术的其他门类曾产生深远的影响,而且与其他绘画形成相互融合成为一种成熟的画种,具有雅俗共赏的特点。
苏州桃花坞、天津杨柳青、山东潍坊和四川绵竹,是中国著名的四大民间木刻年画产地。 四川绵竹年画、江苏桃花坞、天津杨柳青、山东潍坊杨家埠的木版年画在历史上久负盛名,被誉为中国“年画四大家”。
苏州桃花坞年画始于明代,鼎盛于清朝雍正、乾隆年间。桃花坞年画,主要有门画、中画和屏条等形式,其中门画可谓集历代门神之大全。桃花坞年画,系用一版一色的木版套印方法印刷出来,工艺精美,一幅画要套印四五次至十几次,有的还要经过“描金”、“扫银”、“敷粉”等工序。在色彩上,有桃红、大红、蓝、紫、绿、淡墨、柠檬黄等诸色。在艺术风格上,桃花坞年画构图丰富,色调艳丽,装饰性强,富有浓郁的生活气息。在人物塑造、刀法及设色上,具有朴实、稚拙、简练、丰富的民间美术特色,故数百年来一直畅销于海内外,欧洲许多国家的博物馆及艺术馆都有收藏。
天津杨柳青年画始于明代崇祯年间,风行于清代雍正、乾隆、光绪年间。年画内容多取材于传统戏曲、美女及胖娃娃等。在艺术风格上,杨柳青年画构图丰满,线条工整,色彩鲜艳,在人物的头部、脸部等重要部位,多以金色晕染,自成一格。
山东潍坊杨家埠年画已有500多年的历史,盛于清代,流行于黄河下游地区。其风格重用原色,想象丰富,线条粗犷而对比有力。
四川绵竹年画以雕版艺术精湛、艺术情调高昂著称。其形式多样,有门画、斗方、画条等种类。造型质朴简练,填色鲜艳悦目。

朱仙镇木版年画历史悠久,堪称中国民间艺术宝库中的一颗明珠。 北宋年间,每逢过年过节,特别是过春节家家户户贴门神已成为一种风尚,以祈求人寿年丰、吉祥如意、招财进宝、镇邪除妖。后来北宋没落、灭亡,开卦几经战乱,木版年画便衰落下来。到了明代,开封年画虽然又获复兴,但已逐渐转移到朱仙镇。明朝末年洪水泛滥,开封被淹没,百业俱废,朱仙镇便成了木版年画的中心。明、清时期,朱仙镇就有300多家木版年画作坊,其作品畅销各地,于是开封地区的年画被统称为“朱仙镇木版年画”,影响深远。 朱仙镇在河南省开封市城南10公里,虽然是个小镇,在古代却名列中国四大古镇之一。特别是北宋末年岳飞曾率军在这里大破兀术的金兵,朱仙镇更为国人所知。为纪念岳家军的功绩,在朱仙镇建有一座规模不小的岳王座,而今朱仙镇木版年画社就设在这座古庙之中。
朱仙镇木版年画有五大特点:一是线条粗犷,粗细相间;二是形象夸张,头大身小;三是构图饱满,左右对称;四是色彩艳丽,对比强烈;五是门神神码多,严肃端庄。朱仙镇年画可分为两大类,一类是神祗画,如灶君神、天地神等,另一类是门神类,朱仙镇木版年画中最多的就是门神,门神中以秦琼、尉迟敬德两位武将为主。 那些大大小小的门神画中,两位武将或衣着不同,或形态各异:步下鞭、马上鞭、回头马鞭、抱鞭、竖刀、披袍等,不下20种样式。除此之外,还有各种文武门神。文门神有五子、九莲灯、福禄寿等;武门神常是戏曲中的忠臣义士和各类英雄好汉。不同人的房门常贴不同内容的门神:已婚子女辈房门贴“天仙送子”、“连生贵子”、“三娘教子”;中年人房门贴“加官进禄”、“步步莲生”;老年人房门贴“松鹤延年”和“寿星”之类;少年儿童居室房门贴“五子夺魁”、“刘海戏金蟾”等。
朱仙镇的木版年画,不但具有极高的艺术收藏价值,而且极具观赏价值,许多名人都曾收藏过朱仙镇的木版年画,鲁迅先生给予其很高的评价:“朱仙镇的木版年画很好,雕刻的线条粗健有力,和其他地方的不同,不是细巧雕琢。这些木刻很朴实,不涂脂粉,人物也没有媚态,颜色很浓重,有乡土味,具有北方木版年画的独有特色。”这是对朱仙镇木版年画艺术特色的很好概括。现在上海鲁迅纪念馆还珍藏着26幅鲁迅收藏的朱仙镇年画作品。
武强木版年画
武强年画因其产地在河北武强而得名。它是在原始的耕作方式、佛教思想、传统观念和古老的民族习惯影响下发展起来的民间乡土艺术。武强年画起源于元代以前,明代初期形成规模,到清康熙至嘉庆年间(公元1662年至1820年),进入鼎盛时期。直到清末民初,在武强县南关有字号可考的画店仍有144家,其周围68个村庄里共有1587个民间作坊从事画业生产与销售,从业者达数千人,在外地开设的批发庄有180余处,最高年销量达1亿对开张,行销当时大半个中国。武强年画业在国家的大力支持下,获得了长足的发展,成立了武强年画社;1985年,经河北省文物部门批准,这个久负盛名的“中国木版年画之乡”建立了我国第一家年画专题博物馆——武强年画博物馆。1992年和1994年举办了两届“中国武强年画艺术节”。1993年12月,文化部正式命名武强为全国的“民间木版年画之乡”。

