東京国立博物館

 东京国立博物馆位于东京台东区上野公园北端,内有本馆、东洋馆、表庆馆及法隆寺宝物馆4个展馆共43个展厅,陈列面积1.4万余平方米,约有11万件收藏品,其中国宝87件,重要文物634件,以及一些受委托保管的文物。博物馆的主体建筑由象征日本历史的建筑物构成,历来被称之为"美术馆建筑与博物馆建筑的博物馆"。主馆中分类展出了日本美术品、出土文物、工艺品。东洋馆中陈列着亚洲、埃及等地的美术品和考古文物。另外法隆寺宝物馆中收藏有7至8世纪奈良法隆寺中的宝物约300件。馆内时常举办以某一专题为中心的"专题展览"以及跨学科的展览。

  • 中文名東京国立博物館
  • 外文名Tokyo National Museum
  • 地点东京台东区上野公园北端
  • 馆藏精品普贤菩萨像、松林屏风图、桧画
  • 竣工时间1872 年
  • 开放时间9:00-17:00
  • 类别历史博物馆、纪念博物馆
基本介绍

东京国立博物馆是日本最大的博物馆,位于东京台东区上野公园北端,创建于明治四年(公元1871年),现在的建筑完工于1938年。它由一幢日本民族式双层楼房和左侧的东洋馆、右侧的表庆馆以及大门旁的法隆寺宝物馆构成,共有43个展厅。馆内收藏了十几万件日本历史文物和美术珍品,其中有70件被定为国宝。展品分为雕刻、染织、金工、武具、刀剑、陶瓷、建筑、绘画、漆工、书道等类别,反映了日本社会各个时期的文化艺术和人民生活概貌。
世界著名博物馆。在东京上野公园。 1872 年创建。原为东京汤岛圣堂的文部省博物馆,1889年改为帝室博物馆,1900年又改名东京帝室博物馆。1947年博物馆由宫内省改属文部省管理,更名国立博物馆。1952年定名为东京国立博物馆,隶属文部省文化厅。东京国立博物馆由一幢日本民族式双层楼房和左侧的东洋馆、右侧的表庆馆以及大门旁的法隆寺宝物馆构成,共有43个展厅。
博物馆被普遍视为教育人们“博物洽闻、通达古今”的工具,但在适应社会发展的漫长历史进程中,现今不少国家的博物馆早已跨越了原始的社会职能,不再单纯扮演补给文化养分的角色,而是一种创造以人为本休闲空间的文化复合体。
东京国立博物馆便扮演着这样的角色。身处在这样的空间中,获得多少知识不是关键,享受与城市商业气息迥异的静谧雅致,从容地与历史和文化对话,如此这般就能轻松地成就人与人之间的和谐。
已经百岁的东京国立博物馆位于著名的上野公园附近,内有本馆、东洋馆、表庆馆及法隆寺宝物馆4个展馆共43个展厅,陈列面积1.4万余平方米,馆藏珍品约10余万件。4个藏馆内的常设展不仅涵盖了日本2000余年历史中孕育的深厚文化,同时记录了亚洲地区其他主要国家的历史。

构成

博物馆东京国立博物馆大门由 4个馆组成,藏品10万余件,陈列室总面积 1.4万余平方米,展出4000余件文物。“本馆”于1938年开馆,设20个陈列室,按时代展出日本雕刻、染织、金工、武器、刀剑、陶瓷、书画、建筑构件等展品。其中,十大弟子像、藤原佛画、雪舟泼墨山水图、狩野永德松柏屏风等都是国宝一级文物。
“表庆馆”是一座明治末年建筑,为当时皇太子成婚纪念而建造,已被列为“重要文化财”,1909年开馆,设 9个陈列室,按时代分类展出史前时代至历史时代的日本考古发掘遗物,有石器、绳纹、弥生式陶器、填轮、汉式镜、铜铎、陶瓷器等珍品。
“法隆寺宝物馆”于 1964年开馆,设3个陈列室,专门展出明治初年法隆寺向宫廷献纳的各种宝物,由于藏品极其珍贵,只限每周四开放。
“东洋馆”是1968年开放的新馆,设10个陈列室,分综合陈列、埃及艺术、西亚、东南亚艺术、中国艺术、朝鲜艺术和西域艺术等部门,展出日本以外的东方各国各地区的艺术品和考古遗物。
