两汉书法分为两大表现形式，一为主流系统的汉石刻；一为次流系统的瓦当玺印文和简帛盟书墨迹。“后汉以来，碑碣云起，”是汉隶成熟的标记。在摩崖石刻中（刻在山崖上的文字）尤 以《石门颂》等为最著名，书法家视为“神品”。于此同时蔡邕的《熹平石经》达到了恢复古隶 ，胎息楷则的要求。而碑刻是体现时代度与韵的最主要的艺术形式，中以《封龙山》、《西狭颂》、《孔宙》、《乙锳》、《史晨》、《张迁》、《曹全》诸碑尤为后人称道仿效。可以说， 每碑各出一奇，莫有同者。北书雄丽，南书朴古，体现了“士”、“庶”阶层的不同美学追求。至于瓦当玺印、简帛盟书则体现了艺术性与实用性的联姻。
魏晋精神、在书法史上最具影响力的书法家当属王羲之， 人称“书圣”。王羲之的行书《兰亭序》被誉为“天下第一行书”论者称其笔势以为飘若浮云，矫若惊龙，其子王献之的《洛神赋》字法端劲，所创“破体”与“一笔书”为书法史一大贡献。加 以陆机、卫瓘、索靖、王导、谢安、鉴亮、等书法世家之烘托，南派书法相当繁荣。南朝宋之羊欣、齐之王僧虔、梁之萧子云、陈之智永皆步其后尘。
中国清代书法在近300年的发展历史上，经历了一场 艰难的蜕变，它突破了宋、元、明以来帖学的樊笼，开创了碑学，特别是在篆书、隶书和北魏碑体书法方面的成 就，可以与唐代楷书、宋代行书、明代草书相媲美，形成了雄浑渊懿的书风。尤其是碑学书法家借古开今的精 神和表现个性的书法创作，使得书坛显得十分活跃，流派纷呈，一派兴盛局面。
明末书坛的放浪笔墨，狂放不羁。愤世嫉俗的风气在清初进一步延伸，如朱傅山等人的作品仍表现出自我内在的生命和一种不可遇止的情绪表现。这一点在中期“扬州八怪”的身上又一次 复现。于此同时，晚明的帖学统也同时进一步光大发扬，姜英，张照，刘墉，王文治，梁同书、翁方纲等人在刻意尊 传统的时候，力图表现出新面貌，这就使帖学的颓势不可避免地出现了。
隶书，亦称汉隶 ，是汉字中常见的一种庄重的字体，书写效果略微宽扁，横画长而直画短，呈长方形状，讲究“蚕头雁尾”、“一波三折”。隶书起源于秦朝，由程邈整理而成，在东汉时期达到顶峰，对后世书法有不可小觑的影响，书法界有“汉隶唐楷”之称。如《汉鲁相韩勑造孔庙礼器碑》、又称《韩明府孔子庙碑入《鲁相韩勑复颜氏繇发碑》、《韩勑碑》等。汉永寿二年（156年）刻，隶书。纵227．2厘米，横102．4厘米。藏山东曲阜孔庙。 无额。四面刻，均为隶书。碑阳十六行，行三十六字，文后有韩勑等九人题名。碑阴及两侧皆题名。
Literally, calligraphy written testimonies. In life, the other words have the following meanings of calligraphy. First, a piece of writing works collectively on behalf of the all or written works; second, an art category, generally refers to the written Chinese characters of art. Kang Youwei in the "extended double row" said: "Tang said, song is the Tang Dynasty calligraphy charm", the pursuit of the highest and most rigorous testimonies, the peak of the Tang Dynasty calligraphy achievement is the history of calligraphy.
Calligraphy is a traditional art form unique Chinese. Chinese Chinese characters is created by the working people, began to picture notes, after several years of development, evolved into today's text, because our ancestors invented writing with a brush, produced by writing calligraphy, from ancient to modern times, are Chinese characters brush, as for other forms of writing, such as pen, books, the written rules compared with calligraphy is not totally different, but basically the same.
In narrow sense, calligraphy refers to the rules and methods of writing brush Chinese characters. Including the pen, pen, stippling, structure and layout (distribution line, Zhang Fa, etc.). For example, "refers to the real virtual palm, fingers together; the pen center point to shop without; painting pen with the same structure to run, steep; word shape, with echoes of proper density distribution; perplexing, false and true, filling the whole chapter, paragraph; paragraph of this ancient literacy, the word big small, rather high not low.
The connotation of calligraphy mainly includes the following contents:
1, refers to the "scholar's four jewels" calligraphy as an art tool to express their feelings. The special tool is an important aspect of the art of calligraphy. With the help of the "scholar's four jewels" tool performance fully embodies the tool, is an important part of calligraphy techniques. Leave the "scholar's four jewels", the art of calligraphy will be out of the question.
2, the art of calligraphy to Chinese characters as the carrier. Special Chinese characters is another important aspect of calligraphy. Chinese calligraphy cannot do without Chinese characters, collocation form, radical Chinese characters are written in the drawing more attention to the content. Different from other alphabetic characters, Chinese characters are the combination of form, sound and meaning.
The so-called "six", refers to the pictographs, self explanatory, Zhuanzhu, Huiyi and Xingsheng, under the guise of six ways of making words and Chinese characters, it Chinese characters form and structure analysis of great significance.
3, the art of calligraphy is the background of traditional culture Chinese. Calligraphy rooted in the soil of traditional Chinese culture, traditional culture is the survival and development of calligraphy background. We can see today since the Han Dynasty calligraphy theory, has its own system, integrity and rationality. Like other literary theories, the theory of calligraphy includes not only the techniques of calligraphy itself but also its aesthetic theory, and all these theories shine with the wisdom of ancient Chinese scholars. Such as calligraphy how "God, gas, bone, flesh and blood" and other areas of the theory about writing, lettering, composition and technique theory and creation theory, product reviews and so on, all have their own system.
4, the art of calligraphy, calligraphy lettering, including ontology construction method, Zhang Fa method, etc., the ink pen. Calligraphy is the core content of the technique. Writing is also known as "pen" refers to the use of the pen, Feng yun. The word, also known as the "character", "structure" refers to the collocation, alternation, echo, avoid the relationship between words in the drawing and so on. Art, also known as "white cloth", refers to the overall layout of a word, including word processing, the relationship between the inter relationship. Ink, ink is ink, refers to thick, pale, dry, dry and wet processing.
Broadly speaking, calligraphy refers to the symbol of the written rules of language. In other words, calligraphy is in accordance with the characteristics and meaning of the text, with its calligraphic strokes, structure and composition writing, make it become the aesthetic works of art.