陕西凤翔南肖村村民邰增科家门前贴的胶印年画。原来一直从事木板年画制作的邰增科现已放弃这门手艺。凤翔木板年画多年深受西北民众喜爱,但木板年画近年受胶印年画的冲击,市场极不景气。如今凤翔县从事版画制作的只剩邰立平、王慧芳夫妇,且至今没有传人,版画工艺面临失传。

武强年画色彩鲜艳,构图饱满,线条粗犷,形象夸张。有门画、窗画、灯画、斗方、贡笺、中堂画、炕围画、顶棚画、囤画、对联、条屏等,甚至牛棚马厩也有专门张贴的年画。
东丰台年画虽传承杨柳青年画的特点,但亦受东北、冀东民俗的影响,自成一格。比较起来,在颜色的使用上更为鲜艳,画面更为粗犷和夸张。另外,版式亦较独特,有的对吉祥字大胆使用,不惜占据画面主体;有的为窗格式画面,将10余块画版拼接套印,浑然一体;还有的再现戏剧情节,可将画面裱制成16幅条屏等。2004年新春之际,天津民间文史工作者在天津市宁河丰台镇一个当年老作坊的后人家中偶然发现一批近百年前的东丰台木版年画。这些具有较强视觉冲击力的老年画画面内容宽泛,有天官赐福、门神、九凤朝阳、美人图、送财童子等。
佛山年画 以门画为主,线条刚劲,粗放,用色多为大红、橘红、黄、绿、富于南方风情。

制作过程

民间年画的印制方法大体相同,只有几个不同地区的做法稍异。一般说来绘刻年画原版到印刷成画需四道序:

一、画师起稿和定稿后,用白描法画在毛边或薄绵纸上;

二、刻工将画师定稿用粉糊反粘在刨平的梨木或杜木板上,留画稿墨线剔去空白处,完成墨线版;

三、画师将墨线印出的画样,再在画样上点出颜色,刻工再按点出的不同颜色,刻制出彩色套印版,一般不超过五块;

四、刷工将每幅年画的墨线和套色版准备齐全后,开始将纸数百张压在刷印画案的固定位置上,再把画版仰放在纸的左边,用手翻纸,蒙在涂匀颜料的画版上,右手用板刷刷画版上面的纸,如此一张一张在固定位置上,将纸刷完,然后再换另一颜色版,依样刷完纸张后,再换一版,直到全部完成一幅画后边为止。

刷印色彩的次序是:先印墨线,次黄色,再蓝色(蓝、黄二色套印呈绝色),紫、橙、大红、有的最后套印金粉。这样印制年画的方法在全国各地作坊中占大多数,只有天津杨柳青作坊印完套色版后,还要由当地画工开相(即将人物的头脸用七八道手工敷粉填红,勾眉画眼)和补空(没套印的衣饰等物),才算完活。在苏州早期仕女娃娃画和山东潍县一部分画中也曾染脸开相,但较简率。山东高密年画中有一种“铺灰画”。即用炭条勾画出线稿,再将纸铺在稿上,炭色即在纸上隐约地现出轮廓,如此可铺三五张,然后如写意般的填画出色彩。最后也要敷粉点唇,画眼开相。四川绵竹的年画,只用墨线版印出轮廓,不用色版套印,全凭画工手绘。有的添补金色团花时,则用捺印法,将花样刻成图章型,最后用手捺在画面上。还有一种漏版印制年画的方法,过去贵州和河南开封皆承传此一古法,即用木版印出墨线年画后,色版不用木板刻制,而用数层纸裱成方形硬厚纸方,浸入融化的黄蜡中,浸透后取出,晾干,呈半透明的纸板,而后按需要套印的色彩在浸蜡的原纸板上镂空,一色一版;印色时,将纸版覆在墨线画坯上,用刷蘸色刷版,即将颜料漏在画面上。这种方法易污染画面,现在不传了。再有就是只用木版印出墨线,或印出后抹一道红绿色,这种方法常是印制纸马神像之类用。在四川绵竹和天津杨柳青尚传宋代“过稿”技法于年画作坊中。“过稿”是画师完成一幅画稿后,即作为底样,然后用薄粉纸覆在底样上,重描一遍,如此一而十,十而百,到满足市场需要为止。此乃北宋刘宗道、杜孩儿等民间画家传授而来。四川绵竹和天津杨柳青传世之“底样”,尚有不少存于民间,十分珍贵,应继续访求。