其中,主要展出的是中国艺术品,占5个陈列室,展品有史前的石器和彩陶,商周的青铜器,汉代的陶器和画像石,魏晋南北朝的佛像,唐代的金银器和三彩,宋、 元、 明、清的瓷器和书画等,有些文物已被列为“国宝”、“重要文化财”级文物。露天陈列有迁移来的黑门、校仓等建筑,还有石棺、石像、石兽、石柱等。日本最大的博物馆。馆内的9万多件藏品中,包括有上万件中国文物,上自新石器时代的良渚文化玉器、唐宋元瓷器,下迄清代的瓷器字画,可谓无所不包。马远的《洞山渡水图》、《寒江独钓图》,梁楷的《雪景山水图》、<李白行吟图> 、《六祖截竹图》、李迪的《红白芙蓉图》等等都是旷世名作。此外,日本各地上千座博物馆收藏有中国文物,珍品也是数不胜数,数量估计在数十万件。该馆设总务部、学艺部和资料部开展管理、科学研究、教育普及工作。除馆内研究人员外,还聘请大学教授担任客座研究员,深入开展藏品的研究,出版有《东京国立博物馆美术志》月刊。该馆每月举办讲演会,内容包括学术讲演,专题展览的纪念讲演会,文物、考古或艺术电影放映会等。此外还制作反映该馆陈列的电影片、馆藏文物幻灯片供学校和社会教育机构利用,并复制发行,以争取更大的社会效益。每年观众约 100万人次。
该馆新建了建筑面积6434平方米的资料馆,1984年开馆。设综合索引室、综合阅览室研究室、讨论室摄影室、书库,为馆内外利用者服务。

藏品

馆藏国宝小野道风的书法作品东京国立博物馆馆藏高达8万7千多件,馆藏种类从书画、雕塑、器物、织品、书籍、刀剑、金工等,镇馆之 宝有“普贤菩萨像”、“松林屏风图”、狩野派宗师狩野永德的“桧画”,这件作品展现了桃山时期狩野派豪迈强韧、粗懭大意的风格,另外,法隆寺宝物馆所珍藏古飞鸟时期和白凤时期的古老文物,则极具历史意义和文物价值。
收藏的11万多件文物个个都有着珍贵的历史和艺术价值,但位于这些文物之首的则是日本政府所指定的87件
国宝和610件重要文化财产。这些顶级文物中有一批是来自于中国的,主要包括宋元时代的绘画、中国东京国立博物馆藏的中国瓷器的古典(如王勃集)和中国的书法等文物。而仅仅是在宋元时代的绘画中,就有南宋李生的《潇湘卧游图卷》、南宋李迪的《红白芙蓉图》、南宋梁楷的《雪景山水图》和元代因陀罗的《禅机图断简寒山拾得图》4幅作品获得了“日本国宝”的桂冠。
东京国立博物馆是日本收藏中国文物最丰富的博物馆,它所设东洋馆专门陈列中国文物。在这里可以看到琳琅满目的商周青铜器和玉器,春秋战国以后的各种铜器、漆器、唐三彩、瓷器等,汉晋南北朝的各种石刻造像,历代书法绘画等。据《日本侵华对文物的破坏》一书作者孟国翔介绍,战后日本归还了一部分战时掠夺的文物,有158000多车,其中有2000多件是比较珍贵的,但这只是很少的部分。此后由于多种因素中国没有再继续追讨。
 

东洋馆藏

东京国立博物馆东洋馆藏中国文物
东洋馆共分三层。第一层陈列着包括木乃伊在内的埃及珍贵文物,印度、犍陀罗(今印度、巴基斯坦地区)早期佛教文物,东南亚与西亚的考古出土遗物,等等。笔者最感兴趣的是一号展厅名为“中国雕刻”的特别展览,26件南北朝与唐代的文物,大部分是来自中国陕西省西安宝庆寺、中国山西省长子县、山西省云冈石窟、河北省响堂山石窟等地的石佛造像,比如唐代宝庆寺如来三尊佛龛、天龙山石窟第21窟如来像,也有少量隋代金铜造像如势至菩萨立像。其中,6件公元703年至704年间的宝庆寺石佛造像甚至可考人名,比如德感造十一面观音龛、姚元景造如来三尊佛龛、高延贵造阿弥陀三尊佛龛、李承嗣造阿弥陀三尊佛龛、萧元造弥勒三尊佛龛、韦均造如来三尊佛龛等,具有极高的史料研究价值。
此外,东洋馆一层还有一些特别专题用来展示中国文物与东南亚文物之间的文化渊源。比如铜鼓,比如青花瓷。铜鼓陈列从公元前6世纪至汉唐时期,演变到明清时期,从中国南部到东南亚地区(以印度尼西亚为例),讲述了铜鼓的变迁与多样性。而青花瓷陈列,则显示了15至16世纪越南地区“染付瓷”等是受中国景德镇青花瓷影响而产生的陶瓷品种。当然,受影响的不止东南亚,也包括江户时代(1603-1876年)的日本。越南染付瓷虽然没有中国青花瓷白润与明蓝所映衬的美,纹饰描绘也略显技拙,但那种直接在灰白胎土上渲染的灰蓝,却给人一种朴素温暖的印象。