书法(文字表现的艺术形式)

书法是中国及深受中国文化影响过的周边国家和地区特有的一种文字美的艺术表现形式。包括汉字书法、蒙古文书法、阿拉伯书法和英文书法等。其“中国书法”,是中国汉字特有的一种传统艺术。从广义讲,书法是指文字符号的书写法则。换言之,书法是指按照文字特点及其含义,以其书体笔法、结构和章法书写,使之成为富有美感的艺术作品。汉字书法为汉族独创的表现艺术,被誉为:无言的诗,无行的舞;无图的画,无声的乐等。

  • 中文名书法
  • 外文名calligraphy、handwriting
  • 地域中国
  • 工具笔墨纸砚
  • 字体篆、隶、楷、行、草
  • 代表人物王羲之、颜真卿、欧阳询等
  • 代表作品《兰亭集序》、《多宝塔碑》等
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翰墨永和——夏鹏程书法作品展将在北京介居书院美术馆举办

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展览时间:2019年8月17日--2019年9月10日开幕时间:2019年8月17日展览地点:北京介居书院美术馆(朝阳区百子湾路32号苹果社区北区3号楼18号)主办单位:北京介居书院美术馆 《中国故事》杂志社...
基本含义

从表面字义理解,书法指书写的法度。生活中,书法一词另具备以下含义。第一,某幅书写作品的代称或者所有书写作品的统称;第二,一种艺术类别,一般指书写汉字的艺术。康有为在《广艺舟双楫》中说:“唐言结构,宋尚意趣”,由此可知唐代书法的法度追求最高、最严谨,唐代书法成就也是书法史上最顶峰的。
书法是中国特有的一种传统艺术。中国汉字是劳动人民创造的,开始以图画记事,经过几千年的发展,演变成了当今的文字,又因祖先发明了用毛笔书写,便产生了书法,古往今来,均以毛笔书写汉字为主,至于其他书写形式,如硬笔、指书等,其书写规律与毛笔字相比,并非迥然不同,而是基本相通。
狭义
狭义而言,书法是指用毛笔书写汉字的方法和规律。包括执笔、运笔、点画、结构、布局(分布、行次、章法)等内容。例如,执笔指实掌虚,五指齐力;运笔中锋铺毫;点画意到笔随,润峭相同;结构以字立形,相安呼应;分布错综复杂,疏密得宜,虚实相生,全章贯气;款识字古款今,字大款小,宁高勿低等。
书法的内涵主要包括以下几个方面的内容:
1、 书法是指以文房四宝为工具抒发情感的一门艺术。工具的特殊性是书法艺术特殊性的一个重要方面。借助文房四宝为工具,充分体现工具的性能,是书法技法的重要组成部分。离开文房四宝,书法艺术便无从谈起。
2、 书法艺术以汉字为载体。汉字的特殊性是书法特殊性的另一个重要方面。中国书法离不开汉字,汉字点画的形态、偏旁的搭配都是书写者较为关注的内容。与其他拼音文字不同,汉字是形、音、义的结合体,形式意味很强。
古人所谓“六书”,是指象形、指事、会意、形声、转注、假借六种有关汉字造字和用字的方法,它对汉字形体结构的分析极具指导意义。
3、 书法艺术的背景是中国传统文化。书法植根于中国传统文化土壤,传统文化是书法赖以生存、发展的背景。我们今天能够看到的汉代以来的书法理论,具有自己的系统性、完整性与条理性。与其他文艺理论一样,书法理论既包括书法本身的技法理论,又包含其美学理论,而在这些理论中又无不闪耀着中国古代文人的智慧光芒。比如关于书法中如何表现“神、气、骨、肉、血”等范畴的理论,关于笔法、字法、章法等技法的理论以及创作论、品评论等等,都是有着自身的体系的。
4、 书法艺术本体包括笔法、字法、构法、章法、墨法、笔势等内容。书法笔法是其技法的核心内容。笔法也称“用笔”,指运笔用锋的方法。字法,也称“结字”、“结构”,指字内点画的搭配、穿插、呼应、避就等等关系。章法,也称“布白”,指一幅字的整体布局,包括字间关系、行间关系的处理。墨法,是用墨之法,指墨的浓、淡、干、枯、湿的处理。
广义
从广义讲,书法是指语言符号的书写法则。换言之,书法是指按照文字特点及其涵义,以其书体笔法、结构和章法写字,使之成为富有美感的艺术作品。
随着文化事业的发展,书法己不仅仅限于使用毛笔和书写汉字,其内涵己大大增加。如从使用工具上讲,仅笔这一项就五花八门,毛笔、硬笔、电脑仪器、喷枪烙具、雕刻刀、雕刻机、日常工具(主要是指质地比较坚硬的,能用来书写的五金、生活工具)等。颜料也不单是使用黑墨块,墨汁、粘合剂、化学剂、喷漆釉彩等五彩缤纷,无奇不有;品种之多,不胜枚举。从执笔方式上看,有的用手执笔、有的用脚执笔,就是用其他器官执笔的也不乏其人,甚至有的人写字根本就不用笔,如“指书”“挤漏书”等;从书写文种上说,并非汉字一种,有的少数民族文字也登上了书法艺坛,蒙文就是一例;
中国书法的五种主要书体,篆书体(包含大篆、小篆)、燕书(包括燕行)隶书体(包含古隶、今隶)、楷书体(包含魏碑、正楷),行书体(包含行楷、行草),草书体(包含章草、小草、大草、标准草书)。
起源
中国的书法艺术开始于汉字的产生阶段,“声不能传于异地,留于异时,于是乎文字生。文字者,所以为意与声之迹。”(语出《书林藻鉴》,马宗霍辑)因此,产生了文字。书法艺术的第一批作品不是文字,而是一些刻画符号--象形文字或图画文字。
汉字的刻画符号,首先出现在陶器上。最初的刻画符号只表示一个大概的混沌的概念,没有确切的含义。
距今八千多年前,黄河流域出现了磁山、斐李岗文化,在斐李岗出土的手制陶瓷上,有较多的类文字符号,这种符号,是先民们的交际功能、记事功能与图案装饰功能的混沌结合,这些虽非现人能识别的汉字,但确是汉字的雏形。
紧接着距今约六千年前的仰韶文化的半坡遗址,出土了有一些类似文字的简单刻画的彩陶。这些符号已区别于花纹图案,把汉文字的发展又向前推进了一步。这可以说是中国文字的起源。
接着有二里头文化和二里岗文化。二里头文化考古发掘中发现有刻画记号的陶片,其记号共有二十四种,有的类似殷墟甲骨文字,都是单个独立的字。二里岗文化已发现有文字制度。这里曾发现过三个有字的骨头,两件各一个字,一件十个字,似为练习刻字而刻。这使得文明向前又迈进了一大步。
原始文字的起源,是一种模仿的本能,用于形象某个具体事物。它尽管简单而又混沌,但它已经具备了一定的审美情趣。这种简单的文字因此可以称之为史前的书法。
演变历史
书法的演变一般是指书法字体的演变。一般说来魏晋时期既是书体的终结期,又是书法技法的集成大期。
中国书法历史悠久,书体沿革流变,书法艺术异采迷人。从甲骨文、金文演变而为大篆、小篆、隶书,至东汉、魏、晋的草书、楷书、行书诸体,书法一直散发着独特的艺术魅力。
从象形文字到甲骨文,商周、春秋还有汉代的简帛朱墨手迹,唐楷的法度,宋人尚意,元明尚态,清代的碑帖之争等书法演进。
商至秦末
浑然入序的书法
从夏商周,经过春秋战国,到秦汉王朝,二千多年的历史地发展也带动了书法艺术地发展。这个时期内各种书法体相续出现,有甲骨文、金文、石刻文、简帛朱墨手迹等,其中篆书、隶书、草书、行书、楷书五种字体在数百种杂体的筛选淘汰中定型,书法艺术开始了有序发展。
秦代
开创书法先河
春秋战国时期,各国文字差异很大,是发展经济文化的一大障碍。秦始皇统一国家后,丞相李斯主持统一全国文字,这在中国文化史上是一伟大功绩。秦统一后的文字称为秦篆,又叫小篆,是在金文和石鼓文的基础上删繁就简而来。其中《绎山石刻》、《泰山石刻》、《琅玡石刻》、《会稽石刻》即为李斯所书,历代都有极高的评。秦代是继承与创新的变革时期。《说文解字序》说:“秦书有八体,一曰大篆,二曰小篆,三曰刻符,四曰虫书,五曰摹印,六曰署书,七曰书,八曰隶书。”基本概括了此时字体的面貌。由李斯秦之小篆,篆法苛刻,书写不便,于是隶书出现了。“隶书,篆之捷也”。其目的就是为了书写方便。到了西汉,隶书完成了由篆书到隶书的蜕变,结体由纵势变成横势,线条波磔更加明显。隶书的出现是汉字书写的一大进步,是书法史上的一次革命,不但使汉字趋于方正楷模,而且在笔法上也突破了单一的中锋运笔,为以后各种书体流派奠定了基础。秦代除以上书法杰作外 ,尚有诏版、权量、瓦当、货币等文字,风格各异。秦代书法,在中国书法史上留下了辉煌灿烂的一页,气魄宏大,堪称开创先河。
东汉
求度追韵两汉书法
两汉书法分为两大表现形式,一为主流系统的汉石刻;一为次流系统的瓦当玺印文和简帛盟书墨迹。“后汉以来,碑碣云起,”是汉隶成熟的标记。在摩崖石刻中(刻在山崖上的文字)尤 以《石门颂》等为最著名,书法家视为“神品”。于此同时蔡邕的《熹平石经》达到了恢复古隶 ,胎息楷则的要求。而碑刻是体现时代度与韵的最主要的艺术形式,中以《封龙山》、《西狭颂》、《孔宙》、《乙锳》、《史晨》、《张迁》、《曹全》诸碑尤为后人称道仿效。可以说, 每碑各出一奇,莫有同者。北书雄丽,南书朴古,体现了“士”、“庶”阶层的不同美学追求。至于瓦当玺印、简帛盟书则体现了艺术性与实用性的联姻。
书法艺术的繁荣期,是从东汉开始的。东汉时期出现了专门的书法理论著作,最早的书法理论提出者是东西汉之交的扬雄。第一部书法理论专著是东汉时期崔瑗的《草书势》。
汉代书法家可分为两类:一类是汉隶书家,以蔡邕为代表。一类是草书家,以杜度、崔瑗、张芝为代表。
最能代表汉代书法特色的,莫过于是碑刻和简牍上的书法。东汉碑刻林立,这一时期的碑刻,以汉隶刻之,字型方正,法度谨严、波磔分明。此时隶书已登峰造极。
汉代创兴草书,草书的诞生,在书法艺术的发展史上有着重大意义。它标志著书法开始成为 一种能够高度自由的抒发情感,表现书法家个性的艺术。草书的最初阶段是草隶,到了东汉时期,草隶进一步发展,形成了章草,后由张芝创立了今草,即草书。
三国时期
三国时期,隶书开始由汉代的高峰地位降落衍变出楷书,楷书成为书法艺术的又一主体。楷书又名正书、真书,由钟繇所创。正是在三国时期,楷书进入刻石的历史。三国(魏)时期的 《荐季直表》、《宣示表》等成了雄视百代的珍品。
两晋时期
晋时,在生活处事上倡导“雅量”“品目”艺术上追求中和居淡之美,书法大家辈出,简牍为多二王(王羲之王献之)妍放疏妙的艺术品味迎合了士大夫们的要求,人们愈发认识到,书写文字,还有一种审美价值。最能代表
魏晋精神、在书法史上最具影响力的书法家当属王羲之, 人称“书圣”。王羲之的行书《兰亭序》被誉为“天下第一行书”论者称其笔势以为飘若浮云,矫若惊龙,其子王献之的《洛神赋》字法端劲,所创“破体”与“一笔书”为书法史一大贡献。加 以陆机、卫瓘、索靖、王导、谢安、鉴亮、等书法世家之烘托,南派书法相当繁荣。南朝宋之羊欣、齐之王僧虔、梁之萧子云、陈之智永皆步其后尘。
两晋书法最盛时,主要表现在行书上,行书是介于草书和楷书之间的一种字体。其代表作“三希”,即《伯远帖》《快雪时晴帖》《中秋帖》。
南北朝时期
南北朝时期的书法进入北碑南帖时代。此时书法以魏碑最胜。魏碑,是北魏以及与北魏书风相近的南北朝碑志石刻书法的泛称,是汉代隶书向唐代楷书发展的过渡时期书法。晋至八王之乱,王室内讧以后,势力逐渐衰微。在北方,随着西晋的灭亡。形成了“五胡十六国”的混乱时期。后拓跋氏结束十六国,建立北魏,促成了一百四十九年的相对统一,这是北朝。
北朝书法以碑刻为主,尤以北魏、东魏最精,风格亦多资多彩。代表作有《郑文公碑》《张猛龙碑》《敬使君碑》。此时书法是汉代隶书向唐代楷书发展的过渡时期。康有为说:“凡魏碑,随取一家,皆足成体。尽合诸家,则为具美”。钟致帅《雪轩书品》称:“魏碑书法,上可窥汉秦旧范,下能察隋唐习风。”唐初几位楷书大家如欧阳询虞世南褚遂良等,都是取法魏碑的。
晋室东迁至灭亡,从公元三一七年至公元四二零年,是南朝。南朝书法,也继承东晋的风气,上至帝王,下至士庶都非常喜好。南北朝书法家灿若群星,无名书家为其主流。他们继承了前代书法的优良传统,创造了无愧于前人的优秀作品,也为形成唐代书法百花竞妍群星争辉的鼎盛局面创造了必要的条件。
隋唐五代
求规隆法隋朝书法
隋结束南北朝的混乱局面,统一中国,和之后的唐都是较为安定的时期,南帖北碑之发展至隋而混合同流,正式完成楷书之形式,居书史承先启后之地位。隋楷上承两晋南北朝沿革。下开唐代规范的新局,隋有碑版遗世,多为真书,分四种风格:
1、平正淳和如丁道护的《启法寺碑》等
2、峻严方饬如《董美人墓志铭》等3、深厚圆劲如《信行禅师 塔铭》等
4、秀朗细挺如《龙藏寺碑》等。
唐代书学鼎盛
唐代文化博大精深、辉煌灿烂,达到了中国封建文化的最高峰,可谓“书至初唐而极盛”。唐代墨迹流传至今者也比前代为多,大量碑版留下了宝贵的书法作品。整个唐代书法,对前代既有继承又有革新。楷书、行书、草书发展到唐代都跨入了一个新的境地,时代特点十分突出,对后代的影响远远超过了以前任何一个时代。
唐初,国力强盛,书法从六朝遗法中蝉脱而出楷书大家以欧阳询虞世南褚遂良,薛稷,欧阳通四家为书法主流。总特点结构严谨整洁,故后代论 书有“唐重间架”之说,一时尊为“翰墨之冠”延至盛唐歌舞升平,儒道结合,李邕变右军行法,独树一帜,张旭怀素以颠狂醉态将草书表现形式推向极致,张旭史称“草圣”,孙过庭草书则以儒雅见长,余如贺知章,李隆基亦力创真率夷旷,风骨丰丽之新境界。而颜真卿一出纳古法于新意之中,生新法于古意之外。董其昌谓唐人书取法,鲁公大备。到晚唐五代,国势转衰,沈传师。柳公权再变楷法。以瘦劲露骨自矜。进一步丰富了唐楷之法,到了五代,杨凝式兼采颜柳之长。上朔二王,侧锋取态,铺毫着力,遂于离乱之际独饶承平之象,也为唐书之回光。五代之际,狂禅之风大炽,此亦影响到书坛,“狂禅书法”虽未在五代一显规模,然对宋代书法影响不小。
唐代书法艺术,可分初唐、中唐、晚唐三个时期。初唐以继承为主,尊重法度,刻意追求晋代书法的劲美。中唐不断创新,极为昌盛。晚唐书艺亦有进展。
唐代最高学府有六种,即国子监、太学、四门学、律学、书学、算学。其中书学,专门语养书法家和书法理论家,是唐代的创举。历朝名家辈出,灿若繁星。如初唐的欧阳询虞世南褚遂良等;中唐的颜真卿柳公权等,都是书法大家。晚唐有王文秉的篆书,李鹗的楷书和杨凝式 的“二王颜柳”余韵。
隋唐五代书法可分为三个阶段
(1)隋至唐初
隋统一中国,将南北朝文化艺术相容包蓄,至唐初,政治昌盛,书法艺术逐渐从六朝的的遗法中蝉蜕出来,以一种新的姿态显现出来。唐初以楷书为主流,总特点是结构谨严整饬。
(2)盛唐、中唐阶段
盛唐时期书法,如当时的社会形态追求一种浪漫忘形的方式。如“颠张醉素”(张旭怀素)之狂草,李邕之行书。到了中唐,楷书再度有新的突破。以颜真卿为代表为楷书奠定了标准,树立了楷模,形成为正统。至此中国书法文体已全部确定下来。
(3)晚唐五代阶段存唐遗风
公元九零七年,割据者朱全忠灭唐,建立后梁,由此历后唐、后晋、后汉、后周,称五代。由于国势衰弱和离乱,文化艺术亦呈下坡之势。书法艺术虽承唐末之余续,但因兵火战乱的影响, 形成了凋落衰败的总趋势。五代之际,在书法上值得称道的,当推杨凝式。他的书法在书道衰微的五代,可谓中流砥柱。另外还有李煜、彦修等有成就的书家。至此,唐代平正严谨的书风已告消歇,以后北宋“四家”继之而起,又掀起了新的时代波澜。
宋至明中
尚意宣情
宋朝的书法
宋朝书法尚意,此乃朱大倡理学所致,意之内涵,包含有四点:一重哲理性,二重书卷气,三重风格化,四重意境表现,同时倡导书法创作中个性化和独创性。这些在书法上有所体现,如果说隋唐五代的尚法,是求“工”的体现,那么到了宋代,书法开始以一种尚意抒情的新面目出现在世人面前。这就是要墀书家除了具有“天然”、“工夫”两个层次外,还需具有“学识”即“书卷气”,北宋四家一改唐楷面貌,直接晋帖行书遗风。
无论是天资极高的蔡襄和自出新意的苏东坡,还是高视古人的黄庭坚和萧散奇险的米芾,都力图在表现自己的书法风貌的同时,凸现出一种标新立异的姿态,使学问之气郁郁芊芊发于笔墨之间,并给人以一种新的审美意境,这在南宋的吴说、陆游范成大朱熹文天祥等书家中进一步得到延伸,然南宋书家的学问和笔墨功底已不能和北宋四家相比了。宋代书法家代表人物是苏、黄、米、蔡。
元代书法艺术
元初经济文化发展不大,书法总的情况是崇尚复古,宗法晋、唐而少创新。虽然在政治上元朝是异族统治,然而在文化上却被汉文化所同化,与宋不拘常法的意境追求不同,元朝之意表现为刻意求工的开式美的追求,所以苏轼标榜的是“我书意造本无法”,赵孟頫鼓吹的是“用笔千古不易”前者追求率意之意,后者才强调有意之意。元朝书坛的核心人物是赵孟頫,他所创立的楷书“赵体”与唐楷之欧体、颜体、柳体并称四体,成为后代规摹的主要书体。在元朝书坛也享有盛名的还有鲜于枢邓文原,虽然成就不及赵孟頫,然在书法风格上也有自己独到之处。他们主张书画同法,注重结字的体态。
明朝书法艺术
明朝书法的发展表现为三个阶段:
第一阶段──明初
明初书法“一字万同”,“台阁体”盛行。沈度学粲兄弟推波助澜将工稳的小楷推向极致。“凡金版玉册,用之朝廷,藏秘府,颁属国,必命之书”,二沈书法被推为科举楷则。明初书法家有擅行草书的刘基、工小楷的宋潦、精篆隶的宋遂和名满天下的章草名家朱克。和祝允明、文徽明、王宠"三子"。
第二阶段──明中
明中期吴中四家崛起,书法开始朝尚态方向发展。祝允明、文征明、唐寅王宠四子依赵孟頫而上通晋唐,取法弥高;笔调亦绝代,这和当时思想观念的开拓解放有关,书法开始迈入倡导个性化的新境域。
第三阶段──明末
晚明书坛兴起一股批判思潮,书法上追求大尺幅,震荡的视觉效果,侧锋取势,横涂竖抹,满纸烟云,使书法原先的秩序开始瓦解;这些代表书家有张瑞图黄道周王铎、倪元瑞等。而帖学殿军董其昌仍坚持传统立场。