种类

木板年画
起源
杨家埠素以生产木板年画面著称,与天津的杨柳青。苏州的桃花坞并称为我国民间的三大画市。杨家埠的木板年画至今已有300多年的历史。据传起源于明朝嘉靖年间,到清朝康熙,雍正时已相当发达。全村出现了永盛、公茂、吉盛、万顺、广盛泰等十几个字号的画店。到清朝咸丰、光绪年间,发展到作坊百家。画种过千。家家雕木刻版,户户描绘丹青。传说,明朝后期有位太监回杨家埠探亲,从宫中带回一幅彩绘门神像,乡亲们十分喜欢。当时有个能画善刻的人,巧妙地把它临摹下来,雕成木版,涂色印制,使乡民们也贴上了皇宫的门神像。从此,木版年画在杨家埠逐渐盛行。
特点
杨家埠年画是潍坊民间艺术的一朵奇葩。多少年来。它以独特的艺术魅力吸引着广大群众。它取材于民间生,而又不拘泥于现实生活,不受时间和空间的限制,对表达的内容加以高度概括和形象地夸张。它利用我国传统的勾线技法,构图对称饮满,线条粗犷,色泽明快,以红、绿、蓝、黄为主,对比强烈,主题突出。画中人物质朴大方,散发着浓郁的乡土气息。
体裁杨家埠年画体裁广泛。想象丰富。神荼郁垒、秦琼、钟馗等门神肖像,反映了农民寄希望于门神的保护,期求合家安乐,<鹿鹤(六合)同春>、<老寿星>、<猫(耄)蝶(耋)戏牡丹>。反映了人们希图长寿健康的意愿,<金鱼(玉)满堂>、<摇钱树>、<聚宝盆>等。表达了人们发财致富的愿望,<男十忙>、<女十忙>等则是把男子,妇女在十个节气中的活动,概括到一个画面上,表现了农民辛勤劳动,热爱生活的场面。有的年画还寄托着人们肖灾祛祸、安居乐业的。总之,杨家埠木板年画表达了农民们生动复杂的生活理想和愿望。
年画工艺
杨家埠年画生产分绘画、雕刻、印刷、装裱等几道工序,每一道工序都极为精细准确。做法是先将画稿勾出黑线稿,贴到刨平的梨木或棠木板上,雕刻出主线版。待印出主线稿后,再分别不同颜色,刻出色版,套色印刷,最后修版装裱而成。
平阳木板年画
源于宋朝平阳(古临汾)的木板年画艺术在元、明、清时期得到广泛发展。宋朝灭亡以后,元代统治者强迫许多印刷工人从南方迁到平阳,使这里成为印刷工业的中心,从而产生了平阳木板年画。大部分平阳木板画是由有此嗜好的农民在业余时间雕刻印制而成的。取材于当地的习俗和传说故事,木板画的内容主要是些花、鸟、鱼和历史人物。采用夸张生动的描写手法和鲜明的颜色,画面充满当地的风味,反映了当地人民健康、勇敢、浪漫的性格。平阳年画根据不同的用途有不同的种类。有的悬挂在卧室,有的贴在门窗上,有的则用来装饰厨房或桌子。
雕版年画,逢年过节在庙会里面卖,老百姓游逛之余,请回个财神年画,回去贴在堂屋里,祈求来年平平安安、大吉大利。
扑灰年画

扑灰年画是中国民间年画中的一个古老画种,始见于明代成化年间(1465-1487年),盛行于清代。主要产地在高密北乡姜庄、夏庄一带30多个村庄。 所谓扑灰,即用柳枝烧灰,描线作底版,一次复印多张。艺人继而在印出的稿上粉脸、手,敷彩,描金,勾线,最后在重点部位涂上明油即成。扑灰年画技法独特,以色代墨,线条豪放流畅,写意味浓,格调明快。扑灰年画多以仕女、胖娃、戏曲人物、神话故事、山水花卉为题材,深受广大群众喜爱,多次在国内外展出。

滩头年画
滩头距邵阳市43公里,距隆回县33公里,公路在邵阳与隆回接近中界点的地方拐了个弯,由此深入大山深处约10公里,就到了滩头镇。滩头,一个湘西南资水河畔的古老小镇,漫山遍野的楠竹、清澈见底的溶洞溪水和古朴淳厚的民风,孕育了中国民间工艺美术珍品——滩头年画。
滩头年画是湖南省唯一的手工木版水印年画。从明末清初到民国初年,滩头年画逐步形成了自己独特的美术风格:艳丽、润泽的色彩,古拙、夸张、饱满、个性化的造型方法,纯正的乡土材料和独到的工艺,使作品具有浮雕一般的艺术效果。滩头年画从造纸原料的选择、纸张的制造、刷底,到刻版、七次印刷、七次手绘,一张年画的生产需要经过二十多道工序。从手工造纸到年画成品都在一个地方生产,在全国年画制作中极为鲜见。
滩头年画分为神像、寓意吉祥、戏文故事三大类,无论是门神、故事或祝福吉祥等内容,都在小小的年画上演绎得淋漓尽致。《老鼠娶亲》、《秦叔宝.尉迟恭》、《和气致祥》,几乎每幅年画都流传着一个动人的故事,现存的四十多个品种成为见证历史、传承文明的重要载体。 
 