With the development of cultural undertakings, calligraphy has not limited to the use of brush and writing Chinese characters, its connotation has been greatly increased. Such as the use of tools, only this one is all kinds of pen, brush, pen, computer equipment, spray gun, branded carving knife, carving machine, daily tools (mainly refers to the relatively hard texture, can be used to write the life of hardware, tools etc.). Not only is the use of black pigment ink, ink, adhesive, chemical agent, paint glaze and other variety of Nothing is too strange.; a riot of colours, be too numerous to enumerate. From the writing way, some hand some pen, a pen with his feet, with other organs by also no lack of such people and even some people, simply write without a pen, such as "refers to" squeeze leakage books "; from the written language that is not a minority Chinese characters, some words also boarded the the calligraphy art, Mongolian is an example;
Five kinds of main body China calligraphy, seal (including seal, Xiaozhuan), books (including Yan Yan line) clerical script (including the ancient scribe, this part of regular script (including), rubbings, block letters), body (including Xingkai, cursive script, cursive) (including Zhangcao, grass, grass, standard script).
The Chinese calligraphy art begins in the Chinese character production stage, "the sound cannot transmit in the different place, stays in the different time, therefore the writing student. The text, so as to trace and sound." (from "" Ma Zong Shu Lin Kam algae, Huo Series) therefore, the text. The first works of calligraphy are not words, but some depict symbols - pictographs or picture writing.
Symbols of Chinese characters, first appeared on pottery. The original depiction of symbols only represents a general concept of chaos, with no definite meaning.
Eight thousand years ago, the the Yellow River basin appeared magnetic hill, Fei Li Gang culture, in the hands of ceramic Fei Li Gang unearthed, text symbols, there are many such symbols, is the combination of the ancestors of the chaotic communication function, and the function of Notepad function pattern decoration, these people can not present the identification of Chinese characters. But it is the rudiment of Chinese characters.
Then about six thousand years ago Yangshao Banpo ruins, unearthed a simple depiction of some words of similar pottery. These symbols have been distinguished from the pattern design, the development of Chinese characters and forward a step forward. This can be said to be the origin of the word China.
Then a gang of Erlitou culture and two in culture. Erlitou culture archaeological excavations have been found in characterization of mark of pottery, which mark a total of twenty-four species, some similar to the word Oracle Yinxu is a single word. Gang culture in two has been found to have text system. It has been found three words each two pieces of bones, a word, a ten words, like to practice and engraved lettering. This makes the civilization forward and a major step forward.
The origin of the original text, is a kind of imitative instinct, for the image of a specific thing. Although it is simple and chaotic, but it has a certain aesthetic taste. This simple words can thus be called prehistoric calligraphy.
The evolution of calligraphy generally refers to the evolution of Chinese calligraphy fonts. Generally speaking is the body of the end of the period of Wei and Jin Dynasties, is the integration period of calligraphy techniques.
Chinese calligraphy has a long history, style evolution, calligraphy art charming glory. From the Oracle, and for the evolution of bronze seal, Xiaozhuan, Lishu, to the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wei Jin cursive script, cursive, Zhucheng, calligraphy has always exudes a unique artistic charm.
From hieroglyphs to the Oracle, and the Han Dynasty and the Shang and Zhou, spring and autumn red handwriting, Tangkai testimonies, song Shang Yi, Yuan Ming Shang state, controversy and evolution of calligraphy in Qing dynasty.
Business to the end of the Qin Dynasty
Not into the order of calligraphy
From Xia Shang Zhou, after the spring and Autumn period, to the Qin and Han Dynasties, more than two thousand years of historical development also led to the development of calligraphy art. This period all sorts of calligraphy continued, with Oracle, bronze, stone, bamboo and silk manuscripts and other red paper, including setting the seal character, official script, regular script, cursive script, five fonts in screening out hundreds of miscellaneous in the art of calligraphy began orderly development.
To create calligraphy
During the spring and autumn and Warring States period, the writing of different countries is very different, which is a great obstacle to the development of economy and culture. Qin Shihuang after the reunification of the country, the Prime Minister Li Si presided over the national unified text, this is a great achievement in the history of China culture. After the Qin Dynasty unified the text called the seal of the Qin Dynasty, also called Xiaozhuan, is based on the stone inscriptions and by cutting out the superfluous and. The "Yi Shan stone", "Taishan stone", "Langya stone", "stone hueiji" is book by Li Si, past dynasties have a high rating. During the period of the Qin Dynasty is the inheritance and innovation of the change. "Shuowen Jiezi Xu" said: "Qin Shu eight, a day two, Xiaozhuan, seal, three, four, insect symbols, books, five, six, a department of the book, seven, book eight, official script." The basic outlines font face. By Li Siqin of Xiaozhuan, French is demanding, so the script writing inconvenience. "The official script, seal Jie also". Its purpose is to facilitate writing. To the Western Han Dynasty, the official script completed by the seal to the official script transformation, structure consists of longitudinal transverse lines into potential potential, zhe wave is more obvious. The official script is a great progress Chinese characters writing, is a revolution in the history of calligraphy, not only the Chinese characters tends to founder model, but in writing also broke the single brush pen, and lays the foundation for all kinds of calligraphy schools. The Qin Dynasty calligraphy masterpieces in addition to the above, there are the version, weight, tiles, currency and other text styles. In the Qin Dynasty calligraphy, China calligraphy history left a brilliant brilliant, ambitious spirit, is to create a precedent.
The Eastern Han Dynasty
For chasing Han calligraphy rhyme
The Han Dynasty calligraphy is divided into two forms, one is the mainstream of Chinese stone system; a secondary flow system and whole ink from bamboo tiles. "Since the Eastern Han Dynasty, Han Dynasty stele clouds," is the sign of maturity. In the cliff (in the words carved on the cliff) especially in the "Shimen song" is the most famous calligrapher, regarded as "shenpin". At the same time, Cai Yong's "stone" to restore Xi Ping ancient scribe, breathing great demands. The inscription is the main form of art embodies the era and rhyme, to "Longshan", "narrow West song," "," Ying Zhou hole "," B "," Zhang Shi Chen "," Cao Quan "the monument is famous to follow. It can be said that every monument is a singular, Mo has the same. North south Li book, the book reflects the ancient park, "Shi", "Shu" class of different aesthetic pursuit. As for the tile, bamboo from seal embodies the marriage of art and practicality.
The art of calligraphy is a period of prosperity, starting from the Eastern Han Dynasty. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, there appeared a special calligraphy theory, the earliest calligraphy theory was put forward by Yang Xiong. The first part is the theory of calligraphy works in the Eastern Han Dynasty cursive Cui yuan's "potential".
The Han Dynasty calligrapher can be divided into two categories: one is the Han Dynasty calligrapher, Cai Yong represented by. One is the cursive, Du, Cui Yuan, with Zhang Zhi as the representative.
The most representative of the Han Dynasty calligraphy characteristics, than inscriptions and calligraphy on the bamboo slips. The Eastern Han Dynasty inscriptions everywhere, this period of the inscriptions, carved in Han Dynasty, font founder, in his works, zhe wave clear. This script has reach the peak of perfection.
Han Chong Hing cursive, cursive was born, is of great significance in the history of the development of the art of calligraphy. It marks the beginning of calligraphy can become a highly free expression of emotion, the performance of Calligrapher's personality art. The first stage is the cursive grass scribe, to the Eastern Han Dynasty, the further development of grass scribe, formed by Zhangcao, Zhang Zhi created this grass, namely cursive.