抒情扬理
中国清代书法在近300年的发展历史上,经历了一场 艰难的蜕变,它突破了宋、元、明以来帖学的樊笼,开创了碑学,特别是在篆书、隶书和北魏碑体书法方面的成 就,可以与唐代楷书、宋代行书、明代草书相媲美,形成了雄浑渊懿的书风。尤其是碑学书法家借古开今的精 神和表现个性的书法创作,使得书坛显得十分活跃,流派纷呈,一派兴盛局面。
明末与清,美学主潮以抒情扬理为旗帜,追求个性与发扬理性互相结合,正统的古典美学与求异的的新型美学并盛。清代书法的总体倾向是尚质,同时分为帖学与碑学两大发展时期。
明末书坛的放浪笔墨,狂放不羁。愤世嫉俗的风气在清初进一步延伸,如朱傅山等人的作品仍表现出自我内在的生命和一种不可遇止的情绪表现。这一点在中期“扬州八怪”的身上又一次 复现。于此同时,晚明的帖学统也同时进一步光大发扬,姜英,张照,刘墉王文治梁同书、翁方纲等人在刻意尊 传统的时候,力图表现出新面貌,这就使帖学的颓势不可避免地出现了。
正此时,金石出土日多,士大夫从热衷于尺牍转而从事金石考据之学,一时朝野内外,学碑才趋之若鹜,最后成为清朝书坛的发民主流,加之阮元,包世臣。康有为大力张扬,碑学作为一种 与帖学相抗衡的书学系统而存在。当时著名的书家如金农、张船山、邓石如何绍基赵之谦吴昌硕、张裕钊、康有为等纷纷用碑意写字作画,达到了尽性尽理。璀璨夺目的境地。可谓是中国书法文化的一在景观。如果说,帖学家们力图寻找质的愿望没有实现的话,那么这种愿望在碑学那里实现了。
近现代
在书坛走向多元化的今天,书法艺术升华到观念变革的高层次,这无疑是迈了一大步。书法现代性并不是简单地取决于书法艺术的形式、结构、线条等外在面貌,而是取决于内在精神的现代化。书法现代性的精神是指当代书法艺术所体现、传导的现代社会的价值趋向。
近现代书坛,仍然是碑派占主流地位。但和晚晴碑派不同,取法汉碑和上古篆书的书法家在这一时期较多。
很多书法大师如林散之,沙孟海陆维钊等等在1949年之前即已从事书法创作,但直至文化大革命之后他们已近耄耋之年才以书法闻名。1949年之后到毛泽东去世的近三十年时间内,书法基本上不受重视。当时的人们正以极大的热情建设一个新中国。书法被认为是旧传统的代表。
近代书法艺术的色彩斑斓,与其书家队伍的空前复杂有直接干系。或许因距离太近,这段风景比此前任何时期都清晰明透。
 

五种字体

篆书
篆书是大篆、小篆的统称。甲骨文,距今已有三千年历史,是传世最早的可识文字,主要用于占卜。笔法瘦劲挺拔,直线较多。起笔有方笔、圆笔,也有尖笔,手笔“悬针”较多。大篆指金文、籀文、六国文字,它们保存着古代象形文字的明显特点。小篆也称“秦篆”,是秦国的通用文字,大篆的简化字体,其特点是形体均匀齐整、字体较籀文容易书写。
隶书
隶书,亦称汉隶[1] ,是汉字中常见的一种庄重的字体,书写效果略微宽扁,横画长而直画短,呈长方形状,讲究“蚕头雁尾”、“一波三折”。隶书起源于秦朝,由程邈整理而成,在东汉时期达到顶峰,对后世书法有不可小觑的影响,书法界有“汉隶唐楷”之称。如《汉鲁相韩勑造孔庙礼器碑》、又称《韩明府孔子庙碑入《鲁相韩勑复颜氏繇发碑》、《韩勑碑》等。汉永寿二年(156年)刻,隶书。纵227.2厘米,横102.4厘米。藏山东曲阜孔庙。 无额。四面刻,均为隶书。碑阳十六行,行三十六字,文后有韩勑等九人题名。碑阴及两侧皆题名。
楷书
楷书也叫正楷、真书、正书。从程邈创立的隶书逐渐演变而来,更趋简化,横平竖直。楷书有楷模的意思,张怀瓘《书断》中已先谈到过。六朝人仍习惯地用着它,例如羊欣《采》文,王僧虔《论书·韦诞传》中云:“诞字仲将,京兆人,善楷书。”那是“八分楷法”的简称。到北宋才以之代替了正书之名,其内容显然和古称是不一样的,名异实同和名同实异之例,大概有以上这些。
行书
行书是在隶书的基础上发展起源的,介于楷书、草书之间的一种字体,是为了弥补楷书的书写速度太慢和草书的难于辨认而产生的。“行”是“行走”的意思,因此它不像草书那样潦草,也不像楷书那样端正。实质上它是楷书的草化或草书的楷化。楷法多于草法的叫“行楷”,草法多于楷法的叫“行草”。
草书
草书是汉字的一种字体,特点是结构简省、笔画连绵。形成于汉代,是为了书写简便在隶书基础上演变出来的。有章草、今草、狂草之分,在狂乱中觉得优美。《说文解字》中说:“汉兴有草书”。草书始于汉初,其特点是:存字之梗概,损隶之规矩,纵任奔逸,赴速急就,因草创之意,谓之草书。