English Introduction

The China (New Year paintings) New Year paintings, as the festival decoration painting, New Year paintings content for the auspicious festive table, Zhi "category, its form is flourishing and lively, lively, bright color, and more single Ping Tu, the theme is all inclusive with festive colors of the custom life, news the traditional opera stories, anecdotes, folk stories, its creation is closely related to people's life, significant regional characteristics. Among them, Tianjin Yangliuqing and Jiangsu Suzhou, Shandong Weifang Fang peach New Year paintings Yangjiabu New Year paintings is famous in the world.
Is a kind of Chinese painting New Year paintings. In the ancient "Paintings" in Qing Dynasty, officially called New Year paintings, is a painting genre China unique, but also the ordinary people China rural popular art form. Mostly for the new year posters, decorative environment with wishes for the new year auspicious meaning, hence the name. The traditional folk woodblock production with multi New Year paintings. How many old paintings because of painting size and processing have different titles. The whole wide called "Gong tip", a paper called "three three". More detailed processing called "palace painting tip", "painting succhi". The color painted with gold powder called "Jin Gong Jian", "three gold". June years ago, the product called "green version", seven, after the product called "Autumn Edition"".
New Year paintings
New Year Paintings Art, folk art is China precedent, but also the reflection Chinese social history, life, belief and customs. During the lunar new year to buy two New Year paintings on the door, so it is almost every, by the gate to the room, are covered with a variety of brightly coloured, auspicious symbol of wealth New Year paintings full of joy, the spring atmosphere is New Year paintings, play a role in this. Probably more rich people in the room, the total love hung old longevity, ZIWEIXING, Fu, Lu, Shou etc.. To flower and meilanzhuju figure, also in the list of natural.
How many old paintings because of painting size and processing have different titles. The whole wide called "Gong tip", a paper called "three three". More detailed processing called "palace painting tip", "painting succhi". The color painted with gold powder called "Jin Gong Jian", "three gold". June years ago, the product called "green version", seven, after the product called "Autumn Edition"". Simple lines, bright color screen New Year paintings, a warm atmosphere pleasant, such as Chunniu map, map, chart, Scarlett year old baby figure, ear play carnival, watching lanterns, fat dolls, and to gods, historical stories, drama characters as the theme. As a door painting posted, with "God protect home" concept, such as "Tu Yu Lei", "Tian Guan" and "Qin Qiong Jing", the genre (or form) (have the door painted on four independent pieces and open) and horizontal single set of hanging scrolls independent pieces etc.. The Song Dynasty had a New Year paintings record, currently see a woodcut New Year paintings is the earliest Southern Song Dynasty engraved with "a beauty of beauty" in slim. In the mid Qing Dynasty, especially prevalent. After the founding of new China, based on the traditional New Year paintings in an old, rich and varied, more loved by the people.New Year paintings originated in ancient paintings, and paintings appeared early in the period of Yao and shun. According to the "arbitrary" records, the Han people have on the door of "Tu", "Yu Lei" L like. The earliest version of the song is New Year paintings "with a graceful beauty of beauty" in, painting is Wang Zhaojun, Zhao Feiyan, Banji, Lu Zhu Xi said, "four beauties".
Another one: began in the Tang dynasty. The Song Dynasty was widely popular, but still posted to the goalkeeper, goalkeeper, New Year paintings can include.
New Year paintings, folk God, commonly known as "Hi painting", old people put in popular New Year paintings indoor, posted on the door to door, auspicious wishes for the new year, fierce drive yingxiang. New Year paintings is one of the most popular folk art Chinese, at the end, most places are posted, and the custom of New Year paintings Cech antithetical couplet, to add to the festive festive atmosphere. For one year to replace New Year paintings, or post for a year after the appreciation, it is called "New Year paintings".
New Year paintings is an ancient folk art China, and couplets, originated in the "keeper". According to the "The Classic of the Great Wilderness" on Tang Taizong said: when Li Shimin was sick, a dreadful clamor sound often heard the dream and sleepless nights. At this time, general Qin Shubao and Yuchi two people volunteered, armour standing on both sides of the palace, the palace was All is well. Li Shimin believes that the two generals too hard, the heart is guilty, and he will draw the two powerful image of the painting in the palace, known as the "keeper". The Eastern Han Dynasty Cai Yong "arbitrary" records, the Han Dynasty folk door "Tu", "Yu Lei" statue, to the Song Dynasty evolved into the wood New Year paintings. Later, people rush to follow suit, after the evolution, formed its own unique style, is now the New Year paintings. China is the earliest extant New Year paintings "Sui song version of a slim beauty map" of beauty.New Year paintings originated in China, as a formal folk painting, New Year paintings about five generation began in the Northern Song Dynasty, its origin can be pushed to the Qin and Han Dynasty or earlier, such as the patron saint of evil spirits door painting, formerly known as the "paper painting", "paper" and "painting".
The development of the Song Dynasty engraved version of carving and the celebration of Spring Festival to get rich New Year paintings development, theme rich, has the custom, ladies, dolls, drama etc..