Three Kingdoms period
The Three Kingdoms period, starting from the Han Dynasty official script peak position landing evolution has become a regular script, regular script calligraphy art main body. The script is also known as the real character, created by Zhong you. It is in the period of the Three Kingdoms, the script into the history of stone. The Three Kingdoms period (Wei) "form", "straight season recommended that form" into the male as EMI treasures.
In the Jin Dynasty
Jin, in the position on the advocacy of "generous" items on the pursuit of art and beauty of calligraphy in the light, as two men, bamboo King (Wang Xizhi, Wang Xianzhi) on the artistic taste of Miao Yan Shu literati to cater to the requirements of heightened awareness, writing, and a kind of aesthetic value. Best representative
The spirit in the history of calligraphy, the most influential artist is Wang Xizhi, known as "st.". Wang Xizhi's script "preface" Lanting Pavilion is known as "the best in all the land of the script called gesture thought if the clouds floating, straightening if scared dragon, his son Wang Xianzhi's" goddess "is a strong word," break "and" a book "is a great contribution to the history of calligraphy. To Lu, Wei Guan, Wang Dao, Xie An, Suo Jing, Kam, foil calligraphy family, southern calligraphy is flourishing. In Southern Song Dynasty, Zhiyang Yan, Wang Sengqian, Qi Xiao Ziyun, Chen Zhizhi Yong all beams follow.
The Jin Dynasty calligraphy was most abundant, mainly in the script, script is a font between regular script and cursive script. The representative of the "three", namely "Bo Yuan tie" "fine" "mid autumn festival for fast when the snow".
The northern and Southern Dynasties
During the period of the northern and Southern Dynasties calligraphy into Tangbei era South post. At this time the most wins in the style of calligraphy. Weibei, is the Northern Wei Dynasty stone carving calligraphy inscription and any similar thecalligraphy style of the northern and Southern Dynasties, calligraphy is the transition period of the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty regular script. Shanxi to eight chaos, Royal infighting, forces gradually decline. In the north, with the destruction of the Western Jin dynasty. The formation of the "Sixteen Kingdoms" period of chaos. After the end of the sixteen country Tuoba, established the Northern Wei Dynasty, contributed to the relatively uniform for one hundred and forty-nine years, this is the.
The calligraphy in stone, especially in the Eastern Wei Wei, the most refined, style is also colourful. The representative of "Zheng Wengong monument" "" "stele of Zhang Jing Jun monument". This calligraphy is the transition period of the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty regular script. Kang Youwei said: "all with a style all adult. As with all, is beautiful". Zhong Zhishuai "Snow" shuppim Xuan said: "last glimpse of Weibei calligraphy, Han Qin old fan, can observe the Sui and Tang Xi feng." The several script everyone like Ouyang Xun, Yu, Zhu Suiliang, are from weibei.
Jin Dongqian perish from 317 BC to 420 years, is the. The Eastern Jin Dynasty calligraphy, also inherited the atmosphere, from the king to Shishu are very fond of. The northern and Southern Dynasties calligraphers Canruo stars, nameless calligrapher is the main. They inherited the tradition of calligraphy, outstanding works to create a worthy of their predecessors, but also for the formation of the Tang Dynasty calligraphy competing flowers Yan outshine the stars prosperous situation to create the necessary conditions.
Sui and Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties
For Noritaka method Sui Dynasty calligraphy
The end of the Sui Dynasty and the northern and Southern Dynasties chaos, unified China, and after the Tang is more stable in the development period, South to the Sui and Esther Tangbei mixed with the flow, formally completed script form, from the position of history. Sui Kai on the evolution of the northern and southern dynasties. The new Bureau under the Tang Dynasty standard, Sui has thus left the world, for the real book, four kinds of style:
1, Ping Chun and Ding Daohu "legal Temple stele" etc.
2, Yan Fang Jun to such as "Dong beauty epitaph" 3, "such as deep round letter Jackson" epitaph etc.
4, show such as "very fine Lang longzang Temple Monument" etc..
The heyday of the Tang Dynasty calligraphy
The Tang Dynasty culture broad and profound, brilliant, reached a peak of China of feudal culture, can be described as "book to Tang Dynasty and prospered". The ink also has spread more than the previous generation, a large number of valuable works of calligraphy tablet. The calligraphy of the Tang Dynasty, before the generation of both inheritance and innovation. Regular script, running script, cursive script in Tang Dynasty has entered a new situation, characteristics of the times is very prominent, the impact on future generations is far more than any time before.
In the early Tang Dynasty, national prosperity, calligraphy from the Six Dynasties left in cicada out off everyone in Ouyang Xun script. Yu Shinan, Zhu Suiliang, Xue Ji, Ouyang on the four for the mainstream of calligraphy. The general characteristics of compact structure and so on are descendants of "Tang 'heavy book", a title of "calligraphy crown" until the peacefulness, the combination of Confucianism and Taoism, Li Yong changed Youjun method, Zhang Xu, Huai Su to become an independent school, cursive forms will be drunken mania to the extreme, Zhang Xu known as the "sage of calligraphy". Sunguoting cursive is refined and more than if he Zhizhang, Li Longji also a sincere Yikuang, a new realm of character Feng li. Yan Zhenqing teller ancient to new ideas, new students from outside the town. Dong Qichang said in the book, Mr. Lu was. To the late Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, the Zhuanshuai, Shen Chuan shi. How to change the model method. To lean undisguised pride. To further enrich the Tang Kaizhi method, to the five generation, yangningshi and Liuzhi Yan long.
The highest institution of the Tang Dynasty has six kinds, namely the Imperial College, the Imperial College, four science, science, mathematics, law books. The book, a special language calligraphers and calligraphy theorist, is the creation of Tang dynasty. In the famous men, with a myriad talents. In the early Tang Dynasty, such as Ouyang Xun Yu Shinan and Zhu Suiliang Yan Zhenqing; Tang and Liu Gongquan, are calligraphy. The King Wen Bing seal, Li E's script and yangningshi's "Erwang Yan Liu" finish.
Sui and Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties calligraphy can be divided into three stages
(1) the Sui Dynasty to early Tang Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty unified China, the northern and Southern Dynasties culture and art package compatible to the early Tang Dynasty, storage, political prosperity, the art of calligraphy from the Six Dynasties gradually left out chantui method, emerged with a new attitude. In early Tang Dynasty script for the mainstream, the total is in strict structure.
(2) the Tang Dynasty, Tang period
The Tang Dynasty calligraphy, such as the social form of the pursuit of a romantic and unconventional way. Such as "Zhang Zuisu." (Zhang Xu, Huai Su) the script of Kuangcao, Li yong. In the Mid Tang Dynasty, the script again have a new breakthrough. Represented by Yan Zhenqing laid a standard for the script, set a model for the formation of orthodoxy. This China calligraphy style have been determined.
(3) the late Tang and Five Dynasties Tang legacy storage stage
In 907 ad, Zhu Quanzhong and Tang regime, the establishment of the Later Liang, later Tang, Jin Dynasty, the history of Han and Zhou, said the five generation. Because of Chinese weakness and confusion, culture and art was also down trend. The art of calligraphy is bearing the late Tang Yu continued, but due to the impact of Binghuo war, formed a general trend of litter decay. The five generation of the occasion, commendable in calligraphy, when push yangningshi. His calligraphy calligraphy declined in the five generation, is the mainstay. In addition to Li Yu, Yan repair accomplished calligraphers. So far, the Tang Dynasty Pingzheng rigorous book wind has come to fade after the Northern Song Dynasty, "four" which followed, but also set off a new era of waves.