载体类别

甲骨文
古汉字一种书体的名称,也是现存中国最古的文字。刻在甲骨上,先用于卜辞(殷代人用龟甲、兽骨占卜。
 占卜后把占卜时期、占卜者的名字、所占卜的事情用刀刻在卜兆的旁边,有的还把过若干日后的吉凶应验也刻上去。学者称这种记录为卜辞),是对未来事情结果的占卜,盛于殷商。甲骨文发现于1889年,是殷商晚期王室占卜时的记录,发现于河南省安阳小屯村一带,距今已 3000多年。甲骨文是中国书法史上的第一块瑰宝,其笔法已有粗细、轻重、疾徐的变化,下笔轻而疾,行笔粗而重,收笔快而捷,具有一定的节奏感。笔画转折处方圆皆有,方者动峭,圆者柔润。其线条比陶文更为和谐流畅,为中国书法特有的线的艺术奠定了基调和韵律。甲骨文结体长方,奠定汉字的字型。甲骨文的结体随体异形,任其自然。其章法大小不一,方圆多异,长扁随形,错落多姿而又和谐统一。后人所谓参差错落、穿插避让、朝揖呼应、天覆地载等汉字书写原则,在甲骨文上已经大体具备。
金文
古汉字书体之一种。商、西周、春秋、战国时期铜器上铭文字体的总称。兴盛于周代。金文为中国书法史上的又一丰碑。依附于青铜器,铸鼎意在“使民知神奸”故是一种宗教祭祀的礼器。金文也被称为钟鼎文,器文,古金文。和青铜器一起铸成的铭文线条较之于甲骨文更为粗壮有力,文字的象形意味也更为浓重,最早的金文见于商代中期出土的青铜器上,资料虽不多,年代都比殷墟甲骨文早。周代是金文的黄金时代,出土铭文最多。
石刻文
碑刻,泛指刻石文字或图案。最早的碑刻文字,首推秦朝的“石鼓文”。
石刻文产生于周代,兴盛于秦代。东周时期秦国刻石文字。在10块花岗岩质的鼓形石上,各刻四言诗一首,
内容歌咏秦国君狩猎情况,故又称猎碣。传说中的最早的石刻是夏朝时的《嵝碑》,刻诗文体格调与《诗经》大小雅相近。字体近于《说文解字》所载籀文,历来对其书法评价甚高。主要作品有:《石鼓文》、《峄山石刻》、《泰山石刻》、《琅玡石刻》、《会稽石刻》等。
石鼓文对后世的书法与绘画艺术有着非常重大的影响,不少杰出的书画家如:杨沂孙、吴大澄吴昌硕、朱宣咸、王福庵等都长期研究石鼓文艺术,并将其作为自己书法艺术的重要养分,也融入进了自己的绘画艺术中。
墓志铭,墓志是存放于墓中载有死者传记的石刻。它是把死者在世时,无论是持家、德行、学向、技艺、政绩、功业等的大小,浓缩为一份个人的历史档案,以补家族史、地方志乃至国史的不足。也是墓志断代的确证。 墓志铭包括志与铭两个部分。
拓片,帖
【碑拓】此乃拓片数量最多部分,涉及历代名碑,是如今书法临摹的主要参照。字帖是供学习书法的人临摹的范本,多为名家墨迹的石刻拓本、木刻印本或影印本。字帖按是否真迹划分,可以分为碑帖和墨迹。碑帖是根据刻在碑石上的字迹塌拓下来的字帖。墨迹是书写者直接写在纸张、绢帛等媒介物上的墨色痕迹。历代名帖如,淳化阁帖,三希堂。
简帛
书法艺术最重真迹,但秦汉以前的书法中的真迹,一般只有在简帛盟书中才能见到。古代的简册,以竹质为主,编简的绳用牛筋、丝线、麻绳。考古发现较早的简帛墨迹,有:湖北云梦出土的秦简,山西侯马出土的战国盟书(盟书,即:写于石策或玉策上的文字),长沙马王堆出土的战国帛书。中国书法由甲骨文、金文,至春秋战国时期,由于诸侯割据,因此殷商以来的文字,在诸侯各国分化为不同的发展道路,这一时期,书法的形态和技巧亦呈现了一种百家争鸣的局面。如北方的晋国的"蝌蚪文",吴、越、楚、蔡等国的"鸟书",笔画多加曲折和拖长尾。春秋战国时期的金文已不似西周金文那种浓厚的形态,替之以修长的体态,显示出一种圆润秀美,如《攻吴 王夫差鉴》。这时期留存的大量墨迹,为简、帛、盟书等。

审美

整体形态美
中国字的基本形态是方形的,但是通过点画的伸缩、轴线的扭动,也可以形成各种不同的动人形态,从而组合成优美的书法作品。结体形态,主要受两方面因素影响,一是书法意趣的表现需要;二是书法表现的形式因素。就后者而言,主要体现在三个方面:一为书体的影响,如篆体取竖长方形;二为字形的影响,有的字是扁方形、而有的字是长方形的;三为章法影响。因此,只有在上述两类因素的支配下,进行积极的形态创造,才能创作出美的结体形态。
点画结构美
点画结构美的构建方式主要有两种,一是指各种点画按一定的组合方式,直接组合成各种美的独体字和偏旁部首。二是指通过将各种部首,再按一定的方式组合成各种字形。中国字的部首组合方式无非是左右式、左中右式,上下式、上中下式,包围式、半包围式等几种。这些原则主要是比例原则、均衡原则、韵律原则、节奏原则、简洁原则,等等。这里特别要提的就是比例原则,其中黄金分割比又是一个非常重要的比例,对点画结构美非常重要。
墨色组合美
结体墨色组合的艺术性,主要是指其组合的秩序性。作为艺术的书法,它的各种色彩不能再是杂乱无章的,而应是非常有秩序的。这里也有些共同的美学原则,要求书者予以遵守。如重点原则、渐变原则、均衡原则,等等。书法结体的墨色组合,主要涉及两个方面:一是对背景底色的分割组合。人们常说的“计白当黑”,就是这方面的内容。二是点画结构的墨色组合。从作品的整体效果来看,不但要注意点画墨色的平面结构,还要注意点画墨色的分层效果,从而增强书法的表现深度。