In the early Ming Dynasty, found that two of the Song Dynasty in Gansu: a New Year paintings is "Four Beauties", are high off the long sleeved court; another is the kitchen and guanshengdijun. The two picture on the cover of Pingyang Ji Jia Lang carving "shop" shows in the Song Dynasty has a size of characters New Year paintings.
Since Zhu Yuanzhang advocated a New Year couplets, such development, also specially developed New Year paintings. Today is preserved, and color printing molinianjian most popular woodcut Fu Lu Shou Samsung, day official blessing figure, carved quite exquisite, is still the folk law. There are practical calendar painting, such as: Spring cattle, Zaoma, awn God; more historical stories "to her son," Yue Fei Liangwang small spear". "Cowherd", "White Snake" etc.. As for the Three Kingdoms, water margin and other classical literary masterpiece, has also been used as the theme of New Year paintings. Until the Ming Chongzhen, Tianjin Yangliuqing extremely well-known picture New Year paintings, the content becomes more and more rich.
With the rise in the late Ming Dynasty engraving, color printing technology has greatly promoted the sales of wood New Year paintings and drawing. During the Ming and Qing Dynasty is the heyday of the woodcut New Year paintings.
The Qing Dynasty people New Year paintings theme more widely, in addition to figures, flowers, landscapes and other works of art, and "marriedfemale rats", "scold the chicken" allegorical painting, and comic with Xiehouyu composition, giving people a sense of humor. There are a variety of printing, wood, printing, offset, a painting, watercolor, pattern, Dan Xianping painted. There are antique, color, carbon creation, even a reproduction of Western painting, such as Suzhou in the Western Theater of New Year paintings ".
At the end of the Qing Dynasty began to pop and lithographic offset printing New Year paintings, the prevalence of "calendar New Year paintings", mainly in Shanghai, Tianjin city.
The folk New Year paintings is a large category of art China folk art, it is from the early nature worship and gods belief for the progressive development of evil Naxiang, praying and festive decoration, landscaping festivals and customs activities, to express thoughts and feelings and aspirations of a better life for the people. The folk New Year paintings has a long history, there are many areas, is also very popular widely popularized, and has a large number of readers have been quite prosperous development. Whether the subject matter content, graphic technology, or art style, has its own distinct characteristics. It is not only on other categories of folk art have a far-reaching impact, but also as a form of mutual integration of mature paintings and other paintings, has the characteristics of both.
Now, more New Year paintings became a popular mass art, both in subject matter, or in the performance of techniques are becoming more and more rich.The folk New Year paintings is a large category of art China folk art, it is from the early nature worship and gods belief for the progressive development of evil Naxiang, praying and festive decoration, landscaping festivals and customs activities, to express thoughts and feelings and aspirations of a better life for the people. The folk New Year paintings has a long history, there are many areas, is also very popular widely popularized, and has a large number of readers have been quite prosperous development. Whether the subject matter content, graphic technology, or art style, has its own distinct characteristics. It is not only on other categories of folk art have a far-reaching impact, but also as a form of mutual integration of mature paintings and other paintings, has the characteristics of both.
Suzhou Taohuawu, Tianjin Shandong and Sichuan Weifang Yangliuqing, Mianzhu, is China Four Famous Folk Woodcut origin New Year paintings. Sichuan Mianzhu, Jiangsu Taohuawu, Tianjin Yangliuqing New Year paintings, Shandong Weifang Yangjiabu woodcut New Year paintings in the history of the famous, known as the "four China New Year paintings".
Suzhou Taohuawu New Year paintings began in the Ming Dynasty, Yong Zheng, Qian Long period of great prosperity in Qing dynasty. Taohuawu main door painting, New Year paintings, painting and other forms of the door painted a set of hanging scrolls, it sets the keeper of the book. The Taohuawu Department of block printing method New Year paintings, with a printed edition, exquisite craft, a painting to set four or five times to ten times, some even after the "gold" and "silver", and "powder" process. In the color, there are pink, red, blue, purple, green, light, and various colors such as lemon yellow. Taohuawu New Year paintings in the artistic style, rich composition, bright colors, decorative strong, rich flavor of life. In the figure, the blade and the color, is simple, concise, elegant and rich folk art features, so for hundreds of years has been popular in many European countries and Yu Hai, museum and art gallery has a collection.
Tianjin Yangliuqing began in the Ming Dynasty Chongzhen, popular in the Qing Dynasty Yong Zheng, Qian Long and Guangxu years. Based on the content of New Year paintings of traditional opera, beauty and fat baby etc.. In the artistic style, Yangliuqing composition plump, clean lines, bright colors, on the head, face and other important parts of the characters, with golden halo, Sui generis.
Shandong Weifang Yangjiabu New Year paintings has a history of 500 years, sung in the Qing Dynasty, popular in the lower reaches of the Yellow River area. The style of the reuse of primary colors, rich imagination, rough lines and strong contrast.