至于近邻日本,历史上便一直推崇中国的青花瓷,以至于后来开始模仿与生产。檀香山艺术学院(Honolulu Academy of Arts) 曾经举办过一次名为“贸易、趣味和变革:1620年至1645年日本景德镇瓷器”(Trade, Taste and Transformation:Jingdezhen Porcelain for Japan, 1620-1645)的展览,向外界展示了长期以来中国是如何精于贸易和文化交流的。该学院院长史蒂夫·利特尔(Steve Little)表示:“瓷器和宗教(佛教)、绘画一样,是传播中国思想和独创性的三类工具之一,它从中国出口到了日本。”然而,与此并存的事实是,明朝晚期开始,随着当时中国国力的衰退与闭关政策,精明的日本人甚至在海上贸易中渐渐打破中国对欧洲瓷器出口的垄断地位。比如日本的“伊万里烧”青花瓷便题有“大明嘉靖年制”“大明万历年制”的底款,以此迷惑西方人。关于青花瓷技术如何传入日本有一种说法,1592年至1598年间,日本丰臣秀吉发动的两次侵略朝鲜战争,从朝鲜掠走了大批陶瓷器与中国陶工,这对日本青花瓷的烧制起了至关重要的作用。
东洋馆的第二层可以说就是“中国专馆”,一共五个陈列室,其中四个为“中国考古”,剩下一个是“中国绘画书法”。“中国考古”的第一陈列室是从新石器时代到汉代出土的早期文物,一共111件展品,涵盖了骨器、石器、陶器、玉器、青铜器等品种。陶器部分,有中国甘肃省、青海省出土的齐家文化红陶双耳壶、褐陶水差形土器(公元前2200年-前1600年),也有中国河南省安阳市殷墟出土的商代白陶豆(公元前13世纪-前11世纪),西周时代(公元前10世纪-前9世纪)的灰陶鬲,中国河北省易州出土的战国时代(公元前5-前3世纪)黑陶磨光纹小壶、夹砂红陶鬲,中国安徽省寿县出土的战国时代彩釉壶,等等,历史脉络清晰,纵向延伸完整。玉器部分,既有公元前5000年至公元前3000年的玉斧、玉璧、玉环、玉饰,二里头文化(公元前2000年)的玉刀,也有商周时期的饕餮纹佩玉、龙纹佩玉、玉龙、玉鱼、玉鸟,战国时代的琉璃象嵌玉、夔龙纹玉等等。东洋馆里的金属文物种类很多,以武器为例,比如商代的铜钺、铜矛,春秋战国时期的铜戈,比如中国云南省、四川省出土的战国前汉时期的铜柄铁剑,中国陕西省兴平县出土的镀金银铜刀,等等。至于典型的礼乐、祭祀用青铜器,不论是工艺精湛的簋、爵、铎,还是带有铭文的大尊、大鼎,东洋馆二层内均有一定数量的陈列。
“中国考古”的瓷器陈列室,一共有33件从三国时期到唐代的加釉彩陶器(烧制火候尚未能达到瓷器要求的1250摄氏度,也被视作早期瓷器)及43件宋代到清代的瓷器。早期瓷器包括三国、两晋南北朝时期古越州窑产的青瓷神亭壶、青瓷双耳壶、青瓷狮子、青瓷天鹅壶、青瓷莲纹盘,唐代长沙窑产的黄釉褐彩碗、黄釉绿褐彩鸟纹碗、绿釉枕、绿釉奁,以及大量的唐代三彩随葬器,如三彩骆驼、三彩马、三彩天王俑、三彩镇墓兽,等等。日本人偏好白釉、青釉、黑釉这类色调古拙、意境深远的中国瓷器,而东洋馆的宋代瓷器陈列正好也诠释了这一喜好的渊源:定窑的白瓷盘口瓶、白瓷莲花纹钵、白瓷印花花卉纹轮花钵,耀州窑的青瓷唐草纹水注、青瓷凤凰唐草纹轮花钵,钧窑的靛青釉轮花钵,官窑的青瓷轮花钵。越州窑的青瓷花纹水注,龙泉窑的青瓷唐草纹多嘴壶、褐釉划花牡丹唐草七宝纹瓶,磁州窑的白釉铁绘束莲纹瓶,吉州窑的梅花天目盏。建窑的禾目天目盏。等等。说到天目盏,不得不提及其来历。众所周知,日本的“茶道”仪式规范,其举行茶道仪式的厅、堂布置,泡茶方法,使用的茶具均效仿中国的“茶礼”。其中仪式上必须使用的黑色茶碗,叫“天目盏”。天目盏又名“天目木叶盏”,据传由日本镰仓时代(我国南宋时期)的留学僧人从中国浙江西天目山带回国。天目茶盏其实就是黑釉烧制的瓷器,墨黑的底色上散布着深蓝色的星点,构成美丽的图案,这些星点的四周还有红、蓝、绿等色彩,在阳光照耀下色彩常会变异,又称“曜变”。这种黑色的天目茶盏传入日本后倍受当地人青睐。在日本,凡是黑釉茶碗,统统被称为“天目茶盏”,以至于后来,“天目”成了一切黑釉器皿的代名词。