历代名家

李斯
著名书法家李斯主持整理出了小篆。《绎山石刻》、《泰山石刻》、《琅玡石刻》、《会稽石刻》即为李斯所书,历代都有极高的评价。
钟繇
钟繇(yao)(151年-230年),字元常。颍川长社(今河南许昌长葛东)人。三国时期曹魏著名书法家、政治家。钟繇在书法方面颇有造诣,是楷书(小楷)的创始人,被后世尊为“楷书鼻祖”。钟繇对后世书法影响深远,王羲之等后世书法家都曾经潜心钻研学习钟繇书法。与东晋书法家王羲之并称为“钟王”。南朝庾肩吾将钟繇的书法列为“上品之上”,唐张怀瓘在《书断》中则评其书法为“神品”。
张芝
张芝(公元?—192)字伯英,东汉大书法家,人称之为“草圣”。敦煌郡渊泉县(今甘肃安西县东)人。张芝的草书源自杜度,崔瑗,尔后,自立门户。被庾肩吾《书品》评为“功夫第一,天然次之”.与钟繇,王羲之并列为“上之上”品。
卫夫人
卫铄,别称卫夫人,名铄,字茂猗(公元272-349年),河东安邑(今山西夏县北)人,是晋代著名书法家。卫铄为汝阴太守李矩之妻,世称卫夫人。卫氏家族世代工书,卫铄夫李矩亦善隶书。卫夫人师承钟繇,妙传其法。王羲之少时曾从其学书,卫夫人是“书圣”的启蒙老师。
王羲之
王羲之(303-361年东晋)世称“书圣”。东晋书法家,字逸少,号澹斋,原籍琅玡临沂(今属山东),后迁居山阴(今浙江绍兴),著名书法著作有《兰亭序》等。晚年隐居剡县金庭,历任秘书郞、宁远将军、江州刺史。后为会稽内史,领右将军,人称“王右军”、“王会稽”。其子王献之书法亦佳,世人合称为“二王”[1]  。因此,《书谱》概总为:“汉魏有钟、张之绝,晋末有二王之妙”。四人被称为古代书家“四贤”。
王献之
王献之,字子敬,东晋琅琊临沂人,书法家、诗人,以行书和草书闻名后世。王献之幼年随父羲之学书法,兼学张芝。书法众体皆精,尤以行草著名,敢于创新,不为其父所囿,为魏晋以来的今楷、今草作出了卓越贡献,在书法史上被誉为“小圣”,与其父王羲之并称为“二王”。
欧阳询
欧阳询(557一641年),字信本,潭州临湘(今湖南长沙)人。欧阳询楷书法度之严谨,笔力之险峻,世无所匹,被称之为唐人楷书第一。
虞世南
虞世南,字伯施,余姚人。唐初政治家,书法家,文学家。隋炀帝时官起居舍人,唐时历任秘书监、弘文馆学士等。唐太宗称他德行、忠直、博学、文词、书翰为五绝(“世南一人,有出世之才,遂兼五绝。一曰忠谠,二曰友悌,三曰博文,四曰词藻,五曰书翰。”)。
褚遂良
褚遂良(596-658),字登善,唐朝政治家、书法家,汉族,钱塘(今浙江杭州)人,一说阳翟(今河南禹州)人;褚遂良博学多才,精通文史,隋末时跟随薛举为通事舍人,后在唐朝任谏议大夫,中书令等职,贞观二十三年(649年)与长孙无忌同受太宗遗诏辅政;后坚决反对武则天为后,遭贬潭州(长沙)都督,武后即位后,转桂州(桂林)都督,再贬爱州(今越南北境清化)刺史,显庆三年(658年)卒;褚遂良工书法,初学虞世南,后取法王羲之,与欧阳询虞世南、薛稷并称“初唐四大家”;传世墨迹有《孟法师碑》、《雁塔圣教序》等。
薛稷
薛稷(649~713)字嗣通,中国唐代画家,书法家。隋朝内史侍郎薛道衡曾孙,唐朝中书令薛元超从子。汉族,蒲州汾阴(今山西万荣)人。曾任黄门侍郎、参知机务、太子少保、礼部尚书,后被赐死狱中。工书法,师承褚遂良,与虞世南欧阳询褚遂良并列初唐四大书法家。
颜真卿
颜真卿(709-784,一说709-785),字清臣,唐代中期杰出书法家。生于京兆万年(今陕西西安),祖籍琅琊临沂(今山东临沂费县)。他创立了“颜体”楷书,与赵孟頫、柳公权欧阳询并称“楷书四大家”。
柳公权
柳公权(778年-865年),字诚悬,京兆华原(今陕西耀县)人,官至太子太师,世称“柳少师”,是唐朝最后一位著名书法家。擅长楷书,代表作有《神策军碑》、《玄秘塔碑》等。
张旭
张旭(675-750?),字伯高,一字季明,汉族,唐朝吴(今江苏苏州)人。曾官常熟县尉,金吾长史。善草书,性好酒,世称张颠,也是“饮中八仙”之一。其草书当时与李白诗歌、裴旻剑舞并称“三绝”,诗亦别具一格,以七绝见长。与李白、贺知章等人共列饮中八仙之一。唐文宗曾下诏,以李白诗歌、裴旻剑舞、张旭草书为“三绝”。又工诗,与贺知章、张若虚、包融号称“吴中四士”。
怀素
怀素(725-785)唐时人,字藏真,僧名怀素,俗姓钱,汉族,永州零陵(湖南零陵)人。幼年好佛,出家为僧。他是书法史上领一代风骚的草书家,他的草书称为“狂草”,用笔圆劲有力,使转如环,奔放流畅,一气呵成,与唐代另一草书家张旭齐名,人称“张颠素狂”或“颠张醉素”。
苏轼
苏轼(1037年1月8日-1101年8月24日),眉州(今四川眉山,北宋时为眉山城)人,字子瞻,又字和仲,号“东坡居士”,世人称其为“苏东坡”。祖籍栾城。北宋著名文学家、书画家、词人、诗人,美食家,唐宋八大家之一,豪放派词人代表。其诗,词,赋,散文,均成就极高,且善书法和绘画,是中国文学艺术史上罕见的全才,也是中国数千年历史上被公认文学艺术造诣最杰出的大家之一。其散文与欧阳修并称欧苏;诗与黄庭坚并称苏黄;词与辛弃疾并称苏辛;书法名列北宋四大书法家“苏、黄、米、蔡”之一;其画则开创了“湖州画派”。
黄庭坚
黄庭坚(1045年-1105年),字鲁直,号山谷道人,晚号涪翁,洪州分宁(今江西修水县)人。北宋知名诗人,乃江西诗派祖师。书法亦能树格,为宋四家之一。英宗治平四年(1067)进士。历官叶县尉、北京国子监教授、校书郎、著作佐郎、秘书丞、涪州别驾、黔州安置等。庭坚笃信佛教,亦慕道教,事亲颇孝,虽居官,却自为亲洗涤便器,亦为二十四孝之一,黄庭坚为苏门四学士之一,是江西诗派的开山祖师,生前与苏轼齐名。世称苏黄。著有《山谷词》。
米芾
米芾[fú](1051-1107),自署姓名米或为芊,芾或为黻[fú]。北宋书法家、画家。祖籍安徽无为,迁居湖北襄阳,后曾定居润州(今江苏镇江)。天资高迈、人物萧散,好洁成癖。被服效唐人,多蓄奇石。书画自成一家。能画枯木竹石,时出新意,又能画山水,创为水墨云山墨戏,烟云掩映,平淡天真。善诗,工书法,精鉴别。擅篆、隶、楷、行、草等书体,长于临摹古人书法,达到乱真程度。宋四家之一。
蔡襄
蔡襄(1012-1067),字君谟,汉族,北宋著名书法家,政治家,茶学专家,奸相蔡京的从兄。原籍福建仙游枫亭乡东垞村,后迁居莆田蔡垞村,1030年(天圣八年)进士,先后在宋朝中央政府担任过馆阁校勘、知谏院、直史馆、知制诰、龙图阁直学士、枢密院直学士、翰林学士、三司使、端明殿学士等职,出任福建路转运使,知泉州、福州、开封和杭州府事。卒赠礼部侍郎,谥号忠。主持建造了中国现存年代最早的跨海梁式大石桥泉州洛阳桥,蔡襄为人忠厚、正直,讲究信义,且学识渊博,书艺高深,书法史上论及宋代书法,素有“苏、黄、米、蔡”四大书家的说法,蔡襄书法以其浑厚端庄,淳淡婉美,自成一体。
赵佶
宋徽宗赵佶(公元1082年5月初5—1135年6月5日),宋神宗第十一子、宋哲宗之弟,宋朝第八位皇帝。先后被封为遂宁王、端王。哲宗于公元1100年正月病逝时无子,向皇后于同月立他为帝。第二年改年号为“建中靖国”。在位26年(1100年2月23日—1126年1月18日),国亡被俘受折磨而死,终年54岁,葬于都城绍兴永佑陵(今浙江省绍兴市柯桥区东南35里处)。他自创一种书法字体被后人称之为“瘦金体”。是古代少有的艺术天才与全才。被后世评为“宋徽宗诸事皆能,独不能为君耳!编写《宋史》的史官,也感慨地说如果当初章惇的意见被采纳,北宋也许是另一种结局。并还说如“宋不立徽宗,金虽强,何衅以伐宋哉”。
赵孟頫
赵孟頫(1254—1322),字子昂,号松雪,松雪道人,又号水精宫道人、鸥波,中年曾作孟俯,汉族,吴兴(今浙江湖州)人。元代著名画家,楷书四大家(欧阳询颜真卿柳公权、赵孟頫)之一。赵孟頫博学多才,能诗善文,懂经济,工书法,精绘艺,擅金石,通律吕,解鉴赏。特别是书法和绘画成就最高,开创元代新画风,被称为“元人冠冕”。他也善篆、隶、真、行、草书,尤以楷、行书著称于世。
鲜于枢
鲜于枢(1257—1302)字伯机,河北渔阳人,居住在杭州。与赵孟頫有“南赵北鲜”之称。他的书法成就主要在于行草。草书学怀素并自出新意。他的执笔方法很有特点,使用独特的回腕法;喜欢用狼毫,写字强调骨力。他的代表作有《安石杂诗卷》,《进学解卷》《苏轼海棠诗卷》等。与赵孟頫,邓文原并称为“元初三大家”.
董其昌
董其昌(1555—1636),[1]字玄宰,号思白、香光居士。汉族,松江华亭(今上海闵行区马桥)人,明代书画家。曾居松江。万历十七年进士,授翰林院编修,官至南京礼部尚书,卒后谥文敏。擅画山水,师法董源巨然黄公望倪瓒,笔致清秀中和,恬静疏旷;用墨明洁隽朗,温敦淡荡;青绿设色古朴典雅。以佛家禅宗喻画,倡“南北宗”论,为“华亭画派”杰出代表。其画及画论对明末清初画坛影响甚大。书法出入晋唐,自成一格,能诗文。存世作品有《岩居图》《秋兴八景图》《昼锦堂图》等。著有《画禅室随笔》《容台文集》等,刻有《戏鸿堂帖》。他的书法兼有“颜骨赵姿”之美。
刘墉
刘墉(1719~1804),字崇如,号石庵、石菴、石盦、木菴、青原、香岩、勗斋、东武、溟华、日观峰道人等,山东诸城人。他是乾隆年间的重臣,历任翰林院编修、江苏学政、内阁学士、湖南巡抚、左都御史、工部尚书、上书房总师傅、吏部尚书、协办大学士等职,嘉庆初官至体仁阁大学士、加太子少保,卒谥文清。著有《石庵诗集》。他的书法由董、赵入手,而后遍临晋唐宋诸家,尤得力于苏东坡、颜真卿和晋唐小楷,融会贯通,自成格局。其书点划丰腴处短而厚、细劲处含而健,对比强烈;结字内敛拙朴,而决不拥塞,端重稳健中透出灵秀;章法轻重错落,舒朗雍容。整体风格含蓄蕴籍,精气内敛,浑若太极,貌端穆而气清和,有硕儒老臣的持重,无恃才傲物的轻佻,似乎包有万象而莫测高深,洵然可敬。因为喜用浓墨,时号为“浓墨宰相”。
吴昌硕
吴昌硕(1844~1927),初名剑虞、俊,又名俊卿,字香补,中年以后更字昌硕,以字行,亦署仓石、仓硕、苍硕,号缶庐、老缶、缶道人、老苍、苦铁、大聋、石尊者、乡阿姐、破荷亭长、五湖印匄、削庐、芜菁亭长等,浙江安吉人。晚年被推举为西泠印社第一任社长,是晚清杰出的艺术家,诗书画印皆自成家数,影响深远。著有《缶庐集》。他既是清代书法的殿军,又是近代书法的开山,他于篆、隶用功最多,尤其是《石鼓文》,终生浸淫,无一日或离,晚年变化笔墨,引入行草意趣,遂使笔情墨趣,流溢行间,篆书的复兴,至他而达到一个新高度;行书以王铎为宗,融入欧、米,又引入碑法之苍劲浑朴,老辣生奇,使行书也重放光华。治印初习浙、皖,既而出入秦汉,借鉴封泥陶甓,融入写意绘画情趣,形成了斑驳高古、沉雄壮遒的新面,即作小印,也有寻丈之势。治印还独创修整印面和边栏的法门。既雕既琢,复归于朴,古今无二。吴昌硕的成就,是清中期以来两大传统深入融会的硕果,标志着清人重理古典的工作取得了圆满的成功,为近现代书法的发展,奠定了非常坚实的基础。
林散之
林散之(1898-1989),江苏江浦乌江人,名散之,号三痴生、江上老人、左耳、半残老人等。“诗书画三绝”,尤其是草书享誉世界,被称之为“草圣”。
启功
启功(1912——2005),姓爱新觉罗,字元白,也作元伯,号苑北居士,北京市满人,清代皇族之后。[1]中国当代著名书画家、教育家、古典文献学家、鉴定家、红学家、诗人,国学大师。
赵朴初
赵朴初,1907年11月5日生于安庆,卓越的佛教领袖、杰出的书法家、著名的社会活动家与伟大的爱国主义者。
李志敏
李志敏(1925-1994),北京大学资深教授、书法家,率先倡导并实践引碑入草,其探索准确把握了当代书法发展方向及趋势,具有重要的理论意义和现实价值。

文房四宝

毛笔
毛笔的笔杆一般用竹管制,讲究些的用斑竹管制,也有用犀牛角、象牙或金银制的,那就是工艺美术品了。
 笔头所用兽毫分为柔(软)健(硬)两类,柔毫主要是山羊毛所制;健毫则用兔脊毛和黄鼠狼尾毛等制成,柔毫和健毫杂在一起称为兼毫。笔头制作是中间一簇长毫称为锋,即笔尖;四周包着稍短的毫称为副毫。好的毛笔具有尖、齐、圆、健四大优点。产毛笔的地区,唐代至宋代,以安徽宣州最出名,所产紫毫(老紫兔毫)笔,为无上佳品,其价如金。明清时期,为浙江湖州善琏镇所产的选料严格、制作精良的湖笔所取代,并且相沿至今。

墨的出现很早,《述在书法纂》上说:西周邢夷始制墨,说是煤烟所成,却是西汉以后的事。其原料不同,可分为油烟墨、漆烟墨、松烟墨,分别以桐油、生漆、松枝所烧的烟炱,加黄明胶和麝香、冰片等制成。南北朝时易州的墨和剡县的纸很有名。

纸是我国古代四大发明之一,西汉墓出土的文物中已出现了麻制的纸,但很粗糙。自汉以来,现留存于世的
砚台
砚台
书画,均以桑皮纸(又称汉皮纸)书画,东汉蔡伦采用多种原料和改进制纸方法,使纸的质量和产量都大为提高。由于纸的广泛使用,晋安帝才下令废除了自古沿用下来的竹木简,把历史推进到全面用纸的时代。唐代的造纸业非常发达,宣州出宣纸,江西临川出薄滑纸,扬州出六合笺,广州出竹笺等,都是上等品。

砚,在西汉时期即已使用,湖北荆州凤凰山西汉墓出土了砚,我国传统有四大砚,即端砚、歙砚、洮砚、澄泥砚。

English Introduction

Literally, calligraphy written testimonies. In life, the other words have the following meanings of calligraphy. First, a piece of writing works collectively on behalf of the all or written works; second, an art category, generally refers to the written Chinese characters of art. Kang Youwei in the "extended double row" said: "Tang said, song is the Tang Dynasty calligraphy charm", the pursuit of the highest and most rigorous testimonies, the peak of the Tang Dynasty calligraphy achievement is the history of calligraphy.
Calligraphy is a traditional art form unique Chinese. Chinese Chinese characters is created by the working people, began to picture notes, after several years of development, evolved into today's text, because our ancestors invented writing with a brush, produced by writing calligraphy, from ancient to modern times, are Chinese characters brush, as for other forms of writing, such as pen, books, the written rules compared with calligraphy is not totally different, but basically the same.
narrow sense
In narrow sense, calligraphy refers to the rules and methods of writing brush Chinese characters. Including the pen, pen, stippling, structure and layout (distribution line, Zhang Fa, etc.). For example, "refers to the real virtual palm, fingers together; the pen center point to shop without; painting pen with the same structure to run, steep; word shape, with echoes of proper density distribution; perplexing, false and true, filling the whole chapter, paragraph; paragraph of this ancient literacy, the word big small, rather high not low.
The connotation of calligraphy mainly includes the following contents:
1, refers to the "scholar's four jewels" calligraphy as an art tool to express their feelings. The special tool is an important aspect of the art of calligraphy. With the help of the "scholar's four jewels" tool performance fully embodies the tool, is an important part of calligraphy techniques. Leave the "scholar's four jewels", the art of calligraphy will be out of the question.
2, the art of calligraphy to Chinese characters as the carrier. Special Chinese characters is another important aspect of calligraphy. Chinese calligraphy cannot do without Chinese characters, collocation form, radical Chinese characters are written in the drawing more attention to the content. Different from other alphabetic characters, Chinese characters are the combination of form, sound and meaning.
The so-called "six", refers to the pictographs, self explanatory, Zhuanzhu, Huiyi and Xingsheng, under the guise of six ways of making words and Chinese characters, it Chinese characters form and structure analysis of great significance.
3, the art of calligraphy is the background of traditional culture Chinese. Calligraphy rooted in the soil of traditional Chinese culture, traditional culture is the survival and development of calligraphy background. We can see today since the Han Dynasty calligraphy theory, has its own system, integrity and rationality. Like other literary theories, the theory of calligraphy includes not only the techniques of calligraphy itself but also its aesthetic theory, and all these theories shine with the wisdom of ancient Chinese scholars. Such as calligraphy how "God, gas, bone, flesh and blood" and other areas of the theory about writing, lettering, composition and technique theory and creation theory, product reviews and so on, all have their own system.
4, the art of calligraphy, calligraphy lettering, including ontology construction method, Zhang Fa method, etc., the ink pen. Calligraphy is the core content of the technique. Writing is also known as "pen" refers to the use of the pen, Feng yun. The word, also known as the "character", "structure" refers to the collocation, alternation, echo, avoid the relationship between words in the drawing and so on. Art, also known as "white cloth", refers to the overall layout of a word, including word processing, the relationship between the inter relationship. Ink, ink is ink, refers to thick, pale, dry, dry and wet processing.
generalized
Broadly speaking, calligraphy refers to the symbol of the written rules of language. In other words, calligraphy is in accordance with the characteristics and meaning of the text, with its calligraphic strokes, structure and composition writing, make it become the aesthetic works of art.
With the development of cultural undertakings, calligraphy has not limited to the use of brush and writing Chinese characters, its connotation has been greatly increased. Such as the use of tools, only this one is all kinds of pen, brush, pen, computer equipment, spray gun, branded carving knife, carving machine, daily tools (mainly refers to the relatively hard texture, can be used to write the life of hardware, tools etc.). Not only is the use of black pigment ink, ink, adhesive, chemical agent, paint glaze and other variety of Nothing is too strange.; a riot of colours, be too numerous to enumerate. From the writing way, some hand some pen, a pen with his feet, with other organs by also no lack of such people and even some people, simply write without a pen, such as "refers to" squeeze leakage books "; from the written language that is not a minority Chinese characters, some words also boarded the the calligraphy art, Mongolian is an example;
Five kinds of main body China calligraphy, seal (including seal, Xiaozhuan), books (including Yan Yan line) clerical script (including the ancient scribe, this part of regular script (including), rubbings, block letters), body (including Xingkai, cursive script, cursive) (including Zhangcao, grass, grass, standard script).
origin
The Chinese calligraphy art begins in the Chinese character production stage, "the sound cannot transmit in the different place, stays in the different time, therefore the writing student. The text, so as to trace and sound." (from "" Ma Zong Shu Lin Kam algae, Huo Series) therefore, the text. The first works of calligraphy are not words, but some depict symbols - pictographs or picture writing.
Symbols of Chinese characters, first appeared on pottery. The original depiction of symbols only represents a general concept of chaos, with no definite meaning.