Sichuan Mianzhu is famous for its exquisite art of engraving New Year paintings, high artistic atmosphere. The form of a door painting, Doufang, painting and other types of. The shape is simple and concise, vivid and pleasing color.
Zhuxian Town woodcut New Year paintings has a long history, is a bright pearl in the treasure house of folk art China. The Northern Song Dynasty, during the Lunar New Year holiday, especially the Spring Festival every family posted goalkeeper has become a fashion, to pray for good luck, and the town of evil Chuyao, felicitous wish of making money. Later, the Northern Song Dynasty, the decline of death, open Gua after the war, he declined the woodcut New Year paintings. To the Ming Dynasty, it was New Year paintings although Renaissance, but has gradually shifted to the Zhuxian town. Flood flood at the end of Ming Dynasty, it was flooded, businesses shuttered, Zhuxian Town became the center of woodcut New Year paintings. The Ming and Qing Dynasties, Zhuxian Town has more than and 300 wooden New Year paintings workshop, his works around the best-selling kiafeng area, so New Year paintings are collectively referred to as "the zhuxiantown woodcut New Year paintings", profound influence. The town is 10 kilometers south of Kaifeng City, Henan province. Although it is a small town, it is one of the top ancient towns in China in ancient times. Especially in the Northern Song Dynasty Yue Fei rate army here broken Wushu Jinbing, Zhuxian Town more known to the Chinese people. To commemorate the yuegujun achievements in Zhuxian Town built a sizeable Yuewang seat, now the zhuxiantown woodcut is located in the temple New Year paintings agency.
Zhuxian Town woodcut New Year paintings has five characteristics: one is the rough lines, thickness is two; the image is exaggerated, big head and small body; three is the full composition, symmetrical; four colors, strong contrast; five is the goalkeeper Shenma, dignified and serious. Zhuxian Town New Year paintings can be divided into two categories, one is the gods such as the God of heaven and earth, painting, Zaojun God, another kind is the goalkeeper, the zhuxiantown woodcut is the largest in New Year paintings by Qin Qiong, goalkeeper, goalkeeper weichijingde two generals. Those small door god paintings, two generals or clothing, or different form: step under the whip, whip, whip, immediately back hold the whip, vertical knife, robe, no less than 20 kinds of style. In addition, there are a variety of civil and military cech. The goalkeeper has five sons, nine lotus lamps, gods and other; Wu goalkeeper is often in the traditional operas of the loyal righteous and all kinds of heroes. People often put different content door keeper: married children door posted "angel Songzi", "Takako", "Niang son"; the middle-aged door affixed to "win promotion" and "step by step Ephraim"; the elderly door paste like "Songhe sickness" and "longevity"; children's bedroom door stickers "five place", "Liu play toad" etc..Zhuxian Town woodblock New Year paintings, not only has high artistic value of the collection, and highly ornamental value, many celebrities have had a collection of Zhuxian Town woodcut New Year paintings, Mr. Lu Xun gives it very high appraisal: "Zhuxian Town woodblock carving New Year paintings are very good, rough lines health strong, and other places are different, not only polish. The wood is very simple, do not use makeup, no character color is very strong, the charm and local flavor, has a unique characteristic of northern wooden New Year paintings." This is a good summary of the zhuxiantown woodcut New Year paintings artistic characteristics. Now the Shanghai Lu Xun memorial hall is decorated with 26 pieces of Lu Xun's collection of works New Year paintings zhuxianzhen.
Wuqiang woodcut New Year paintings
Wuqiang New Year paintings because of its origin in the Hebei Wuqiang named. It is a folk folk art developed under the influence of primitive farming methods, Buddhist ideas, traditional ideas and ancient national habits. Wuqiang New Year paintings originated in the Yuan Dynasty, the early Ming Dynasty formed the scale, to the Qing emperor Kangxi to Jiaqing (1662 - 1820), entered the peak period. Until the end of Qing Dynasty, in Wuqiang County, South Gate with a test shop still has 144, 68 villages around it in a total of 1587 folk workshop in the production and sale of painting industry practitioners, thousands of people in the field, opened the wholesale Zhuang have more than 180, the highest annual sales reached 100 million on the opening of marketing at the time half a China. Wuqiang New Year paintings industry under the support of the nation, has obtained the considerable development, Wuqiang was established in 1985, New Year paintings agency; approved by the Hebei provincial cultural relics department, the famous "China woodcut New Year paintings town" built China's first museum, Wu Qiangnian Museum of painting New Year paintings. In 1992 and 1994 held the two session of the Wuqiang Art Festival "China New Year paintings". In December 1993, the Ministry of culture of Wuqiang officially named as the "hometown of Folk Woodcut New Year paintings".
Shaanxi Fengxiang South Village Xiao Tai Zengke posted in front of the printing New Year paintings. The original has been engaged in the production of Zengke Tai wood New Year paintings now abandoned this craft. Fengxiang wood New Year paintings over the years by Northwest popular, but the board in recent years by the impact of offset printing New Year paintings New Year paintings, the market downturn. Now Fengxiang County engaged in printmaking only Tai Liping, wife of Wang Huifang, and has no successor, print process lost face.