国人到东洋馆二层观摩瓷器,最感兴趣的莫过于元明清时期,这也“得益”于国内这几年艺术品市场的价值宣传,元青花、明清官窑,似乎都可以直接与天价画上等号。而东洋馆的元、明、清瓷器陈列,几乎就是一部景德镇陶瓷发展史:元青花莲池纹大盘,明宣德青花牡丹唐草纹钵,15世纪豆(斗)彩龙纹壶(“天”款),16世纪法花(珐华)楼阁人物纹壶,明隆庆青花人物纹长方合子(“大明隆庆年造”款),明万历五彩龙牡丹纹瓶(“大明万历年制”款,),清康熙五彩仙姑图盘,清雍正粉彩梅树纹盘(“雍正年制”款,),清乾隆青花红彩蝠云纹壶(“大清乾隆年制”款,),清乾隆红釉瓶(“大清乾隆年制”款),18世纪蓝釉粉彩桃树纹瓶,等等。由此可见,“千年瓷都”之美誉并非徒有虚名。
此外,“中国考古”还单独辟出“清代犀角”“中国漆工”等专题展览。以“中国漆工”为例,陈列着16件从南宋至明代的珍贵漆器,如南宋屈轮轮花天目台,南宋黑漆轮花盆,南宋朱漆轮花盆,元代龙涛螺钿菱花盆,元代黑漆菱花盆,元代楼阁人物螺钿十角砚箱,15世纪柳水禽螺钿合子,16世纪人物螺钿印箱,16世纪楼阁山水人物箔绘螺钿八角合子,等等。值得一提的是,从“中国考古”展区通往“中国绘画书法”陈列室的过道中,依次陈列着17件后汉时代的画像石,分别来自中国山东省的孝堂山下石祠、嘉祥县、鱼台县、晋阳山慈云寺天王殿等地,史料价值亦不容忽视
东京国立博物馆拥有的众多珍贵文物中,首推日本政府所指定的87件国宝和610件重要文化财产,而这些顶级文物中有一批是来自于中国宋元明时代的绘画与书法。在“中国绘画书法”陈列室中,仅南宋李生《潇湘卧游图卷》、南宋李迪《红白芙蓉图》、南宋梁楷《雪景山水图》和元代因陀罗《禅机图断简寒山拾得图》4幅作品就获得了“日本国宝”的桂冠。其余珍贵绘画还包括南宋马远的《洞山渡水图》,明代朱端的《寒江独钓图》,清代赵之谦的《花卉图》等。而书法作品则囊括了黄庭坚朱熹、赵孟頫、八大山人、郑燮等名家。东洋馆第三层陈列则以朝鲜文物为主,也可间接观察中国传统文化对半岛历史发展的深远影响。
 

English Introduction

Tokyo is Japan's largest museum, located in Tokyo Taitung district north of Ueno Park, founded in Meiji four years (AD 1871), now the building was completed in 1938. The Oriental Museum, by a Japanese National Double building and left on the right side of the table to celebrate the Horyu Ji treasures Museum, near the gate, a total of 43 exhibition halls. The museum's collection of hundreds of thousands of Japanese historical relics and art treasures, of which 70 have been designated as national treasure. Exhibits are divided into sculpture, dyeing, metalworking, Wuhan, sword, ceramics, architecture, painting, painting, calligraphy and other categories, reflecting different periods of Japanese society, culture and people's life picture.