Eight thousand years ago, the the Yellow River basin appeared magnetic hill, Fei Li Gang culture, in the hands of ceramic Fei Li Gang unearthed, text symbols, there are many such symbols, is the combination of the ancestors of the chaotic communication function, and the function of Notepad function pattern decoration, these people can not present the identification of Chinese characters. But it is the rudiment of Chinese characters.
Then about six thousand years ago Yangshao Banpo ruins, unearthed a simple depiction of some words of similar pottery. These symbols have been distinguished from the pattern design, the development of Chinese characters and forward a step forward. This can be said to be the origin of the word China.
Then a gang of Erlitou culture and two in culture. Erlitou culture archaeological excavations have been found in characterization of mark of pottery, which mark a total of twenty-four species, some similar to the word Oracle Yinxu is a single word. Gang culture in two has been found to have text system. It has been found three words each two pieces of bones, a word, a ten words, like to practice and engraved lettering. This makes the civilization forward and a major step forward.
The origin of the original text, is a kind of imitative instinct, for the image of a specific thing. Although it is simple and chaotic, but it has a certain aesthetic taste. This simple words can thus be called prehistoric calligraphy.
Evolution history
The evolution of calligraphy generally refers to the evolution of Chinese calligraphy fonts. Generally speaking is the body of the end of the period of Wei and Jin Dynasties, is the integration period of calligraphy techniques.
Chinese calligraphy has a long history, style evolution, calligraphy art charming glory. From the Oracle, and for the evolution of bronze seal, Xiaozhuan, Lishu, to the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wei Jin cursive script, cursive, Zhucheng, calligraphy has always exudes a unique artistic charm.
From hieroglyphs to the Oracle, and the Han Dynasty and the Shang and Zhou, spring and autumn red handwriting, Tangkai testimonies, song Shang Yi, Yuan Ming Shang state, controversy and evolution of calligraphy in Qing dynasty.
Business to the end of the Qin Dynasty
Not into the order of calligraphy
From Xia Shang Zhou, after the spring and Autumn period, to the Qin and Han Dynasties, more than two thousand years of historical development also led to the development of calligraphy art. This period all sorts of calligraphy continued, with Oracle, bronze, stone, bamboo and silk manuscripts and other red paper, including setting the seal character, official script, regular script, cursive script, five fonts in screening out hundreds of miscellaneous in the art of calligraphy began orderly development.
Qin dynasty
To create calligraphy
During the spring and autumn and Warring States period, the writing of different countries is very different, which is a great obstacle to the development of economy and culture. Qin Shihuang after the reunification of the country, the Prime Minister Li Si presided over the national unified text, this is a great achievement in the history of China culture. After the Qin Dynasty unified the text called the seal of the Qin Dynasty, also called Xiaozhuan, is based on the stone inscriptions and by cutting out the superfluous and. The "Yi Shan stone", "Taishan stone", "Langya stone", "stone hueiji" is book by Li Si, past dynasties have a high rating. During the period of the Qin Dynasty is the inheritance and innovation of the change. "Shuowen Jiezi Xu" said: "Qin Shu eight, a day two, Xiaozhuan, seal, three, four, insect symbols, books, five, six, a department of the book, seven, book eight, official script." The basic outlines font face. By Li Siqin of Xiaozhuan, French is demanding, so the script writing inconvenience. "The official script, seal Jie also". Its purpose is to facilitate writing. To the Western Han Dynasty, the official script completed by the seal to the official script transformation, structure consists of longitudinal transverse lines into potential potential, zhe wave is more obvious. The official script is a great progress Chinese characters writing, is a revolution in the history of calligraphy, not only the Chinese characters tends to founder model, but in writing also broke the single brush pen, and lays the foundation for all kinds of calligraphy schools. The Qin Dynasty calligraphy masterpieces in addition to the above, there are the version, weight, tiles, currency and other text styles. In the Qin Dynasty calligraphy, China calligraphy history left a brilliant brilliant, ambitious spirit, is to create a precedent.
The Eastern Han Dynasty
For chasing Han calligraphy rhyme
The Han Dynasty calligraphy is divided into two forms, one is the mainstream of Chinese stone system; a secondary flow system and whole ink from bamboo tiles. "Since the Eastern Han Dynasty, Han Dynasty stele clouds," is the sign of maturity. In the cliff (in the words carved on the cliff) especially in the "Shimen song" is the most famous calligrapher, regarded as "shenpin". At the same time, Cai Yong's "stone" to restore Xi Ping ancient scribe, breathing great demands. The inscription is the main form of art embodies the era and rhyme, to "Longshan", "narrow West song," "," Ying Zhou hole "," B "," Zhang Shi Chen "," Cao Quan "the monument is famous to follow. It can be said that every monument is a singular, Mo has the same. North south Li book, the book reflects the ancient park, "Shi", "Shu" class of different aesthetic pursuit. As for the tile, bamboo from seal embodies the marriage of art and practicality.
The art of calligraphy is a period of prosperity, starting from the Eastern Han Dynasty. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, there appeared a special calligraphy theory, the earliest calligraphy theory was put forward by Yang Xiong. The first part is the theory of calligraphy works in the Eastern Han Dynasty cursive Cui yuan's "potential".
The Han Dynasty calligrapher can be divided into two categories: one is the Han Dynasty calligrapher, Cai Yong represented by. One is the cursive, Du, Cui Yuan, with Zhang Zhi as the representative.
The most representative of the Han Dynasty calligraphy characteristics, than inscriptions and calligraphy on the bamboo slips. The Eastern Han Dynasty inscriptions everywhere, this period of the inscriptions, carved in Han Dynasty, font founder, in his works, zhe wave clear. This script has reach the peak of perfection.

Han Chong Hing cursive, cursive was born, is of great significance in the history of the development of the art of calligraphy. It marks the beginning of calligraphy can become a highly free expression of emotion, the performance of Calligrapher's personality art. The first stage is the cursive grass scribe, to the Eastern Han Dynasty, the further development of grass scribe, formed by Zhangcao, Zhang Zhi created this grass, namely cursive.
Three Kingdoms period
The Three Kingdoms period, starting from the Han Dynasty official script peak position landing evolution has become a regular script, regular script calligraphy art main body. The script is also known as the real character, created by Zhong you. It is in the period of the Three Kingdoms, the script into the history of stone. The Three Kingdoms period (Wei) "form", "straight season recommended that form" into the male as EMI treasures.
In the Jin Dynasty
Jin, in the position on the advocacy of "generous" items on the pursuit of art and beauty of calligraphy in the light, as two men, bamboo King (Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi) on the artistic taste of Miao Yan Shu literati to cater to the requirements of heightened awareness, writing, and a kind of aesthetic value. Best representative
The spirit in the history of calligraphy, the most influential artist is Wang Xizhi, known as "st.". Wang Xizhi's script "preface" Lanting Pavilion is known as "the best in all the land of the script called gesture thought if the clouds floating, straightening if scared dragon, his son Wang Xianzhi's" goddess "is a strong word," break "and" a book "is a great contribution to the history of calligraphy. To Lu, Wei Guan, Wang Dao, Xie An, Suo Jing, Kam, foil calligraphy family, southern calligraphy is flourishing. In Southern Song Dynasty, Zhiyang Yan, Wang Sengqian, Qi Xiao Ziyun, Chen Zhizhi Yong all beams follow.
The Jin Dynasty calligraphy was most abundant, mainly in the script, script is a font between regular script and cursive script. The representative of the "three", namely "Bo Yuan tie" "fine" "mid autumn festival for fast when the snow".
The northern and Southern Dynasties
During the period of the northern and Southern Dynasties calligraphy into Tangbei era South post. At this time the most wins in the style of calligraphy. Weibei, is the Northern Wei Dynasty stone carving calligraphy inscription and any similar thecalligraphy style of the northern and Southern Dynasties, calligraphy is the transition period of the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty regular script. Shanxi to eight chaos, Royal infighting, forces gradually decline. In the north, with the destruction of the Western Jin dynasty. The formation of the "Sixteen Kingdoms" period of chaos. After the end of the sixteen country Tuoba, established the Northern Wei Dynasty, contributed to the relatively uniform for one hundred and forty-nine years, this is the.
The calligraphy in stone, especially in the Eastern Wei Wei, the most refined, style is also colourful. The representative of "Zheng Wengong monument" "" "stele of Zhang Jing Jun monument". This calligraphy is the transition period of the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty regular script. Kang Youwei said: "all with a style all adult. As with all, is beautiful". Zhong Zhishuai "Snow" shuppim Xuan said: "last glimpse of Weibei calligraphy, Han Qin old fan, can observe the Sui and Tang Xi feng." The several script everyone like Ouyang Xun, Yu, Zhu Suiliang, are from weibei.
Jin Dongqian perish from 317 BC to 420 years, is the. The Eastern Jin Dynasty calligraphy, also inherited the atmosphere, from the king to Shishu are very fond of. The northern and Southern Dynasties calligraphers Canruo stars, nameless calligrapher is the main. They inherited the tradition of calligraphy, outstanding works to create a worthy of their predecessors, but also for the formation of the Tang Dynasty calligraphy competing flowers Yan outshine the stars prosperous situation to create the necessary conditions.
Sui and Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties
For Noritaka method Sui Dynasty calligraphy
The end of the Sui Dynasty and the northern and Southern Dynasties chaos, unified China, and after the Tang is more stable in the development period, South to the Sui and Esther Tangbei mixed with the flow, formally completed script form, from the position of history. Sui Kai on the evolution of the northern and southern dynasties. The new Bureau under the Tang Dynasty standard, Sui has thus left the world, for the real book, four kinds of style:
1, Ping Chun and Ding Daohu "legal Temple stele" etc.
2, Yan Fang Jun to such as "Dong beauty epitaph" 3, "such as deep round letter Jackson" epitaph etc.
4, show such as "very fine Lang longzang Temple Monument" etc..
The heyday of the Tang Dynasty calligraphy
The Tang Dynasty culture broad and profound, brilliant, reached a peak of China of feudal culture, can be described as "book to Tang Dynasty and prospered". The ink also has spread more than the previous generation, a large number of valuable works of calligraphy tablet. The calligraphy of the Tang Dynasty, before the generation of both inheritance and innovation. Regular script, running script, cursive script in Tang Dynasty has entered a new situation, characteristics of the times is very prominent, the impact on future generations is far more than any time before.
In the early Tang Dynasty, national prosperity, calligraphy from the Six Dynasties left in cicada out off everyone in Ouyang Xun script. Yu Shinan, Zhu Suiliang, Xue Ji, Ouyang on the four for the mainstream of calligraphy. The general characteristics of compact structure and so on are descendants of "Tang 'heavy book", a title of "calligraphy crown" until the peacefulness, the combination of Confucianism and Taoism, Li Yong changed Youjun method, Zhang Xu, Huai Su to become an independent school, cursive forms will be drunken mania to the extreme, Zhang Xu known as the "sage of calligraphy". Sunguoting cursive is refined and more than if he Zhizhang, Li Longji also a sincere Yikuang, a new realm of character Feng li. Yan Zhenqing teller ancient to new ideas, new students from outside the town. Dong Qichang said in the book, Mr. Lu was. To the late Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, the Zhuanshuai, Shen Chuan shi. How to change the model method. To lean undisguised pride. To further enrich the Tang Kaizhi method, to the five generation, yangningshi and Liuzhi Yan long.