Wuqiang New Year paintings colorful, full composition, rough lines, exaggerated image. The door window painting, painting, lantern painting, Doufang, Gong Jian, Tang Kang Wai painting, painting, painting, painting, store ceiling screens, antithetical couplet, even the bullpen also has special posted New Year paintings stables.
Although the inheriting characteristics of Dong Feng Tai New Year paintings Yangliuqing, but also from the northeast, Jidong folk, Sui generis. In comparison, the use of color is more bright, the picture is more rough and exaggerated. In addition, the layout is unique, some of the lucky words at the use of bold, occupy the main screen; some window format picture, will be more than 10 pieces of art mosaic overprint, and reproduce the drama all blend into one harmonious whole; and can be made of 16 pieces of picture framed screen etc.. 2004 Spring Festival, Tianjin folk cultural workers in the town of Fengtai Ninghe Tianjin City, a year old workshop in the accidental discovery of a group of people hundreds of years ago, Dongfeng Taiwan woodcut New Year paintings. These have strong visual impact of the old painting was broad, day official blessing, Cech, Jiufeng Chaoyang, beauty map, send money dispenser etc..
The door to Foshan New Year paintings painting primarily, bold lines, extensive use, color is red, orange, yellow, green, and southern style.The same folk printing method New Year paintings, only slightly different practices in several different areas of the. Generally speaking, the original drawing to painting printed New Year paintings required four order:
A painter, drafting and finalized, with line sketch in flash or thin cotton paper;
Two, will be finalized with the artist carved the powder paste anti stick in the planed pear or Du board, leaving blank drawings Moxian Tiqu Moxian, complete edition;
Three, the ink painting painter printed, again in the drawing point color, carved according to different color points, carved color overprint, generally not more than five yuan;
Four, brush will each Moxian New Year paintings and chromatography are ready, the paper started hundreds of pressure in a fixed position on the table shuayin, drawing back on the paper to the left, with the hand over paper, evenly paint painting, brush brush painting on paper with right hand, so a picture in the fixed position, the paper brush, then change another color version, to brush the paper after another edition, until all the finish a picture so far behind.
The order is: first, shuayin color printing ink, yellow, and blue (blue, yellow two color overprint is stunning), purple, orange, red, and finally some overprint gold powder. This method of printed New Year paintings accounted for most of the workshops in all parts of the country, only Tianjin Yangliuqing workshop printing color version, but also by the local painters (to be good with the phase figure seven or eight manual powdery fill Red Hook eyebrow painted eye) and fill the empty (no printing clothing etc), until the end of live. In the early part of the Suzhou dolls and Shandong Weixian ladies painting painting had stained face phase but relatively simple. Shandong Gaomi New Year paintings in a kind of "gray paint shop". Use charcoal sketch outlet draft, again spread the paper in the draft, namely charcoal on paper was silhouetted, so shop 35, and then as a fill color painting freehand brushwork. The last point to powdery lips, painted eye opening. Sichuan Mianzhu ink printed version only New Year paintings, contour, color version without overprint, all by hand painting. Some fill gold medallions, by stamp method, the pattern carved seal type, and finally hand flick on the screen. There is also a method of leak printing New Year paintings, past Guizhou and Henan opened all the ancient heritage, namely woodblock printed ink color version New Year paintings, wood engraving and not, several layers of paper mounted into square hard paper, into melted beeswax, soaked out, dry, translucent cardboard then, according to the needs of the printing color in the original wax impregnated cardboard hollow, color edition; color, ink painting will be covered in the paper on the blank, with a brush dipped in color brush version, will paint on the screen in a leak. This method is easy to pollute the screen, now not passed. There is only a woodblock printed ink, printed or with a red and green, this method is often used as the statue of printed paper. In Sichuan, Mianzhu and Tianjin is the Song Dynasty "Yangliuqing release" techniques in New Year paintings in the workshop. "Release" is a painter to complete a painting after the release, as the bottom, and then use the thin powder paper cover in the bottom, repair again, so the ten, ten and 100, to meet the needs of the market. This is the Northern Song Dynasty Liu Zongdao, Du children and other folk artists taught. Sichuan Mianzhu and Tianjin Yangliuqing handed down the "bottom", there are many kept in private, very precious, should continue to pursue.Board New Year paintings
origin
Yangjiabu producesplank is known for years and picture, Tianjin yangliuqing. Suzhou, Taohuawu and known as China's three major folk painting city. Yangjiabu wood New Year paintings has been 300 years of history. Reportedly originated in the Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, Kangxi, Yong Zheng has been well developed. The village appeared Yongsheng, Gong Mao, Ji Sheng, Sheng Tai, Wanshun dozen brand shop. To the Qing Dynasty Xianfeng, Guangxu years, developed into hundreds of workshops. Painting over a thousand. All carved woodblock prints depicting a painting. There is a legend, the late Ming Dynasty eunuch to visit Yangjiabu, from the palace to a painting like a goalkeeper, villagers are very love. There was a good moment to draw people, cleverly put it copy down, carved wood version, color printing, so that the villagers were also posted in the Palace door like. Since then, gradually prevailed in Yangjiabu woodcut New Year paintings.