In the Song Dynasty to
It is Yixuan.
The calligraphy of the Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty calligraphy, this is science caused by Zhu and meaning of connotation, contains four points: a philosophical, double bookish, three style, four artistic expression, while advocating personalized calligraphy creation and originality. These are reflected in the calligraphy, if the law of Sui Tang and Five Dynasties, is the embodiment of "seeking work", then to the Song Dynasty, calligraphy began to face a new Shangyi Lyric appeared in front of the world. This is in addition to a "natural Chi calligrapher", "time" two levels, also should have "knowledge" or "bookish", the four changed Tangkai look directly Jin post script legacy.
Whether it is high and it was the new Su Dongpo, or high ancient Huang Tingjian and Xiao Sanqi risk of Mi Fu, are trying in the performance of his calligraphy style at the same time, highlights a new in order to be different attitude, knowledge of the gas in the luxuriantly green pen and ink, and gives a new aesthetic conception this, in the Southern Song Dynasty Wu Yue, Lu You, Fan Chengda, Zhu Xi, Wen Tianxiang and other calligraphers have been further extended, but the book knowledge and ink skills cannot be compared to four and the Northern Song dynasty. The Song Dynasty calligrapher representative is Su, Huang, m, cai.
Calligraphy art in the Yuan Dynasty
At the beginning of the yuan economic and cultural development, the overall situation is the vintage of calligraphy, patriarchal Jin and Tang Dynasty and less innovation. Although politically alien rule in Yuan Dynasty, culture is assimilated into the Chinese culture, different song and informal often method artistic conception, the meaning is pursued open pursuit of beauty, so Su Shi that is "I made this book means not" advocated by Zhao Mengtiao is "eternal not" the former pursue willing, the latter emphasizes the intended meaning. The core character of calligraphy is Zhao Mengtiao, he founded the script "Zhao" and Tang Kaizhi, Yan, Liu said the four, as the main body. The offspring gauge. Also there are renowned xianyushu, Deng Wenyuan in the Yuan Dynasty calligraphy, although the achievement of less than Zhao Mengtiao, but also has its own originality in the style of calligraphy. They advocate the same painting method, pay attention to the word node body.
The calligraphy art of the Ming Dynasty
The development of Ming Dynasty calligraphy into three stages:
The first stage: at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty
In the early Ming Dynasty calligraphy "million word with", "Taiwan Pavilion" prevailed. Shen and degrees of the brothers will charm to the extreme small balanced fuel. "About the imperial jade books edition, MiFu, Tibet, the book of life will be awarded a" two, Shen calligraphy pushed for the great imperial examination. In the early Ming Dynasty calligrapher Liu Ji has good cursive, small Song Liao, fine zhuanli song and was renowned the world famous Zuker zhangcao. And Zhu Yunming, the Huiming, Wang Chong "three".
The second stage -- Ming Zhong
The mid Ming Dynasty Wuzhong four rise, began to move toward the direction of the development of calligraphy is normal. Zhu Yunming, Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin, Wang Chong four according to Zhao Mengtiao and Tong Jin and Tang Dynasty, the style is higher; also Marie, which at that time and the ideas of the pioneering liberation, calligraphy began to enter the new realm of advocating personalized.
The third stage: at the end of the Ming Dynasty
The late Ming Dynasty calligraphy emerged in critical thought, calligraphy on the pursuit of large size, concussion visual effect, the front side to take the potential, cross painted vertical wipe paper, full of smoke, so that the original order of calligraphy began to collapse; the representative calligraphers include Zhang Ruitu, Wang Duo, Huang, Ni Yuanrui etc.. But Dong Qichang still adhere to the traditional calligraphy runner up position.
China calligraphy of Qing Dynasty in nearly 300 years of development history, has experienced a difficult transformation, it breaks the confinement of calligraphy since the song, yuan, Ming, a monument, especially in the seal script, official script and the tablet calligraphy achievements, and the Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty regular script, running script, cursive in Ming Dynasty comparable, to form a powerful Yuan Yi book wind. Especially the calligraphy calligraphy calligrapher study ancient spirit and individuality, the calligraphy is very active, schools, a prosperous situation.
At the end of the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, the main aesthetic trend by the lyric Yang for banner, the pursuit of individuality and promote rational combination of new aesthetics of classical aesthetics and the different orthodox and the sheng. The general tendency of calligraphy in Qing Dynasty was quality, and it was divided into two periods: post study and Stele Study.
At the end of the Ming Dynasty calligraphy fanglang ink, uninhibited. The atmosphere of cynicism extends further in the early Qing Dynasty, such as the works of Zhu Fushan and others, which show the inner life and an unexpected emotional expression. This point in the middle of the "Eight Wonders of Yangzhou" was another repetition. At the same time, the tradition of late Ming Dynasty also posts and further promote the China Everbright, Jiang Ying, Zhang Zhao, Liu Yong, Wang Wenzhi, Weng Fanggang, et al. In beam Tongshu deliberately respect for tradition when it tries to show a new look, which makes Tiexue decline inevitably.
At this time, stone unearthed more literati from the enthusiastic letters turned to stone textual research, a study around the country, the monument was in droves, finally becoming the Qing Dynasty calligraphy development mainstream, coupled with ruanyuan, bao. Kang Youwei makes great efforts to publicize, as a kind of book learning system that matches with the study of literature. When the famous calligraphers such as Jin Nong, Zhang Chuanshan, Deng Shiru, He Shaoji, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Zhang Yuzhao and Kang Youwei have used a tablet style in painting and writing, to try to do. Dazzling. It is a landscape in China calligraphy culture. If, say, those who seek to find the quality of the desire is not achieved, then this desire to achieve in the monument there.
In calligraphy diversified today, calligraphy art sublimation to a higher level of ideas, this is undoubtedly a big step. Modern calligraphy is not simply depends on the art of calligraphy in the form, structure, line external appearance, but depends on the internal spirit of modernization. The spirit of calligraphy modernity refers to the value trend of modern society embodied and transmitted by contemporary calligraphy art.
Modern calligraphy, is still the dominant beipai. But different from reaching beipai, Hanbei and ancient seal calligraphers during this period more.
A lot of calligraphy masters such as Lin Sanzhi, Sha Menghai, Lu Weizhao and so on before 1949 has been engaged in calligraphy creation, but until the cultural revolution, they have nearly 80 years with famous calligraphy. After 1949 to the death of Mao Zedong nearly thirty years, calligraphy basically ignored. When people are with great enthusiasm for the construction of a new China. Calligraphy is considered to be representative of the old tradition.
The colorful modern art of calligraphy, calligraphers and team unprecedented complex has a direct relationship. Perhaps because the distance is too close, this scenery than any previous period are clearly clear.