The highest institution of the Tang Dynasty has six kinds, namely the Imperial College, the Imperial College, four science, science, mathematics, law books. The book, a special language calligraphers and calligraphy theorist, is the creation of Tang dynasty. In the famous men, with a myriad talents. In the early Tang Dynasty, such as Ouyang Xun Yu Shinan and Zhu Suiliang Yan Zhenqing; Tang and Liu Gongquan, are calligraphy. The King Wen Bing seal, Li E's script and yangningshi's "Erwang Yan Liu" finish.
Sui and Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties calligraphy can be divided into three stages
(1) the Sui Dynasty to early Tang Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty unified China, the northern and Southern Dynasties culture and art package compatible to the early Tang Dynasty, storage, political prosperity, the art of calligraphy from the Six Dynasties gradually left out chantui method, emerged with a new attitude. In early Tang Dynasty script for the mainstream, the total is in strict structure.
(2) the Tang Dynasty, Tang period
The Tang Dynasty calligraphy, such as the social form of the pursuit of a romantic and unconventional way. Such as "Zhang Zuisu." (Zhang Xu, Huai Su) the script of Kuangcao, Li yong. In the Mid Tang Dynasty, the script again have a new breakthrough. Represented by Yan Zhenqing laid a standard for the script, set a model for the formation of orthodoxy. This China calligraphy style have been determined.
(3) the late Tang and Five Dynasties Tang legacy storage stage
In 907 ad, Zhu Quanzhong and Tang regime, the establishment of the Later Liang, later Tang, Jin Dynasty, the history of Han and Zhou, said the five generation. Because of Chinese weakness and confusion, culture and art was also down trend. The art of calligraphy is bearing the late Tang Yu continued, but due to the impact of Binghuo war, formed a general trend of litter decay. The five generation of the occasion, commendable in calligraphy, when push yangningshi. His calligraphy calligraphy declined in the five generation, is the mainstay. In addition to Li Yu, Yan repair accomplished calligraphers. So far, the Tang Dynasty Pingzheng rigorous book wind has come to fade after the Northern Song Dynasty, "four" which followed, but also set off a new era of waves.
In the Song Dynasty to
It is Yixuan.
The calligraphy of the Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty calligraphy, this is science caused by Zhu and meaning of connotation, contains four points: a philosophical, double bookish, three style, four artistic expression, while advocating personalized calligraphy creation and originality. These are reflected in the calligraphy, if the law of Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, is the embodiment of "seeking work", then to the Song Dynasty, calligraphy began to face a new Shangyi Lyric appeared in front of the world. This is in addition to a "natural Chi calligrapher", "time" two levels, also should have "knowledge" or "bookish", the four changed Tangkai look directly Jin post script legacy.
Whether it is high and it was the new Su Dongpo, or high ancient Huang Tingjian and Xiao Sanqi risk of Mi Fu, are trying in the performance of his calligraphy style at the same time, highlights a new in order to be different attitude, knowledge of the gas in the luxuriantly green pen and ink, and gives a new aesthetic conception this, in the Southern Song Dynasty Wu Yue, Lu You, Fan Chengda, Zhu Xi, Wen Tianxiang and other calligraphers have been further extended, but the book knowledge and ink skills cannot be compared to four and the Northern Song dynasty. The Song Dynasty calligrapher representative is Su, Huang, m, cai.
Calligraphy art in the Yuan Dynasty
At the beginning of the yuan economic and cultural development, the overall situation is the vintage of calligraphy, patriarchal Jin and Tang Dynasty and less innovation. Although politically alien rule in Yuan Dynasty, culture is assimilated into the Chinese culture, different song and informal often method artistic conception, the meaning is pursued open pursuit of beauty, so Su Shi that is "I made this book means not" advocated by Zhao Mengtiao is "eternal not" the former pursue willing, the latter emphasizes the intended meaning. The core character of calligraphy is Zhao Mengtiao, he founded the script "Zhao" and Tang Kaizhi, Yan, Liu said the four, as the main body. The offspring gauge. Also there are renowned xianyushu, Deng Wenyuan in the Yuan Dynasty calligraphy, although the achievement of less than Zhao Mengtiao, but also has its own originality in the style of calligraphy. They advocate the same painting method, pay attention to the word node body.
The calligraphy art of the Ming Dynasty
The development of Ming Dynasty calligraphy into three stages:
The first stage: at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty
In the early Ming Dynasty calligraphy "million word with", "Taiwan Pavilion" prevailed. Shen and degrees of the brothers will charm to the extreme small balanced fuel. "About the imperial jade books edition, MiFu, Tibet, the book of life will be awarded a" two, Shen calligraphy pushed for the great imperial examination. In the early Ming Dynasty calligrapher Liu Ji has good cursive, small Song Liao, fine zhuanli song and was renowned the world famous Zuker zhangcao. And Zhu Yunming, the Huiming, Wang Chong "three".
The second stage -- Ming Zhong
The mid Ming Dynasty Wuzhong four rise, began to move toward the direction of the development of calligraphy is normal. Zhu Yunming, Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin, Wang Chong four according to Zhao Mengtiao and Tong Jin and Tang Dynasty, the style is higher; also Marie, which at that time and the ideas of the pioneering liberation, calligraphy began to enter the new realm of advocating personalized.
The third stage: at the end of the Ming Dynasty
The late Ming Dynasty calligraphy emerged in critical thought, calligraphy on the pursuit of large size, concussion visual effect, the front side to take the potential, cross painted vertical wipe paper, full of smoke, so that the original order of calligraphy began to collapse; the representative calligraphers include Zhang Ruitu, Wang Duo, Huang, Ni Yuanrui etc.. But Dong Qichang still adhere to the traditional calligraphy runner up position.
clear
Lyric Yang

China calligraphy of Qing Dynasty in nearly 300 years of development history, has experienced a difficult transformation, it breaks the confinement of calligraphy since the song, yuan, Ming, a monument, especially in the seal script, official script and the tablet calligraphy achievements, and the Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty regular script, running script, cursive in Ming Dynasty comparable, to form a powerful Yuan Yi book wind. Especially the calligraphy calligraphy calligrapher study ancient spirit and individuality, the calligraphy is very active, schools, a prosperous situation.
At the end of the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, the main aesthetic trend by the lyric Yang for banner, the pursuit of individuality and promote rational combination of new aesthetics of classical aesthetics and the different orthodox and the sheng. The general tendency of calligraphy in Qing Dynasty was quality, and it was divided into two periods: post study and Stele Study.
At the end of the Ming Dynasty calligraphy fanglang ink, uninhibited. The atmosphere of cynicism extends further in the early Qing Dynasty, such as the works of Zhu Fushan and others, which show the inner life and an unexpected emotional expression. This point in the middle of the "Eight Wonders of Yangzhou" was another repetition. At the same time, the tradition of late Ming Dynasty also posts and further promote the China Everbright, Jiang Ying, Zhang Zhao, Liu Yong, Wang Wenzhi, Weng Fanggang, et al. In beam Tongshu deliberately respect for tradition when it tries to show a new look, which makes Tiexue decline inevitably.
At this time, stone unearthed more literati from the enthusiastic letters turned to stone textual research, a study around the country, the monument was in droves, finally becoming the Qing Dynasty calligraphy development mainstream, coupled with ruanyuan, bao. Kang Youwei makes great efforts to publicize, as a kind of book learning system that matches with the study of literature. When the famous calligraphers such as Jin Nong, Zhang Chuanshan, Deng Shiru, He Shaoji, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Zhang Yuzhao and Kang Youwei have used a tablet style in painting and writing, to try to do. Dazzling. It is a landscape in China calligraphy culture. If, say, those who seek to find the quality of the desire is not achieved, then this desire to achieve in the monument there.
Near modern
In calligraphy diversified today, calligraphy art sublimation to a higher level of ideas, this is undoubtedly a big step. Modern calligraphy is not simply depends on the art of calligraphy in the form, structure, line external appearance, but depends on the internal spirit of modernization. The spirit of calligraphy modernity refers to the value trend of modern society embodied and transmitted by contemporary calligraphy art.
Modern calligraphy, is still the dominant beipai. But different from reaching beipai, Hanbei and ancient seal calligraphers during this period more.
A lot of calligraphy masters such as Lin Sanzhi, Sha Menghai, Lu Weizhao and so on before 1949 has been engaged in calligraphy creation, but until the cultural revolution, they have nearly 80 years with famous calligraphy. After 1949 to the death of Mao Zedong nearly thirty years, calligraphy basically ignored. When people are with great enthusiasm for the construction of a new China. Calligraphy is considered to be representative of the old tradition.
The colorful modern art of calligraphy, calligraphers and team unprecedented complex has a direct relationship. Perhaps because the distance is too close, this scenery than any previous period are clearly clear.

Seal
The seal is referred to as the seal, the seal. Oracle, dating back more than three thousand years of history, is the earliest identifiable text handed down, mainly used for divination. Brush lean tall and straight, straight line more. Well, the pen pen has round pen, stylus, "hanging needle" more generous. Seal means, bronze, characters, the text of the six countries, they preserve the obvious characteristics of ancient hieroglyphs. Xiaozhuan also known as the "seal of the Qin Dynasty", is the common language of Qin, simplified characters of the seal, which is characterized by a form of uniform font to write characters.
Official script
The official script, also known as Li [1], is a kind of common decency Chinese characters font writing effect slightly flat, long and short dashes straight draw, was a rectangular shape, exquisite "silkworm head tail", "striking one snag after another". The official script originated in the Qin Dynasty, compiled by Cheng Miao, reached its peak in the Eastern Han Dynasty, has great influence on calligraphy, calligraphy "Han Li Tang Kai". Such as "why is South Korea Chizao Confucian Temple, also known as" ritual monument "Han Ming Palace Confucius Temple Monument" Yan Zhou Lu into the Han Chifu monument "," Han hair Chi monument "etc.. Han Yongshou two years (156 years), the official script. 227.2 cm vertical, horizontal 102.4 cm. Shandong Confucian Temple in Qufu reservoir. No amount. Four moment, are the official script. Yang Bei sixteen lines, thirty-six characters, the Korean Chi nine people. The title and the two sides are.
Regular script
The script is also called the book, the book block. From the founding of the Cheng Miao script evolved, more simple, horizontal and vertical. A model of the meaning of the script, "Zhang Huaiguan" has broken first talked about. The people still have the habit of using it, such as sheep Hin "gather" the Wang Sengqian "on the book, Wei Dan biography" cloud: "Dan Zi Zhong, Jing Zhao, good script." That is the "eight Kai law" referred to. Only to the Northern Song Dynasty to replace the name of the book, its content obviously and ancient name is not the same, different names for the same and from that of cases about these.
Running script
The running script is based on the development of the origin of the script, a font between the regular script, cursive, is produced in order to make up for the regular script writing speed is too slow and difficult to identify the cursive. The "line" is the "walking" meaning, so it is not unlike cursive so badly, so regular script. In essence it is the grass script or cursive kai. Kai law called "more than grass, grass more than Xingkai" was called "cursive script".
Cursive
Is a cursive font Chinese characters, the characteristic is the structure, simplify the continuous strokes. Formed in the Han Dynasty, in order to write simple evolution in the script on the basis of. There are, of Zhangcao, Jincao Kuangcao, in a frenzy to feel beautiful. "Shuowen Jiezi", said: "a cursive hannchen". In the early Han Dynasty cursive, its characteristics are: outline of deposit word, which rules loss, longitudinal Ren Ben Yi, go fast, because of its meaning, called cursive.

Inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells of the Shang Dynasty
The name of the ancient Chinese characters of a kind of chirography, is also the most ancient text of existing China. Carved on bones, inscriptions for the first (Yindai people use tortoise shells, animal bones.
After the period, divination divination diviner name, by telling the matter with a knife in the next Bo Zhao, and some also have a number of days after the Jixiong fulfilled also engraved. The), the next thing is the results of divination in the Shang sheng. Oracle found in 1889, is the late Shang Dynasty Royal family fortune at the record, found in Henan Province, Anyang Xiaotun village, has been more than 3000 years ago. Oracle is the first piece of treasure Chinese calligraphy history, change the technique has its size, weight, Jixu, light pen and pen. The pen thick and heavy, fast and agile, has a certain sense of rhythm. The stroke turning radius of both parties, are moving to Qiao, round smooth. The lines are more harmonious than the smooth pottery, as Chinese unique lines of calligraphy art for the tone and rhythm. Oracle node rectangle, which Chinese characters font. Structure with special-shaped Oracle, renjiziran. The art of different sizes, different radius, with long flat shape, Cuola scene and harmonious unity. Later, with the so-called avoidance, toward being confused with errors and omission, etc. Chinese characters writing principle echoes all under heaven and upon earth, Oracle has been generally have.
Inscriptions on bronze
The ancient style of Chinese characters. Bronzes of Shang and Western Zhou Dynasty, spring and autumn and Warring States period. The inscription on the font. Thrive in Zhou Dai. As a monument of Chinese inscriptions calligraphy history. Attached to the bronze tripod, intended to make people know that God is evil "is a religious ritual. Jin also known as zhoungdingwen, is the ancient inscriptions. The bronze inscriptions and cast together more strong lines than Oracle, pictographic meaning is more dense, the earliest bronze inscriptions in Shang Dynasty unearthed bronze, data is not much, than Oracle in early age. Zhou Dai is on the golden age of inscriptions unearthed at most.
Shikewen
A stone inscriptions, characters or patterns. The earliest inscriptions of the Qin Dynasty, the first stone "".
The stone was born Zhou Dai, flourished in the Qin dynasty. Qin stele text. The drum shaped stone 10 pieces of granite on the first four moment,
The contents of the singing Qin Guojun hunt, so called hunting gar. Xia Dynasty has a "monument" in the legend of the earliest stone carvings, carved poetry style and "Book of Songs" big Xiaoya similar. To set the font characters, "Shuowen Jiezi", has the very high appraisal of calligraphy. The main works include: "the stone", "stone", "Taishan Yishan stone", "Langya stone", "stone hueiji" etc..
Has a very significant impact on the later stone calligraphy and painting art, many outstanding artists such as Yang Yisun, Wu Dacheng, Wu Changshuo, Zhu Xuanxian and Wang Fuan are a long-term study of stone art, and as an important nutrient his calligraphy, also into his art.
Epitaph epitaph is deposited in the tomb contains biographical stone dead. It is the dead alive, whether it is housekeeping, virtue, learn from, skills, performance, achievements etc. the size of concentrate for a personal history file, to supplement the family history, local history and national history. Confirmation is the epitaph of dating. The epitaph includes two parts of ming.
Rubbings, Esther
[Beituo] this is the largest number of rubbings, relates to the ancient name of the monument, is now the main reference of calligraphy. For learning calligraphy copybook is one copy of the template, many famous ink stone rubbings, woodcut print or photocopy. According to whether the original copybook division, can be divided into Beitie and ink. According to the inscription engraved on the monument is the writing on the copybook extension collapse down. The ink is written directly written on the paper, silk and other media on the ink marks. As the post, Chunhua Ge tie, sanxitang.
bamboosilk
The art of calligraphy the most authentic, but before the Qin Dynasty in calligraphy artworks, generally only in the bamboo can be seen. In ancient books, with bamboo, for Jane's tendon, silk, hemp rope. Archaeological discoveries earlier and ink, are: Hubei Yunmeng Shanxi Houma bamboo slips unearthed, unearthed from the Warring States period (from which written in stone or jade text on the policy policy), Changsha Mawangdui unearthed the Warring States silk. China calligraphy by Oracle, bronze, to the spring and Autumn period, the feudal rule, so the text in the Shang Dynasty, princes differentiate into different development path, in this period, the calligraphy form and skills also presents a situation of contention of a hundred schools of thought. Such as the northern Jin "tadpole text", Wu, Yue and Chu, Cai's "bird book, strokes more twists and dragged long tail. The spring and Autumn period is not like the Western Zhou bronze inscriptions on the strong form, for the slender body, showing a rich and beautiful, such as "attack King Wu Jian". A lot of ink in this period is retained, Jane, silk, etc..

The overall shape of the United States
The basic form of China word is a square, but by twisting the stipple flex, axis, also can form various different moving patterns, which are combined into beautiful calligraphy works. The structure form is mainly affected by two factors, one is the charm of calligraphy performance; two is in the form of calligraphy performance factors. On the latter, mainly reflected in three aspects: one is the body of the impact, such as the influence of the vertical rectangle Zhuanti; font, some characters are flat square, and some words are rectangular; three composition effect. Therefore, only under the domination of the above two factors, the positive form creation can create the beautiful knot form.
Stipple structure beauty
There are two main ways to construct a stipple structure of beauty, refers to various stippling in certain combination mode, directly into single characters and radicals of various beauty. The two refers to the radical, and then in a certain way into various characters. Radical combination Chinese word is nothing more than around, left and right, upper and lower, lower, enclosed and semi enclosed etc.. These principles are proportional principle, balance principle, rhythm principle, rhythm principle, concise principle, etc.. Here special mention is the principle of proportionality, the golden ratio is a very important proportion, is very important for drawing the structure of the United states.
The ink combination of beauty
The art of Jieti ink combination, mainly refers to the combination of the order. As the art of calligraphy, its various colors can no longer be chaotic, but should be very orderly. Here are some common aesthetic principles, requiring the book to comply. As the key principle, gradual principle, balance principle, etc.. The structure of calligraphy ink combination, mainly involves two aspects: one is the background segmentation. People often say "black white when", is this content. The two is the combination of ink stipple structure. From the overall effect of works, not only to pay attention to the plane structure but also pay attention to the ink stipple, layered effect so as to enhance the performance of ink stipple, depth of calligraphy.

Reese
Famous calligrapher Li Si presided over a xiaozhuan. "Yi Shan stone", "Taishan stone", "Langya stone", "stone hueiji" is book by Li Si, have a high evaluation of past dynasties.
Zhong You
Zhong Yao (Yao) (151 - 230), often character. Long serving Agency (now Henan Xuchang long Ge Dong) people. Cao Wei, a famous calligrapher statesman during the Three Kingdoms period. Zhong you accomplished in calligraphy, calligraphy (small) is the founder, was later known as "the originator of the script". Zhongyou calligraphy has a profound influence on later generations, Wang Xizhi later had involved learning calligrapher Zhongyou calligraphy. And the Eastern Jin Dynasty calligrapher Wang Xizhi known as the "king of the clock". The yujianwu Zhongyou calligraphy will be listed as "top grade", "broken" in Tang Zhang Huaiguan in the assessment of their calligraphy as "shenpin".
Zhang
Zhang Zhi (AD? 192) Zi Boying, the Eastern Han Dynasty calligrapher, known as the "sage of calligraphy". Dunhuang County Yuan Quan county (now Gansu Anxi County East) people. Zhang Zhi cursive from Du, Cui yuan, and live on their own. Yujianwu was named "Kung Fu" calligraphy "first, natural". With the clock Zhou, Wang Xizhi tied for the "top" products.
Mrs.
Wei Shuo, "Mrs. Dalloway, a word Mao Yi Shuo, (A.D. 272-349), Dong EUP (now hill Xixia County North), is a famous calligrapher the Jin dynasty. Wei Shuo Ru Yin Li Juzhi prefect wife, known as mrs.. Wei's family book, Wei Shuo Fu Li Juyi good script. Only from Zhong you, pass the law. Wang Xizhi was learning from the book, the novel is "the saint" teacher.
most famous early calligrapher
Wang Xizhi (303 - 361 years the Eastern Jin Dynasty) known as "st.". The Eastern Jin Dynasty calligrapher, word Yi, Dan, Zhai, the origin of Langya Linyi (now in Shandong), later moved to Shanyin (now Zhejiang Shaoxing), the famous calligraphy works include "the Lanting Pavilion sequence" etc.. His seclusion Jin Ting Shan county, former secretary general, Ningyuan, Jiangzhou Cishi. After the hueiji within the right collar general, called "Wang Youjun", "Wang ji". The calligraphy of Wang Xianzhi is also good, people are called "kings" [1]. Therefore, "book" almost total: "Han Zhong, Zhang has never end, Jin Miao wang". The four is called "four ancient calligraphers".
Wang Xianzhi
Wang Xianzhi, Zi Jing, the Langya Linyi people, calligrapher and poet, in cursive and cursive script known to posterity. Wang Xianzhi young father Xi calligraphy, and Zhang Zhi. The body of calligraphy are fine, especially in cursive famous, dare to innovate, not for his father together, made an outstanding contribution to the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Jin Kai, in the history of calligraphy is known as "little emperor", with his father Wang Xizhi and known as the "kings".
Xun
Ouyang Xun (557 for a period of 641 years), word letter, Tan Linxiang (now Hunan, Changsha). Ouyang Xun script testimonies of the rigorous, called the steep world without horses, known as the first Chinese regular script.
They
Yu Shinan, the word Bo Shi, Yuyao. The politician, calligrapher, writer. Suiti's living Toneri Tang served as secretary of the prison, Hong Wen b.. Tang Taizong said he is honest, virtue, erudite, words, letters to the South ("world one, there was only, and then five. A Yue Dang Chung, two, United, three, four, five words, Bowen said to you. ").
Chu Suiliang
Zhu Suiliang (596 - 658), the word board is good, the Tang Dynasty statesman, calligrapher, Han, Qian Tang (now Zhejiang Hangzhou), said Yang Zhai (now Henan Yuzhou); proficient in literature and history, Zhu Suiliang be a brilliant man of wide learning at the end of the Sui Dynasty, following Xue Ju for interpreter Scheeren, after the Tang Dynasty Ren Jian Yi doctor, zhongshuling and other staff, Zhenguan twenty-three years (649 years) and by the same emperor Yizhao Zhangsun Wuji opposed to Wu Zetian as assistant; after being banished, Tanzhou (Changsha) governor, Wu ascended the throne after turn Guizhou (Guilin) governor, and then down Iowa (now Vietnam north Qinghua) provincial governor, was celebrating three years (658 years) and Chu Liang died; calligraphy beginner Yu Shinan, after Wang Xizhi, Yu Shinan, Xue Ji and Ouyang Xun, and said "the four people"; "master Meng has handed down the ink", "wild Goose Pagoda monument sacred order" etc..
Xueji
Xue Ji (649 ~ 713) word heir, Chinese Tang Dynasty painter, calligrapher. The history of the Tang Dynasty Xue Daoheng Lang Son, zhongshuling from Xue Yuanchao. Han, Zhou Fen Yin (now Shanxi Wanrong) people. Former Huangmen Lang, assistant administrator maintenance, taizaishaobao, libushangshu, after being executed in prison. Calligraphy, learned from Zhu Suiliang, and Yu Shinan, Ouyang Xun and Zhu Suiliang tied for four in early Tang Dynasty calligrapher.
learned scholar
Yan Zhenqing (709-784, said 709-785), word Qing minister, the Tang Dynasty outstanding calligrapher. Born in Beijing trillion million years (now Shaanxi Xi'an), a native of Langya in Linyi (now Shandong Linyi Feixian County). He founded the "Yan" regular script, with Zhao Mengtiao, Liu Gongquan, Ouyang Xun was called "the four great regular script".
Liu
Liu Gongquan (778 -865), the word Cheng hung, Jingzhao Huayuan (Shaanxi Yaoxian today), the official Prince Taishi, known as the "Liu Shaoshi", a famous calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty is the last. Good at regular script, the representative of "God in the" mysterious monument monument "," etc..
Zhang Xu