World famous museum. Ueno Park in Tokyo. Created in 1872. The Ministry of education for Tokyo Museum Yushima temple, in 1889 changed to the Royal Museum, 1900 renamed the Tokyo Royal museum. In 1947 the museum by the province to the Ministry of education management in the National Museum, renamed. 1952 known as the National Museum of Tokyo, under the Ministry of Education Department of culture. Tokyo National Museum of Oriental Museum, by a Japanese National Double building and left on the right side of the table to celebrate the Horyu Ji treasures Museum, near the gate, a total of 43 exhibition halls.
The museum is generally regarded as "Bowuqiawen, educate people wide" tool, but in the social development to adapt to the long history, many national museum has gone beyond the original social functions, not only play a role of nutrient supply culture, but to create a people-oriented leisure space cultural complex.
The National Museum of Tokyo plays such a role. In this space, how much knowledge is not the key, and enjoy the quiet city commercial atmosphere different elegant, leisurely conversation with history and culture, between such can be easily achieved between man and man.
A hundred year old Tokyo National Museum is located near the famous Ueno Park, in the museum, Oriental Museum, museum and Horyu Ji Qing table treasure hall 4 hall a total of 43 exhibition halls, exhibition area of more than 1.4 square meters, about 10 more than a collection of treasures. The permanent exhibition of the 4 Tibetan Museum covers not only the profound culture of Japan's more than 2000 years of history, but also the history of other major Asian countries.Museum of Tokyo national museum gate consists of 4 pavilions, collections of more than 10 pieces, a total area of more than 1.4 square meters exhibition room, exhibiting more than 4000 pieces of cultural relics. "The museum" opened in 1938, set up 20 exhibition rooms, according to the times exhibited Japanese sculpture, dyeing, metalworking, weapons, swords, ceramics, painting, building components and other exhibits. Among them, the ten disciples like Fujiwara, Buddha paintings, sesshu map, Kano ink landscape of Yongde evergreen screen is a national treasure level cultural relics.
"Qing museum is a building built at the time of Meiji period, the prince married mark, has been listed as important cultural property", opened in 1909, set up 9 exhibition rooms, according to the classification of prehistoric times to the historical era exhibition era of Japan's archaeological relics, stone, pottery, Jomon Yayoi type fill in the round, Han style mirror, copper, ceramics and other treasures.
"Horyuji treasures Museum" opened in 1964, set up 3 exhibition rooms, special exhibition of various treasures Meiji Temple Temple to Gong Tingxian, because of the extremely precious collections, only open every Thursday.
"Oriental Museum" is the new museum opened in 1968, set up 10 exhibition rooms, comprehensive display, Egyptian art, West Asia, Southeast Asia, China art art, Korean art and Western art exhibition and other departments, various countries and regions outside of Japan Oriental Art and archaeological relics.
Among them, China art is the main exhibition, 5 exhibition rooms, a stone and pottery prehistoric exhibits, Shang and Zhou bronzes, pottery and stone portraits of Han Dynasty, Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties statues, gold and silver and three color in Tang, song, yuan, Ming and Qing porcelain and painting and calligraphy, some cultural relics have been as a "national treasure", "important cultural property" of cultural relics. The open display of migration to the black gate, azekura and other buildings, and the sarcophagus, stone, stone, stone and other animals. Japan's largest museum. More than 90 thousand collections in the museum, including tens of thousands of pieces of cultural relics Chinese, Liangzhu Culture jade, Tang Yuan porcelain from the Neolithic age, till the Qing Dynasty porcelain, calligraphy and painting, is Everything is contained therein. Ma Yuan "hole mountain map", "trees and fishing alone", Liang Kai's "snow landscape map", "Li", "sixth section map to map", Li Di's "bamboo Red Hibiscus" and so on are great masterpieces. In addition, throughout Japan thousands of Museum has Chinese cultural relics treasures is beyond count estimates of the number in the hundreds of thousands of pieces. The museum is a department of general affairs department, Ministry of information and carry out management, scientific research, education and popularization. In addition to the museum researchers, but also to employ a university professor as a visiting researcher, in-depth study of collections, published in the "National Museum of fine arts, Tokyo," monthly. The museum holds a monthly lecture, which includes academic lectures, commemorative presentations of special exhibitions, cultural relics, archaeological or art film screenings, etc.. In addition, the production of films and collections of cultural relics, which are displayed on the exhibition hall, is used for the use of schools and social education institutions, and the reproduction and distribution are made for greater social benefits. About 1 million people per year.