The seal is referred to as the seal, the seal. Oracle, dating back more than three thousand years of history, is the earliest identifiable text handed down, mainly used for divination. Brush lean tall and straight, straight line more. Well, the pen pen has round pen, stylus, "hanging needle" more generous. Seal means, bronze, characters, the text of the six countries, they preserve the obvious characteristics of ancient hieroglyphs. Xiaozhuan also known as the "seal of the Qin Dynasty", is the common language of Qin, simplified characters of the seal, which is characterized by a form of uniform font to write characters.
The official script, also known as Li , is a kind of common decency Chinese characters font writing effect slightly flat, long and short dashes straight draw, was a rectangular shape, exquisite "silkworm head tail", "striking one snag after another". The official script originated in the Qin Dynasty, compiled by Cheng Miao, reached its peak in the Eastern Han Dynasty, has great influence on calligraphy, calligraphy "Han Li Tang Kai". Such as "why is South Korea Chizao Confucian Temple, also known as" ritual monument "Han Ming Palace Confucius Temple Monument" Yan Zhou Lu into the Han Chifu monument "," Han hair Chi monument "etc.. Han Yongshou two years (156 years), the official script. 227.2 cm vertical, horizontal 102.4 cm. Shandong Confucian Temple in Qufu reservoir. No amount. Four moment, are the official script. Yang Bei sixteen lines, thirty-six characters, the Korean Chi nine people. The title and the two sides are.
The script is also called the book, the book block. From the founding of the Cheng Miao script evolved, more simple, horizontal and vertical. A model of the meaning of the script, "Zhang Huaiguan" has broken first talked about. The people still have the habit of using it, such as sheep Hin "gather" the Wang Sengqian "on the book, Wei Dan biography" cloud: "Dan Zi Zhong, Jing Zhao, good script." That is the "eight Kai law" referred to. Only to the Northern Song Dynasty to replace the name of the book, its content obviously and ancient name is not the same, different names for the same and from that of cases about these.
The running script is based on the development of the origin of the script, a font between the regular script, cursive, is produced in order to make up for the regular script writing speed is too slow and difficult to identify the cursive. The "line" is the "walking" meaning, so it is not unlike cursive so badly, so regular script. In essence it is the grass script or cursive kai. Kai law called "more than grass, grass more than Xingkai" was called "cursive script".
Is a cursive font Chinese characters, the characteristic is the structure, simplify the continuous strokes. Formed in the Han Dynasty, in order to write simple evolution in the script on the basis of. There are, of Zhangcao, Jincao Kuangcao, in a frenzy to feel beautiful. "Shuowen Jiezi", said: "a cursive hannchen". In the early Han Dynasty cursive, its characteristics are: outline of deposit word, which rules loss, longitudinal Ren Ben Yi, go fast, because of its meaning, called cursive.
Inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells of the Shang Dynasty
The name of the ancient Chinese characters of a kind of chirography, is also the most ancient text of existing China. Carved on bones, inscriptions for the first (Yindai people use tortoise shells, animal bones.
After the period, divination divination diviner name, by telling the matter with a knife in the next Bo Zhao, and some also have a number of days after the Jixiong fulfilled also engraved. The), the next thing is the results of divination in the Shang sheng. Oracle found in 1889, is the late Shang Dynasty Royal family fortune at the record, found in Henan Province, Anyang Xiaotun village, has been more than 3000 years ago. Oracle is the first piece of treasure Chinese calligraphy history, change the technique has its size, weight, Jixu, light pen and pen. The pen thick and heavy, fast and agile, has a certain sense of rhythm. The stroke turning radius of both parties, are moving to Qiao, round smooth. The lines are more harmonious than the smooth pottery, as Chinese unique lines of calligraphy art for the tone and rhythm. Oracle node rectangle, which Chinese characters font. Structure with special-shaped Oracle, renjiziran. The art of different sizes, different radius, with long flat shape, Cuola scene and harmonious unity. Later, with the so-called avoidance, toward being confused with errors and omission, etc. Chinese characters writing principle echoes all under heaven and upon earth, Oracle has been generally have.
Inscriptions on bronze
The ancient style of Chinese characters. Bronzes of Shang and Western Zhou Dynasty, spring and autumn and Warring States period. The inscription on the font. Thrive in Zhou Dai. As a monument of Chinese inscriptions calligraphy history. Attached to the bronze tripod, intended to make people know that God is evil "is a religious ritual. Jin also known as zhoungdingwen, is the ancient inscriptions. The bronze inscriptions and cast together more strong lines than Oracle, pictographic meaning is more dense, the earliest bronze inscriptions in Shang Dynasty unearthed bronze, data is not much, than Oracle in early age. Zhou Dai is on the golden age of inscriptions unearthed at most.
A stone inscriptions, characters or patterns. The earliest inscriptions of the Qin Dynasty, the first stone "".
The stone was born Zhou Dai, flourished in the Qin dynasty. Qin stele text. The drum shaped stone 10 pieces of granite on the first four moment,
The contents of the singing Qin Guojun hunt, so called hunting gar. Xia Dynasty has a "monument" in the legend of the earliest stone carvings, carved poetry style and "Book of Songs" big Xiaoya similar. To set the font characters, "Shuowen Jiezi", has the very high appraisal of calligraphy. The main works include: "the stone", "stone", "Taishan Yishan stone", "Langya stone", "stone hueiji" etc..
Has a very significant impact on the later stone calligraphy and painting art, many outstanding artists such as Yang Yisun, Wu Dacheng, Wu Changshuo, Zhu Xuanxian and Wang Fuan are a long-term study of stone art, and as an important nutrient his calligraphy, also into his art.
Epitaph epitaph is deposited in the tomb contains biographical stone dead. It is the dead alive, whether it is housekeeping, virtue, learn from, skills, performance, achievements etc. the size of concentrate for a personal history file, to supplement the family history, local history and national history. Confirmation is the epitaph of dating. The epitaph includes two parts of ming.
[Beituo] this is the largest number of rubbings, relates to the ancient name of the monument, is now the main reference of calligraphy. For learning calligraphy copybook is one copy of the template, many famous ink stone rubbings, woodcut print or photocopy. According to whether the original copybook division, can be divided into Beitie and ink. According to the inscription engraved on the monument is the writing on the copybook extension collapse down. The ink is written directly written on the paper, silk and other media on the ink marks. As the post, Chunhua Ge tie, sanxitang.
The art of calligraphy the most authentic, but before the Qin Dynasty in calligraphy artworks, generally only in the bamboo can be seen. In ancient books, with bamboo, for Jane's tendon, silk, hemp rope. Archaeological discoveries earlier and ink, are: Hubei Yunmeng Shanxi Houma bamboo slips unearthed, unearthed from the Warring States period (from which written in stone or jade text on the policy policy), Changsha Mawangdui unearthed the Warring States silk. China calligraphy by Oracle, bronze, to the spring and Autumn period, the feudal rule, so the text in the Shang Dynasty, princes differentiate into different development path, in this period, the calligraphy form and skills also presents a situation of contention of a hundred schools of thought. Such as the northern Jin "tadpole text", Wu, Yue and Chu, Cai's "bird book, strokes more twists and dragged long tail. The spring and Autumn period is not like the Western Zhou bronze inscriptions on the strong form, for the slender body, showing a rich and beautiful, such as "attack King Wu Jian". A lot of ink in this period is retained, Jane, silk, etc..