Zhang Xu (675-750?), the word burgaw, word Ji Ming, Han, Tang Zhaowu (now Jiangsu Suzhou) people. Was the official Changshu County, the history of gold Wuchang. Good cursive, of wine, known as a "group of Britain, is one of the immortals". It was with cursive Li Bai poetry, Pei min sword dance and said "Sanjue", poems also have a unique style, known to seven. With Li Bai, he Zhizhang and others were out drinking one of the eight immortals. Tang Wenzong had issued an edict, in Li Bai's poetry, Pei min sword dance, Zhang Xu cursive as "sanjue". And the poetry, and Aichi Aki, Zhang Ruoxu, known as the "four + Wuzhong financial package".
Huai Su
Huai Su Tang (725-785), the word Zhenlou, monk Huai Su, Su Xing Han, Yongzhou money, Lingling (Hunan Lingling people). Good young Buddhist monk. He is the history of calligraphy collar generation coquettish cursive, his cursive script called "cursive", a powerful turn round, such as ring, bold and smooth, coherent, and other famous Tang Dynasty calligrapher Zhang Xu grass, called "Zhang Diansu mad" or "Zhang Zuisu".
poet
Su Shi (January 8, 1037 August 24th 1101), Meizhou (now Sichuan Meishan city of Meishan, in the Northern Song Dynasty), the word and the word Zizhan, and secondary, "Dongpo Buddhist", the people of the world as "Su Dongpo". Native of Luancheng. The Northern Song Dynasty famous writer, poet, painter, poet, gourmet, one of the eight Tang and Song Ci, haofangpa representative. The poem, CI, Fu, prose, have high achievement, and good calligraphy and painting, is a rare art history China literature all rounder, also Chinese thousands of years of history is recognized as the most outstanding literary and artistic attainments of everyone. Ou Yangxiu and Osu said in his prose and poetry; and Huang Tingjian was called "Su Huang; words with Xin Qiji and susin; among the four Northern Song Dynasty calligraphy calligrapher Su, Huang m, Cai," one; the painting is to create a "School of Huzhou".
Huang Tingjian
Huang Tingjian (1045 - 1105), the word he, No. No. FUWENG Valley Road, later, Ning Hongzhou (now Jiangxi county) people. The Northern Song Dynasty famous poet, is the founder of the Jiangxi poetry school. Calligraphy can also includes tree lattice, as one of the. Hidemune Zhiping four years (1067) jinshi. Li Ye Xianyu official, professor at Imperial College in Beijing, the collator, zhuzuozuolang, Secretary Cheng, Fuzhou don't drive, Guizhou state placement. Tingjian believe in Buddhism, also Mu Daojiao, a pro filial piety, although anchoret, but since Pro washing toilet, is also one of the filial piety, Huang Tingjian is one of the four scholars's, is Jiangxi school kaishanzushi, was on par with Su Shi. Su huang. The author of "Valley CI".
mi fu
Mi Fu (1051-1107)] [f case, autograph name meters or as small as Qian, or embroidery [f case. The Northern Song Dynasty calligrapher and painter. Anhui Province Wuwei, Xiangyang moved to Hubei, had settled Runzhou (now Jiangsu Zhenjiang). Good talent characters, Xiao San, a good clean. Tang clothing effect, storing more stones. Painting style. Can draw bamboo wood, when new, and the landscape painting and ink Yunshan ink play, smoke shade, flat and innocent. Good poetry, calligraphy, fine identification. Good seal, Li, Kai, lines, grass style, longer than copying the ancient calligraphy, to the extent spurious. One of the four song.
Cai Xiang
Cai Xiang (1012 - 1067), the word Junmo, Han Dynasty, a famous calligrapher, politicians, tea experts, crafty Cai Jing from brother. The origin of Xianyou Feng Ting Xiang Dong Cha Cun Fujian, later moved to Putian Cai Chacun, 1030 (day eight) Jinshi, has served as the Guange collation, Jian Institute, straight, straight lontuge historica patent, bachelor, bachelor, the Privy Council direct the Imperial Academy, three division, the Ming Temple in the song Dynasty Post B. the central government, as Fujian road transport, Quanzhou Fuzhou kaifengand Hangzhou Prefecture. Death gift assistant minister, Shi zhong. Presided over the construction of China existing in sea crossing beam the earliest Dashiqiao Quanzhou Luoyang bridge, Cai Xiang is honest, honest, pay attention to faith, and knowledgeable, profound history of calligraphy and calligraphy, calligraphy in the Song Dynasty, known as "Su, Huang, m, Cai four calligraphers calligraphy of Cai Xiang saying, with its deep and dignified. Chun wan light beauty, self-contained.
Zhao
Song Huizong Zhao Ji (May 1082 A.D. 5 to June 5, 1135), was the eleventh son of Song Shenzong, the younger brother of song, Song Dynasty eighth emperors. Has been called the king of Suining, king of the end. Zhezong in the first month of the year in 1100 when no child died in the same month, to the queen made him emperor. Second years nianhao "built in the". In the 26 year (February 23, 1100 - January 18, 1126), China captured and tortured to death, at the age of 54, was buried in the city of Shaoxing (now Zhejiang Keqiao eisuke Ling District, 35 miles southeast of Shaoxing city). He created a calligraphy font later called "thin gold body". Is the ancient rare artistic talent and all rounder. Song Huizong was later named "everything can not only for you ear! Write "history of the Song Dynasty" the historian, also said if chapter Linton opinion was adopted, the Northern Song Dynasty may be another ending. And also said that such as "Buli song Huizong, gold is strong, what have to Zai of song".
Zhao Mengfu

Zhao Mengtiao (1254 - 1322), the word son, No. loose snow, snow and water, Taoist, fine palace, Taoist gull wave, middle-aged was Meng Fu, Han, Wuxing (now Zhejiang Huzhou) people. The famous painter, script (Ouyang Xun, Yan Zhenqing, four people, one of Liu Gongquan Zhao Mengtiao). Zhao Mengtiao is good at poetry and writing, be a brilliant man of wide learning, to understand the economy, calligraphy, fine art, good stone, through Lulu, solution of appreciation. Especially the highest achievements in calligraphy and painting, create a new painting style of the Yuan Dynasty, known as the "crown of the yuan". He is also good, fragrance, really, especially in the regular script, cursive, script is famous in the world.
Xianyushu
Xianyushu (1257 - 1302) Zibo, Hebei Yuyang, living in Hangzhou. "Nan Zhao Beixian" said Zhao Mengtiao. His calligraphy achievement mainly lies in cursive. The new school and Huai Su cursive. His method of writing is very characteristic, using a unique method to the wrist; love with brush, emphasize the strength of writing. His representative works include "Shi poem volume", "learning volume" "Su Shi" Begonia poetry volume etc.. And Zhao Mengtiao, Deng Wenyuan and known as the yuan three people.
Dong
Dong Qichang (1555 - 1636), [1] Hyun Jae, Scarlett, white, fragrant light lay. The Han nationality, Songjiang Huating (now Shanghai Minhang District MA), the Ming Dynasty painter. Once lived in Songjiang. Wanli seventeen years Jinshi, granted Imperial Academy editing, Nanjing official libushangshu, died after Shi Wen min. Good at painting landscapes, from Dong Yuan and Ju ran, Huang Gongwang and Nizan, elegant and delicate and quiet, sparsely open; Mo Mingjie Jun Lang, Welton pale green colors and elegant swing. In Zen Buddhism and figurative painting, "north and South" theory, as the outstanding representative of "Huating school". What influence the painting and painting of Ming and Qing Dynasty painting. The calligraphy and the Jin and Tang Dynasty, sui generis, and poems. His works have "rock" map "fall" figure eight "Zhoujintang map" etc.. The author of "painting from" essay "Taiwan volume anthology", "play with Hong Tang tie". His calligraphy has "Yan Zhao bone posture beauty.
Liu
Liu Yong (1719 ~ 1804), the word worship such as stone, stone, stone temple, temple, temple, Qingyuan, wood cover of vessel for food, vegetarian, Xiangyan Dong Wu period, Ming Hua, riguan Peak Road, Shandong Zhucheng. He is the Qianlong period of Sydney, he academy editing, Jiangsu political science, cabinet bachelor, governor of Hunan, left Yushi, the master, the emperor, libushangshu, grand Secretary of the post, first officer to Ren Jiaqing court scholar, plus taizaishaobao, death posthumous Wen Qing. The author of "Shi an anthology". His calligraphy by Dong and Zhao to start, then all times Lin Jin Tang and Song Dynasties, especially effective in Su Dongpo, Yan Zhenqing and Jin Tang Xiaokai, self mastery, pattern. The book is zoned plump at short and thick and fine fresh containing and healthy contrast; the word node reserved and never simple congestion, heavy sound with a natural end; the severity of scattered Shulang composition, grace. The overall style of the connotative essence, introverted, if muddy appearance end Mu Tai Chi, and clean air and a veteran, scholars discreet, not arrogant frivolous, seems to have Vientiane package and Xun ran too profound to be understood and respected. Because like with nongmo, when the number of the edges of the prime minister".
Wu
Wu Changshuo (1844 ~ 1927), at the beginning of the sword, Yu Jun, Yuuna Jun, the character fragrant, middle-aged after word Chang Shuo, with words, the Department also Kuraishi, Cang Cang, Shuo Shuo, No. fou hut, old fou fou, Taoist, old dark green, bitter iron, stone deaf, venerable, Xiang liza, broken, Wuhu India, bearing three, three Lu Gai pare turnip, Zhejiang Anji. Later Xiling Seal-Engravers'Society was elected as the first president, is an outstanding artist in the late Qing Dynasty, poetry and print are married, far-reaching. The author of "fou hut". He is a representative of the Qing Dynasty calligraphy and calligraphy, is a pioneer of modern, his fragrance, most diligent, especially the "stone", a lifetime steeped, no day or from old age, change text, introduction of cursive charm, then the interest ink pen, flush the lines to seal him to a revival. A new high; running to the cases of Wang Duo, into Europe, and the introduction of tablet meters, vigorous and sophistication of the miracle, the script also replay brilliance. At the beginning of India Xi Zhejiang and Anhui, and out of the Qin and Han Dynasties, from the age of freehand painting into Tao lute, taste, and formed a new face mottled high ancient, good Qiu Zhuang, namely small India, also have the potential to find zhang. India also original dressing seal surface and sidebar method. Both carving both Zhuo, returning to simplicity, and no two. Wu Changshuo's achievement is the fruit of the two traditional deep integration since the mid Qing Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty marks the weight of classical work has achieved complete success, for the development of modern calligraphy, laid a very solid foundation.
The bulk of the forest
Lin Sanzhi (1898 - 1989), Jiangsu, Wujiang people, scattered name, No. three mad students, Jiang elderly, Zuo Er, half disabled elderly, etc.. "Poem calligraphy and painting", especially cursive is famous in the world, known as the "sage of calligraphy".
Qi Gong
Qi Gong (1912 - 2005), named Aixinjueluo, white characters, but also for the primary element, no court North lay, Beijing city people, after the Qing Dynasty Royal family. [1] Chinese contemporary famous painter, educator, classical literature scientist, connoisseur, red scholar, poet, master of sinology.
Zhao
Zhao Puchu, born in Anqing in November 5, 1907, distinguished Buddhist leader, outstanding calligrapher, famous social activist and great patriot.
Zhi Ming Li
Li Zhimin (1925-1994), senior professor of Peking University, calligrapher, pioneered and led into the practice of Monument grass, the exploration to accurately grasp the direction and trend of development of contemporary calligraphy, has important theoretical significance and practical value.

Writing brush
The brush pen is commonly used in bamboo control, pay attention to some of the people with control, is also useful for rhino horn, ivory or gold and silver, that is the arts and crafts.
The beast was written into soft (soft) health (hard) two categories, it is mainly the soft wool; health without with spinal hair and weasel tail hair made from soft and no health without mixed together is called cents. The pen making is a cluster of middle long have called the front, that is wrapped around the tip; it said slightly shorter for face. A good brush with a sharp, neat, round, health four advantages. Brush production area, the Tang Dynasty to the Song Dynasty, in Anhui, Xuanzhou is the most famous, produced by Zihao (old tuhao pen, purple) as a supreme Jiapin, such as the price of gold. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, as produced by Zhejiang Huzhou Shanlian town of strict material selection, production of sophisticated brushes are replaced, and so far.
ink
The ink appears very early, "the calligraphy compilation" said Zhou Xing Yi was said to be the soot ink, into the Western Han Dynasty, it is. The different raw materials, can be divided into soot ink, paint ink, ink pine smoke, soot respectively from tung oil, raw lacquer, pine burning, made with yellow gelatin and musk, borneol etc.. The northern and Southern Dynasties Yizhou, ink and paper are famous Shan county.
paper
Paper is one of the four great inventions of ancient China, the Western Han Dynasty tomb unearthed artifacts have appeared in hemp paper, but very rough. Since the Han Dynasty, is retained in the world
Yantai
Yantai
The calligraphy and painting, in Mulberry (also known as Chinese calligraphy and painting, the Eastern Han Dynasty Cai Lun vellum) using a variety of raw materials and improve the paper method, the paper quality and yield are greatly improved. Due to the widespread use of paper, Jinan Dili was ordered to abolish the use of wood and bamboo since ancient times down the history of Jane, advancing to the full paper era. The paper industry is very developed, Xuanzhou Jiangxi Linchuan paper, a thin slip, Yangzhou Liuhe paper, Guangzhou bamboo raft, are good products.
Inkstone
The inkstone, which have been used in the Western Han Dynasty, Hubei Jingzhou Phoenix Shanxi Han tomb unearthed Yan, China's traditional four big inkstone, namely, Duan inkstone, Tao Yan, Chengni inkstone.

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鲁ICP备12031715号-1 法律顾问:杨俊涛律师 客服QQ:800015090 微信:4081532