The museum built a construction area of 6434 square meters of the museum, opened in 1984. A comprehensive index, comprehensive study room reading room room, conference room studio, library, for use inside and outside the museum service.The David Onokazu wind calligraphy works of Tokyo National Museum collection of up to more than 87 thousand, from the collection of painting and calligraphy, sculpture, types of utensils, textiles, books, swords, metalworking, zhenguanzhibao "Samantabhadra Bodhisattva", "pine screen map", Kano school master Kano "Yongde Hui painting" this piece of work, showing the Momoyama period Kano School of heroic fortitude, coarse Kuang careless style, in addition, the museum collection of ancient Temple Temple Treasures of ancient birds period and Baifeng period, is of historic significance and cultural value.
The collection of more than 110 thousand pieces of cultural relics have precious historical and artistic value, but in the first of these relics is designated by the Japanese government of the 87 pieces
National treasure and 610 important cultural property. There are a number of cultural relics in the top is from China, mainly including the song and Yuan Dynasties painting, National Museum of Tokyo China Chinese classical porcelain (such as Wang Bo set) and Chinese calligraphy and other cultural relics. But only in the song and Yuan Dynasties painting, is the Southern Song Dynasty Li Sheng "by Li Di in the Southern Song Dynasty," Xiaoxiang spiritual travel of the "Red Hibiscus", the Southern Song Dynasty Liang Kai "snow landscape map" and the Indra "Zen figure off Jane Hanshan map" 4 works won the Japan national treasure "laurel.
National Museum of Tokyo is the most abundant China Japanese collections of cultural relics museum, its set of Oriental museum dedicated to China cultural relics. Here you can see the bronze and jade a superb collection of beautiful things, after the spring and autumn all kinds of bronze, lacquer ware, pottery and porcelain, Han Jin Dynasties of ancient stone carvings, calligraphy and painting etc.. According to "Meng Guoxiang" on the destruction of the Japanese invasion of the author of a Book of cultural relics, the return of a part of postwar Japanese wartime relics looted, more than 158 thousand cars, more than 2 thousand of which are relatively rare, but this is only a small part of. Since then, due to a variety of factors, China did not continue to recover.Tokyo National Museum of Oriental cultural relics collection Chinese
Oriental Museum is divided into three layers. The first layer display of precious cultural relics, including Egyptian mummies, Gandhara, India (now India, Pakistan) the early Buddhist relics, archaeological relics unearthed in West Asia and Southeast Asia, etc.. The author is most interested in a hall called "special exhibition China sculpture", 26 dynasties and the Tang Dynasty cultural relics, mostly from Shaanxi Province, Xi'an Chinese Baoqing temple, China Zhangzi County in Shanxi Province, Shanxi Province, Hebei Province, Yungang Grottoes ring grottoes, the stone statues, such as the Tang Dynasty Baoqing Temple the three Buddhas, Tianlong mountain cave twenty-first Buddha like, also have a small amount of the Sui Dynasty bronze statues of Buddha statues such as the potential to. Among them, 6 in 703 to 704 years of the temple of stone statues and Baoqing test names, such as the German sense made eleven Guanyin Buddha niches, Yao Yuanjing built three Buddhas, high Yangui Amitabha made three Buddhas, Lee made inheritance Amitabha three Buddhas, three Buddhas, Wei Junzao Xiao Yuanzao of Maitreya as of three Buddhas, has a very high historical data value.