The overall shape of the United States
The basic form of China word is a square, but by twisting the stipple flex, axis, also can form various different moving patterns, which are combined into beautiful calligraphy works. The structure form is mainly affected by two factors, one is the charm of calligraphy performance; two is in the form of calligraphy performance factors. On the latter, mainly reflected in three aspects: one is the body of the impact, such as the influence of the vertical rectangle Zhuanti; font, some characters are flat square, and some words are rectangular; three composition effect. Therefore, only under the domination of the above two factors, the positive form creation can create the beautiful knot form.
Stipple structure beauty
There are two main ways to construct a stipple structure of beauty, refers to various stippling in certain combination mode, directly into single characters and radicals of various beauty. The two refers to the radical, and then in a certain way into various characters. Radical combination Chinese word is nothing more than around, left and right, upper and lower, lower, enclosed and semi enclosed etc.. These principles are proportional principle, balance principle, rhythm principle, rhythm principle, concise principle, etc.. Here special mention is the principle of proportionality, the golden ratio is a very important proportion, is very important for drawing the structure of the United states.
The ink combination of beauty
The art of Jieti ink combination, mainly refers to the combination of the order. As the art of calligraphy, its various colors can no longer be chaotic, but should be very orderly. Here are some common aesthetic principles, requiring the book to comply. As the key principle, gradual principle, balance principle, etc.. The structure of calligraphy ink combination, mainly involves two aspects: one is the background segmentation. People often say "black white when", is this content. The two is the combination of ink stipple structure. From the overall effect of works, not only to pay attention to the plane structure but also pay attention to the ink stipple, layered effect so as to enhance the performance of ink stipple, depth of calligraphy.
Famous calligrapher Li Si presided over a xiaozhuan. "Yi Shan stone", "Taishan stone", "Langya stone", "stone hueiji" is book by Li Si, have a high evaluation of past dynasties.
Zhong Yao (Yao) (151 - 230), often character. Long serving Agency (now Henan Xuchang long Ge Dong) people. Cao Wei, a famous calligrapher statesman during the Three Kingdoms period. Zhong you accomplished in calligraphy, calligraphy (small) is the founder, was later known as "the originator of the script". Zhongyou calligraphy has a profound influence on later generations, Wang Xizhi later had involved learning calligrapher Zhongyou calligraphy. And the Eastern Jin Dynasty calligrapher Wang Xizhi known as the "king of the clock". The yujianwu Zhongyou calligraphy will be listed as "top grade", "broken" in Tang Zhang Huaiguan in the assessment of their calligraphy as "shenpin".
Zhang Zhi (AD? 192) Zi Boying, the Eastern Han Dynasty calligrapher, known as the "sage of calligraphy". Dunhuang County Yuan Quan county (now Gansu Anxi County East) people. Zhang Zhi cursive from Du, Cui yuan, and live on their own. Yujianwu was named "Kung Fu" calligraphy "first, natural". With the clock Zhou, Wang Xizhi tied for the "top" products.
Wei Shuo, "Mrs. Dalloway, a word Mao Yi Shuo, (A.D. 272-349), Dong EUP (now hill Xixia County North), is a famous calligrapher the Jin dynasty. Wei Shuo Ru Yin Li Juzhi prefect wife, known as mrs.. Wei's family book, Wei Shuo Fu Li Juyi good script. Only from Zhong you, pass the law. Wang Xizhi was learning from the book, the novel is "the saint" teacher.
most famous early calligrapher
Wang Xizhi (303 - 361 years the Eastern Jin Dynasty) known as "st.". The Eastern Jin Dynasty calligrapher, word Yi, Dan, Zhai, the origin of Langya Linyi (now in Shandong), later moved to Shanyin (now Zhejiang Shaoxing), the famous calligraphy works include "the Lanting Pavilion sequence" etc.. His seclusion Jin Ting Shan county, former secretary general, Ningyuan, Jiangzhou Cishi. After the hueiji within the right collar general, called "Wang Youjun", "Wang ji". The calligraphy of Wang Xianzhi is also good, people are called "kings" . Therefore, "book" almost total: "Han Zhong, Zhang has never end, Jin Miao wang". The four is called "four ancient calligraphers".
Wang Xianzhi, Zi Jing, the Langya Linyi people, calligrapher and poet, in cursive and cursive script known to posterity. Wang Xianzhi young father Xi calligraphy, and Zhang Zhi. The body of calligraphy are fine, especially in cursive famous, dare to innovate, not for his father together, made an outstanding contribution to the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Jin Kai, in the history of calligraphy is known as "little emperor", with his father Wang Xizhi and known as the "kings".
Ouyang Xun (557 for a period of 641 years), word letter, Tan Linxiang (now Hunan, Changsha). Ouyang Xun script testimonies of the rigorous, called the steep world without horses, known as the first Chinese regular script.
Yu Shinan, the word Bo Shi, Yuyao. The politician, calligrapher, writer. Suiti's living Toneri Tang served as secretary of the prison, Hong Wen b.. Tang Taizong said he is honest, virtue, erudite, words, letters to the South ("world one, there was only, and then five. A Yue Dang Chung, two, United, three, four, five words, Bowen said to you. ").
Zhu Suiliang (596 - 658), the word board is good, the Tang Dynasty statesman, calligrapher, Han, Qian Tang (now Zhejiang Hangzhou), said Yang Zhai (now Henan Yuzhou); proficient in literature and history, Zhu Suiliang be a brilliant man of wide learning at the end of the Sui Dynasty, following Xue Ju for interpreter Scheeren, after the Tang Dynasty Ren Jian Yi doctor, zhongshuling and other staff, Zhenguan twenty-three years (649 years) and by the same emperor Yizhao Zhangsun Wuji opposed to Wu Zetian as assistant; after being banished, Tanzhou (Changsha) governor, Wu ascended the throne after turn Guizhou (Guilin) governor, and then down Iowa (now Vietnam north Qinghua) provincial governor, was celebrating three years (658 years) and Chu Liang died; calligraphy beginner Yu Shinan, after Wang Xizhi, Yu Shinan, Xue Ji and Ouyang Xun, and said "the four people"; "master Meng has handed down the ink", "wild Goose Pagoda monument sacred order" etc..
Xue Ji (649 ~ 713) word heir, Chinese Tang Dynasty painter, calligrapher. The history of the Tang Dynasty Xue Daoheng Lang Son, zhongshuling from Xue Yuanchao. Han, Zhou Fen Yin (now Shanxi Wanrong) people. Former Huangmen Lang, assistant administrator maintenance, taizaishaobao, libushangshu, after being executed in prison. Calligraphy, learned from Zhu Suiliang, and Yu Shinan, Ouyang Xun and Zhu Suiliang tied for four in early Tang Dynasty calligrapher.