Characteristic
Yangjiabu New Year paintings is a wonderful work of folk art in Weifang. For many years. It attracts the masses with its unique artistic charm. It is based on folk life, but not rigidly adhere to the real life, not limited by time and space, the expression of the content to be highly generalized and exaggerated image. It uses the hook line of Chinese traditional techniques, composition of symmetric drink full, rough lines, bright color, red, green, blue, yellow, contrast and highlight the theme. Painting people material Park generous, exudes a rich local flavor.
Yang Jiabu New Year paintings genre genre widely. Imagination is rich. Tu Yu Lei, Qin Qiong, Zhong Kui and goalkeeper portraits, reflects the protection of farmers in the hope of God, and family happiness, "Lu he (Liuhe) spring", < >, < laoshouxing cat (MAO) Butterfly (as) opera peony. Reflect people to health and longevity will, "goldfish (jade)", "full swing Qian Shu", "cornucopia". The expression of the people desire to get rich, "ten male, ten female," busy busy "is the man, the activities of women in ten in general to solar term, a picture, the hard work of farmers, the love life of the scene. Some also New Year paintings people entrusted with the disaster, the disaster Xiao Qu live and work in peace. In conclusion, the expression of New Year paintings Yangjiabu wood farmers vivid and complicated life ideals and aspirations.
New Year paintings process
Yangjiabu New Year paintings production painting, engraving, printing, mounting several processes, each process is very accurate. It is the first sketch tick black draft, affixed to the planed pear or Tang wood, carved out of the main version. To print line release, respectively, of different colors, excellent engraved version, color printing, the last version of repair and mounting.
Pingyang wood New Year paintings
From the Song Dynasty in Pingyang (ancient Linfen) wood art New Year paintings in yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties widely development. After the demise of the Song Dynasty, the Yuan Dynasty rulers forced many printing workers from the South moved to Pingyang, making it the center of the printing industry, resulting in Pingyang New Year paintings. Most of the Pingyang wood paintings are printed by amateur farmers in this spare time. Based on local customs and legends, wooden paintings mainly include flowers, birds, fish and historical figures. The use of exaggerated vivid description and vivid color, the screen is full of local flavor, reflecting the local people's health, courage, romantic character. Pingyang New Year paintings of different types according to different uses. Some hang in the bedroom, some on the doors and windows, others used to decorate the kitchen or table.
The engraving festivals in the temple New Year paintings, which sell, people around, back the back stick in the hall New Year paintings, and pray for peace, the most favorable auspices.
Throws the ash to lunar new year's painting
Dust is Chinese folk New Year paintings in New Year paintings an ancient painting, beginning in the Ming Dynasty Chenghua period (1465-1487 years), prevalent in the Qing dynasty. The main origin in high-density hokugo Jiangzhuang, Xiazhuang area more than and 30 villages. The so-called dust, with willows burning ash, as a master line, more than one copy. Artist and then in the printed script, face powder, deposited color, gilt, hook line, and finally focus on the parts with a clear oil. Dust New Year paintings techniques unique to color instead of ink, smooth lines and bold, freehand Sauvignon, bright tone. Dust New Year paintings to ladies, fat baby, many opera characters, fairy tales, landscape flowers as the theme, loved by the masses, have been exhibited at home and abroad.
The beach New Year paintings
The beach is 43 km away from Shaoyang City, 33 kilometers away from Longhui County, Shaoyang and Longhui in the road close to the point where turned a corner, the deep deep in the mountains about 10 kilometers to the town. The beach, an ancient town in Southwest Hunan river water resources, bamboo, clear all over the mountains and plains of the cave streams and simple folk customs, the China folk art treasures - the beach has New Year paintings.
The beach is hand New Year paintings woodblock New Year paintings only in Hunan province. From the end of Ming Dynasty to the early Republic of China, the New Year paintings has gradually formed its own unique artistic style: bright and moist color, modeling exaggerated, full, unadorned, personalized, pure local materials and unique technology, which works with the artistic effect of general relief. A papermaking raw material selection, New Year paintings from the production of paper, brush bottom, to block, seven printing, seven hand-painted, producing a New Year paintings to go through more than and 20 steps. From handmade paper to New Year paintings finished in a local production in the country New Year paintings produced extremely rare.The beach is divided into statues, auspicious New Year paintings, a story of three categories, whether it is God or a story or auspicious content in small New Year paintings on the deduction was most incisive. "A mouse", "Qin Shubao", "Yuchi Gong." almost every piece of Good-naturedness leads to propitiousness., New Year paintings are circulating a touching story, more than and 40 varieties of existing become an important carrier to witness history, heritage of civilization.
 

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