In addition, the cultural origin between Oriental hall floor and some special topics to show China cultural relics and cultural relics in Southeast asia. For example, drums, such as blue and white porcelain. A display from sixth Century BC to the Han and Tang Dynasties, the evolution of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, China from south to Southeast Asia (Indonesia for example), tells the story of Tonggu change and diversity. The blue and white porcelain display, showing the 15 to sixteenth Century in Vietnam, "stained porcelain" and so on, is affected by China's Jingdezhen blue and white porcelain varieties. Of course, affected more than southeast Asia, including the Edo period (1603-1876) in japan. Although there is no China pay with Vietnamese porcelain blue and white porcelain and white embellish Ming blue backed by the beauty of decoration depicting also slightly skill, but the kind of rendering directly in the blue gray clay, it gives people a warm and simple impression. As for Japan, the history of China has been respected Chinese blue and white porcelain, and then began to imitate and production. The Art Institute of Honolulu (Honolulu Academy of Arts) has hosted a "trade, fun and change: 1620 to 1645 Japan Jingdezhen porcelain" (Trade, Taste and Transformation:Jingdezhen Porcelain for Japan, 1620-1645) of the exhibition, to show how long Chinese in trade and cultural exchanges. Steve Little, Dean of the Steve, said: "China and religion (Buddhism), painting, is one of the three types of tools to spread Chinese thinking and originality, it exports from China to japan." However, with the coexistence is the fact that the late Ming Dynasty, along with the time Chinese national strength decline and closed door policy, smart Japanese even in maritime trade gradually break Chinese exports to European porcelain monopoly. For example, Japan's "Imari burning" blue and white porcelain was entitled the "Ming Jiajing years" "Ming Dynasty Wanli year" at the end of paragraph, to confuse the westerners. How about the blue and white porcelain technology in Japan there is a saying, from 1592 to 1598, the two invasion of Korean War launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi from Japan, North Korea got away with a lot of ceramics and Chinese Potter, this firing on Japanese blue and white porcelain has played a crucial role.
The second layer of Oriental Museum can be said to be "China Museum", a total of five exhibition rooms, four of which are "China archaeology", one is "Chinese painting and calligraphy". "The first showroom China archaeology" is from the Neolithic period to the early Han Dynasty unearthed cultural relics, a total of 111 pieces, covering the bone, stone, pottery, jade, bronze and other varieties. There are China pottery part, Gansu Province, Qinghai province unearthed terracotta pot ears, Qijia culture Brown pottery water poor shape clayware (2200 BC - 1600), also unearthed in Anyang city of Henan province Chinese Yin Shang Bai Tao Dou (thirteenth Century BC - eleventh Century), the Western Zhou Dynasty (Tenth Century BC - before ninth Century) gray pottery, Hebei province China easy to state of the Warring States period era (5- third Century BC) black lines small pot, polished sand red pottery unearthed in Shouxian County, Anhui province Chinese Warring States era glazed pots, etc., the history is clear, complete vertical extension. Jade, both from 5000 BC to 3000 years of Jade axe, jade, Yuhuan, jade ornaments, Erlitou Culture (2000 BC) the jade sword, also the Shang and Zhou dynasties, jade dragon, gluttonous Wen Peiyu ERON, jade fish, bird, the Warring States period jade inlay, Kui like glass jade dragon and so on. A lot of Oriental Museum metal cultural relic species, using weapons as an example, such as the Shang Dynasty bronze Tomahawk, bronze spears, the spring and Autumn period copper Ge, such as Sichuan province of the Warring States period and the Western Han Dynasty period, Yunnan province Chinese copper handle sword, Chinese Xingping County of Shaanxi Province unearthed gold and silver plated copper knives, etc.. As for the typical ritual, ceremonial bronzes, whether it is exquisite, GUI, grand duo, big statue, tripod or with the inscription, display Oriental Museum has a number of two layers."Chinese archaeology" porcelain exhibition room, a total of 33 pieces from the Three Kingdoms period to the Tang Dynasty with glazed pottery (burning furnace still fails to meet the requirements of porcelain is 1250 degrees Celsius, is regarded as the early porcelain and porcelain) 43 pieces of song to Qing Dynasty. The early period of Jin Dynasty, including three porcelain kiln, Yue celadon celadon pot pot, God Pavilion, lion, celadon celadon ears, celadon lotus Swan pot plate the northern and Southern Dynasties, the Tang Dynasty Changsha kiln production of yellow glaze, yellow glaze bowl of brown color green brown color bird pattern bowl, pillow, green green box and a large number of. The Tang Sancai burial, such as camels, horses, three three three three tomb figurines, king of beasts, etc.. Japanese preference white glaze, celadon, black glaze colors, this kind of artistic conception China antique porcelain, and the origin of the Song Dynasty porcelain Oriental Museum display is the interpretation of this preference: white porcelain bottle, Ding white porcelain lotus bowl, white porcelain printing flower pattern round flowerpot, Yaozhou kiln celadon Tang grass grain water, grass grain wheel Phoenix Tang celadon glaze flowerpot flowerpot, indigo round together, kiln celadon round flowerpot. The Yue Kiln celadon pattern, Longquan celadon Tang grass grain talkative pot, brown glaze peony designated Tang Cao Qibao pattern vase, Cizhouyao white glaze painted iron beam lotus bottle, Jizhou kiln plum Tianmu lamp. The lamp he Mu Tianmu kilns. Wait。 When it comes to Tianmu light, and its origin. As everyone knows, the Japanese tea ceremony, held the tea ceremony hall layout, preparation method, use the tea "tea ceremony were followed China". Must use one of the ceremony called "black tea bowl, Tianmu lamp". Tianmu light also known as "Tianmu leaves lights", allegedly by the Japanese Kamakura era (the Southern Song Dynasty of China) foreign monks returned to China from Chinese mountain in Zhejiang province. Tianmu tea is actually a black glaze porcelain firing, black color dotted with dark blue star, a beautiful pattern, around these star there are red, blue, green and other colors, the sun shining color often variation, also known as "yohen". The black tea was introduced to Japan in Tianmu has local people of all ages. In Japan, all black glaze bowl, collectively called "Tianmu tea", so that later, "temmoku" became synonymous with all black glazed ware.