Yan Zhenqing (709-784, said 709-785), word Qing minister, the Tang Dynasty outstanding calligrapher. Born in Beijing trillion million years (now Shaanxi Xi'an), a native of Langya in Linyi (now Shandong Linyi Feixian County). He founded the "Yan" regular script, with Zhao Mengtiao, Liu Gongquan, Ouyang Xun was called "the four great regular script".
Liu Gongquan (778 -865), the word Cheng hung, Jingzhao Huayuan (Shaanxi Yaoxian today), the official Prince Taishi, known as the "Liu Shaoshi", a famous calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty is the last. Good at regular script, the representative of "God in the" mysterious monument monument "," etc..
Zhang Xu (675-750?), the word burgaw, word Ji Ming, Han, Tang Zhaowu (now Jiangsu Suzhou) people. Was the official Changshu County, the history of gold Wuchang. Good cursive, of wine, known as a "group of Britain, is one of the immortals". It was with cursive Li Bai poetry, Pei min sword dance and said "Sanjue", poems also have a unique style, known to seven. With Li Bai, he Zhizhang and others were out drinking one of the eight immortals. Tang Wenzong had issued an edict, in Li Bai's poetry, Pei min sword dance, Zhang Xu cursive as "sanjue". And the poetry, and Aichi Aki, Zhang Ruoxu, known as the "four + Wuzhong financial package".
Huai Su Tang (725-785), the word Zhenlou, monk Huai Su, Su Xing Han, Yongzhou money, Lingling (Hunan Lingling people). Good young Buddhist monk. He is the history of calligraphy collar generation coquettish cursive, his cursive script called "cursive", a powerful turn round, such as ring, bold and smooth, coherent, and other famous Tang Dynasty calligrapher Zhang Xu grass, called "Zhang Diansu mad" or "Zhang Zuisu".
Su Shi (January 8, 1037 August 24th 1101), Meizhou (now Sichuan Meishan city of Meishan, in the Northern Song Dynasty), the word and the word Zizhan, and secondary, "Dongpo Buddhist", the people of the world as "Su Dongpo". Native of Luancheng. The Northern Song Dynasty famous writer, poet, painter, poet, gourmet, one of the eight Tang and Song Ci, haofangpa representative. The poem, CI, Fu, prose, have high achievement, and good calligraphy and painting, is a rare art history China literature all rounder, also Chinese thousands of years of history is recognized as the most outstanding literary and artistic attainments of everyone. Ou Yangxiu and Osu said in his prose and poetry; and Huang Tingjian was called "Su Huang; words with Xin Qiji and susin; among the four Northern Song Dynasty calligraphy calligrapher Su, Huang m, Cai," one; the painting is to create a "School of Huzhou".
Huang Tingjian (1045 - 1105), the word he, No. No. FUWENG Valley Road, later, Ning Hongzhou (now Jiangxi county) people. The Northern Song Dynasty famous poet, is the founder of the Jiangxi poetry school. Calligraphy can also includes tree lattice, as one of the. Hidemune Zhiping four years (1067) jinshi. Li Ye Xianyu official, professor at Imperial College in Beijing, the collator, zhuzuozuolang, Secretary Cheng, Fuzhou don't drive, Guizhou state placement. Tingjian believe in Buddhism, also Mu Daojiao, a pro filial piety, although anchoret, but since Pro washing toilet, is also one of the filial piety, Huang Tingjian is one of the four scholars's, is Jiangxi school kaishanzushi, was on par with Su Shi. Su huang. The author of "Valley CI".
Mi Fu (1051-1107)] [f case, autograph name meters or as small as Qian, or embroidery [f case. The Northern Song Dynasty calligrapher and painter. Anhui Province Wuwei, Xiangyang moved to Hubei, had settled Runzhou (now Jiangsu Zhenjiang). Good talent characters, Xiao San, a good clean. Tang clothing effect, storing more stones. Painting style. Can draw bamboo wood, when new, and the landscape painting and ink Yunshan ink play, smoke shade, flat and innocent. Good poetry, calligraphy, fine identification. Good seal, Li, Kai, lines, grass style, longer than copying the ancient calligraphy, to the extent spurious. One of the four song.
Cai Xiang (1012 - 1067), the word Junmo, Han Dynasty, a famous calligrapher, politicians, tea experts, crafty Cai Jing from brother. The origin of Xianyou Feng Ting Xiang Dong Cha Cun Fujian, later moved to Putian Cai Chacun, 1030 (day eight) Jinshi, has served as the Guange collation, Jian Institute, straight, straight lontuge historica patent, bachelor, bachelor, the Privy Council direct the Imperial Academy, three division, the Ming Temple in the song Dynasty Post B. the central government, as Fujian road transport, Quanzhou Fuzhou kaifengand Hangzhou Prefecture. Death gift assistant minister, Shi zhong. Presided over the construction of China existing in sea crossing beam the earliest Dashiqiao Quanzhou Luoyang bridge, Cai Xiang is honest, honest, pay attention to faith, and knowledgeable, profound history of calligraphy and calligraphy, calligraphy in the Song Dynasty, known as "Su, Huang, m, Cai four calligraphers calligraphy of Cai Xiang saying, with its deep and dignified. Chun wan light beauty, self-contained.
Song Huizong Zhao Ji (May 1082 A.D. 5 to June 5, 1135), was the eleventh son of Song Shenzong, the younger brother of song, Song Dynasty eighth emperors. Has been called the king of Suining, king of the end. Zhezong in the first month of the year in 1100 when no child died in the same month, to the queen made him emperor. Second years nianhao "built in the". In the 26 year (February 23, 1100 - January 18, 1126), China captured and tortured to death, at the age of 54, was buried in the city of Shaoxing (now Zhejiang Keqiao eisuke Ling District, 35 miles southeast of Shaoxing city). He created a calligraphy font later called "thin gold body". Is the ancient rare artistic talent and all rounder. Song Huizong was later named "everything can not only for you ear! Write "history of the Song Dynasty" the historian, also said if chapter Linton opinion was adopted, the Northern Song Dynasty may be another ending. And also said that such as "Buli song Huizong, gold is strong, what have to Zai of song".
Zhao Mengtiao (1254 - 1322), the word son, No. loose snow, snow and water, Taoist, fine palace, Taoist gull wave, middle-aged was Meng Fu, Han, Wuxing (now Zhejiang Huzhou) people. The famous painter, script (Ouyang Xun, Yan Zhenqing, four people, one of Liu Gongquan Zhao Mengtiao). Zhao Mengtiao is good at poetry and writing, be a brilliant man of wide learning, to understand the economy, calligraphy, fine art, good stone, through Lulu, solution of appreciation. Especially the highest achievements in calligraphy and painting, create a new painting style of the Yuan Dynasty, known as the "crown of the yuan". He is also good, fragrance, really, especially in the regular script, cursive, script is famous in the world.
Xianyushu (1257 - 1302) Zibo, Hebei Yuyang, living in Hangzhou. "Nan Zhao Beixian" said Zhao Mengtiao. His calligraphy achievement mainly lies in cursive. The new school and Huai Su cursive. His method of writing is very characteristic, using a unique method to the wrist; love with brush, emphasize the strength of writing. His representative works include "Shi poem volume", "learning volume" "Su Shi" Begonia poetry volume etc.. And Zhao Mengtiao, Deng Wenyuan and known as the yuan three people.
Dong Qichang (1555 - 1636),  Hyun Jae, Scarlett, white, fragrant light lay. The Han nationality, Songjiang Huating (now Shanghai Minhang District MA), the Ming Dynasty painter. Once lived in Songjiang. Wanli seventeen years Jinshi, granted Imperial Academy editing, Nanjing official libushangshu, died after Shi Wen min. Good at painting landscapes, from Dong Yuan and Ju ran, Huang Gongwang and Nizan, elegant and delicate and quiet, sparsely open; Mo Mingjie Jun Lang, Welton pale green colors and elegant swing. In Zen Buddhism and figurative painting, "north and South" theory, as the outstanding representative of "Huating school". What influence the painting and painting of Ming and Qing Dynasty painting. The calligraphy and the Jin and Tang Dynasty, sui generis, and poems. His works have "rock" map "fall" figure eight "Zhoujintang map" etc.. The author of "painting from" essay "Taiwan volume anthology", "play with Hong Tang tie". His calligraphy has "Yan Zhao bone posture beauty.
Liu Yong (1719 ~ 1804), the word worship such as stone, stone, stone temple, temple, temple, Qingyuan, wood cover of vessel for food, vegetarian, Xiangyan Dong Wu period, Ming Hua, riguan Peak Road, Shandong Zhucheng. He is the Qianlong period of Sydney, he academy editing, Jiangsu political science, cabinet bachelor, governor of Hunan, left Yushi, the master, the emperor, libushangshu, grand Secretary of the post, first officer to Ren Jiaqing court scholar, plus taizaishaobao, death posthumous Wen Qing. The author of "Shi an anthology". His calligraphy by Dong and Zhao to start, then all times Lin Jin Tang and Song Dynasties, especially effective in Su Dongpo, Yan Zhenqing and Jin Tang Xiaokai, self mastery, pattern. The book is zoned plump at short and thick and fine fresh containing and healthy contrast; the word node reserved and never simple congestion, heavy sound with a natural end; the severity of scattered Shulang composition, grace. The overall style of the connotative essence, introverted, if muddy appearance end Mu Tai Chi, and clean air and a veteran, scholars discreet, not arrogant frivolous, seems to have Vientiane package and Xun ran too profound to be understood and respected. Because like with nongmo, when the number of the edges of the prime minister".
Wu Changshuo (1844 ~ 1927), at the beginning of the sword, Yu Jun, Yuuna Jun, the character fragrant, middle-aged after word Chang Shuo, with words, the Department also Kuraishi, Cang Cang, Shuo Shuo, No. fou hut, old fou fou, Taoist, old dark green, bitter iron, stone deaf, venerable, Xiang liza, broken, Wuhu India, bearing three, three Lu Gai pare turnip, Zhejiang Anji. Later Xiling Seal-Engravers'Society was elected as the first president, is an outstanding artist in the late Qing Dynasty, poetry and print are married, far-reaching. The author of "fou hut". He is a representative of the Qing Dynasty calligraphy and calligraphy, is a pioneer of modern, his fragrance, most diligent, especially the "stone", a lifetime steeped, no day or from old age, change text, introduction of cursive charm, then the interest ink pen, flush the lines to seal him to a revival. A new high; running to the cases of Wang Duo, into Europe, and the introduction of tablet meters, vigorous and sophistication of the miracle, the script also replay brilliance. At the beginning of India Xi Zhejiang and Anhui, and out of the Qin and Han Dynasties, from the age of freehand painting into Tao lute, taste, and formed a new face mottled high ancient, good Qiu Zhuang, namely small India, also have the potential to find zhang. India also original dressing seal surface and sidebar method. Both carving both Zhuo, returning to simplicity, and no two. Wu Changshuo's achievement is the fruit of the two traditional deep integration since the mid Qing Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty marks the weight of classical work has achieved complete success, for the development of modern calligraphy, laid a very solid foundation.
The bulk of the forest
Lin Sanzhi (1898 - 1989), Jiangsu, Wujiang people, scattered name, No. three mad students, Jiang elderly, Zuo Er, half disabled elderly, etc.. "Poem calligraphy and painting", especially cursive is famous in the world, known as the "sage of calligraphy".
Qi Gong (1912 - 2005), named Aixinjueluo, white characters, but also for the primary element, no court North lay, Beijing city people, after the Qing Dynasty Royal family.  Chinese contemporary famous painter, educator, classical literature scientist, connoisseur, red scholar, poet, master of sinology.
Zhao Puchu, born in Anqing in November 5, 1907, distinguished Buddhist leader, outstanding calligrapher, famous social activist and great patriot.
Zhi Ming Li
Li Zhimin (1925-1994), senior professor of Peking University, calligrapher, pioneered and led into the practice of Monument grass, the exploration to accurately grasp the direction and trend of development of contemporary calligraphy, has important theoretical significance and practical value.
The brush pen is commonly used in bamboo control, pay attention to some of the people with control, is also useful for rhino horn, ivory or gold and silver, that is the arts and crafts.
The beast was written into soft (soft) health (hard) two categories, it is mainly the soft wool; health without with spinal hair and weasel tail hair made from soft and no health without mixed together is called cents. The pen making is a cluster of middle long have called the front, that is wrapped around the tip; it said slightly shorter for face. A good brush with a sharp, neat, round, health four advantages. Brush production area, the Tang Dynasty to the Song Dynasty, in Anhui, Xuanzhou is the most famous, produced by Zihao (old tuhao pen, purple) as a supreme Jiapin, such as the price of gold. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, as produced by Zhejiang Huzhou Shanlian town of strict material selection, production of sophisticated brushes are replaced, and so far.
The ink appears very early, "the calligraphy compilation" said Zhou Xing Yi was said to be the soot ink, into the Western Han Dynasty, it is. The different raw materials, can be divided into soot ink, paint ink, ink pine smoke, soot respectively from tung oil, raw lacquer, pine burning, made with yellow gelatin and musk, borneol etc.. The northern and Southern Dynasties Yizhou, ink and paper are famous Shan county.
Paper is one of the four great inventions of ancient China, the Western Han Dynasty tomb unearthed artifacts have appeared in hemp paper, but very rough. Since the Han Dynasty, is retained in the world
The calligraphy and painting, in Mulberry (also known as Chinese calligraphy and painting, the Eastern Han Dynasty Cai Lun vellum) using a variety of raw materials and improve the paper method, the paper quality and yield are greatly improved. Due to the widespread use of paper, Jinan Dili was ordered to abolish the use of wood and bamboo since ancient times down the history of Jane, advancing to the full paper era. The paper industry is very developed, Xuanzhou Jiangxi Linchuan paper, a thin slip, Yangzhou Liuhe paper, Guangzhou bamboo raft, are good products.
The inkstone, which have been used in the Western Han Dynasty, Hubei Jingzhou Phoenix Shanxi Han tomb unearthed Yan, China's traditional four big inkstone, namely, Duan inkstone, Tao Yan, Chengni inkstone.