Chinese people to the Oriental Museum two layer to observe porcelain, is most interested in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the "benefit" in the past few years the domestic art market value of publicity, Guan yuan blue and white porcelain, Ming and Qing Dynasties, appears to be directly equated with price. The Oriental Museum of Yuan Ming and Qing Dynasty porcelain exhibition, is almost a history of the development of Jingdezhen ceramic grain market: Yuan blue and white lotus, Xuande blue and white peony of Tang grass grain bowl, fifteenth Century beans (bucket) cailong grain pot ("day" section), sixteenth Century (Fa Hua) Pavilion character pattern flower pot, Ming LongQin blue and white character pattern ("Ming Longqing years a zygote" section), the Ming Dynasty colorful dragon peony vase ("Ming Dynasty Wanli year", the Qing emperor Kangxi), colorful fairy figure, Yong Zheng pastel grooves ("Yong Zheng plum year", the Qing Emperor Qianlong), blue and white red color cloud bat grain (pot "in the Qianlong", the Qing Emperor Qianlong), red glaze bottle ("Qing Qianlong" section), eighteenth Century blue glaze vase with pastel peach, etc.. Thus, the reputation of "Millennium porcelain" not only have a.
In addition, the "Chinese archaeology" also to separate "Qing Dynasty" China painter "horn" special exhibition. "China painter" as an example, a precious lacquer 16 pieces from the Southern Song Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty on display, such as the Southern Song Dynasty bent round flower Tianmu, southern black round pots, the red dragon round pot, the mother of Pearl Ling flowerpot, Yuan Ling black paint pots, the pavilion ten angle inkstone box figure Luodian, fifteenth Century Liu water bird Luodian zygote, sixteenth Century figure mother of Pearl printed box, sixteenth Century Pavilion landscapes painted Luodian foil octagonal zygote, etc.. It is worth mentioning that, from the "Chinese archaeology" to "painting and calligraphy exhibition Chinese" showroom in the aisles, which displays 17 pieces of stone portrait of Han era, were from Shandong province Chinese filial Church Hill stone temple, Jiaxiang County, Yutai County, Jinyang mountain Ciyun Temple Hall, historical materials the value can not be ignored
Many precious cultural relics of Tokyo National Museum has 87 national treasures, the first Japanese government designated and 610 important cultural property, which has a number of top relics from painting and calligraphy China Yuan Ming era. In the "Chinese painting calligraphy" showroom, only Li Sheng in the Southern Song Dynasty "," Xiaoxiang spiritual travel by Li Di in the Southern Song Dynasty "Red Hibiscus", "snow landscape map" Liang Kai in the Southern Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty Indra "Zen drawing off Jane Hanshan map" 4 works won the "Japanese national treasure" laurel. The rest of the Southern Song Dynasty painting also includes precious horse far "hole mountain map" in the Ming Dynasty, Zhu end "trees and fishing alone", the Qing Dynasty Zhao Zhiqian's "flower". The calligraphy works included Huang Tingjian, Zhu Xi, Zhao Mengtiao, Zheng Xie, and other famous badashanren. Oriental Museum third layer to display Korean relics mainly, it can indirectly observe influence of traditional culture on the peninsula China historical development.

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