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矫饰主义

矫饰主义。一词源于意大利文Maniera,也被译为曼那主义,样式主义和矫饰主义,—意即“风格”。它反对理性对绘画的指导作用,强调艺术家内心体验与个人表现,注重艺术创作的形式感,倾斜线条和曲线的运用比较明显。

  • 中文名矫饰主义
  • 别名风格主义
来历

矫饰主义。一词源于意大利文Maniera,也被译为曼那主义,样式主义和矫饰主义,—意即“风格”。它反对理性对绘画的指导作用,强调艺术家内心体验与个人表现,注重艺术创作的形式感,倾斜线条和曲线的运用比较明显。
“风格主义”一词在第一次世界大战爆发前浮上台面,最初开始于艺术历史学家们在艺术称呼上的争论。德国艺术历史学家海因里希·沃尔夫林(Heinrich Wölfflin)首先使用这一词以形容意大利16世纪时那些无法被分类的艺术作品、那种在后来将另一种“风格”的文艺复兴引进了法国的风格,既不是文艺复兴也不是巴洛克的风格。在英国的艺术历史学家看来,风格主义相当难以分类;也几乎没有影响到主流的艺术,它的定义也相当模糊。
但是在历史角度上,风格主义一词很常被用以形容在文艺复兴晚期(1550-1580)出现的一种潮流,这个潮流在当时藉由瘦长的形式、夸大的风格、不平衡的姿势来描绘人类和动物,以此产生戏剧化和强而有力的影像。甚至连米开朗基罗也曾被称为风格主义者—他晚期的作品中马匹和人类的外形的确近乎于失去平衡的样子。在当时意大利混乱的局势下,风格主义成为一种以鼓舞人心和虔诚为目标的艺术流派

历史

风格主义画家乔治·瓦萨里在其名著《艺苑名人传》的卷头插画展现的雕刻结构,在英语系国家被称为“詹姆斯风格”(Jacobean)。在这幅画中,受到了米开朗基罗的美第奇墓碑(Medici tombs)中反建筑式的顶端特色的影响,在如纸一般薄的框架里,以酒神的裸体布满框架。并以佛罗伦斯的蔓藤花样装饰框架,类似纸张和羊皮纸的材料被剪裁、伸直并加以扇型化,成为螺旋型的装饰(cartoccia),这种设计看起来相当不自然,顶端的坛子又以大量在实际上不可能排列出的人工的“自然”细节加以装饰,于是整体看来便成为了一种形式:风格主义。
瓦萨里在一本研究卷头插画的书中,经由赞扬一些同类型的艺术家而透露了他自身对艺术创作的“艺术”看法:他相信若要画出好的作品,画家必须有著优雅、丰富的创造力(invenzione)、经由专业的方法描绘(maniera)、在完成的作品中显现智慧和努力,所有的标准都强调画家的才智和赞助者的鉴赏力。如此一来画家便不再是当地的一名工匠,而已准备好能呈现出学者、诗人、人文学家的一面,同时赞助者也需有著优雅而具深度的鉴赏力。瓦萨里的赞助人美第奇家族的图案就描绘在肖像的顶端,彷佛他们就是画家本身一般。

特点

风格主义通常与文艺复兴全盛时期的艺术习惯相反。这并非是因为画家们对无法达成拉斐尔式的平衡性和即时性感到绝望才改变风格,而是因为这种平衡性已经不再符合当时的气氛和潮流了。风格主义在拉斐尔的两位学徒—朱利欧·罗马诺(Giulio Romano)和安德利亚·德尔·萨尔托(Andrea del Sarto)的发展下逐渐成熟,安德利亚·德尔·萨尔托的画室也培养出了标准的风格主义画家蓬托莫(Pontormo)和罗索·菲伦蒂诺(Rosso Fiorentino)。
在文艺复兴全盛时期,当古典主义对人体的写实描绘和透视法已经达到巅峰的程度后,一些画家开始刻意地将画面的结构扭曲,产生非理性的情感和艺术空间。格雷考也被一些人认为是风格主义的画家,不过格雷考在画中也表达出独特的个人特色,而不仅是画面的扭曲设计,在他的画中也可以感觉出“酸性”的色调,他描绘的人物显得瘦长而饱受扭曲,非理性的透视画法和让人窒息的光线、拥挤的构图,让观看者感觉朦胧而烦恼。
罗马、佛罗伦斯和曼图亚(Mantua)是风格主义发展的中心。威尼斯人的绘画则在不同的“学校”中发展出各自的独特风格,以提香的绘画生涯为代表。

English Introduction

Mannerism. Comes from the Italian Maniera, also translated as the Roman doctrine, style doctrine and mannerism, which means "- style". It is opposed to the rational guidance of painting, emphasizing the artist's inner experience and personal performance, pay attention to the sense of form of artistic creation, the use of oblique lines and curves is more obvious.
The term "style" came to an end before the outbreak of the first World War, which began with the debate among art historians on the artistic title. The German art historian Heinrich Wolfflin (Heinrich Wö lfflin) first used the term to describe Italy in sixteenth Century that cannot be classified in the later works of art, that will be another kind of "style" of the introduction of the French Renaissance style, neither Renaissance or Baroque style. In the view of British art historians, the style of art is very difficult to classify; it has little influence on the art of the mainstream.
But in the historical angle, style a word is often used to describe in the late Renaissance (1550-1580) is a kind of trend, the trend of depicting human and animal by exaggerating the slender form, style, unbalanced posture at the time, in order to produce dramatic and powerful image. Even Michelangelo was once known as a style of Art - in his later works, the appearance of horses and humans was almost out of balance. At the time of the chaotic situation in Italy, the style of art became a kind of art school with the aim of inspiring and piety

The structure of Mannerist painter George Vasari in the engraved frontispiece of the masterpiece "art celebrity biography" of the show, in the English speaking countries known as the "James style" (Jacobean). In this painting, by Michelangelo (Medici tombs) the tombstone effect in anti style characteristics in the top, paper thin frame, with full frame naked dionysus. And the Florence vine pattern decoration frame, similar paper and parchment material is cut, straight and fan type, a screw type decoration (cartoccia), this design looks quite natural, the top of the jar with a lot in fact can not be arranged in the artificial "natural" decorated details so, the whole has become a form of style.
Vasari in this study a frontispiece of the book, by the praise of some of the same type of artist and revealed his own artistic creation of "art": he believed that if you want to draw out good works, the artist must have elegant, rich creativity (invenzione), described by the professional method (maniera) show, wisdom and efforts to complete the work, all standards are emphasizing the artist's wisdom and appreciation of the sponsors. So it is no longer an artisan painter of local, just ready to show a scholar, poet, writer, and sponsors also need to have elegant and profound appreciation. Vasari sponsored by the beauty of the Medici family pattern is depicted in the portrait of a top, as if they are artists in general.

English Introduction

The habit of art style and usually Renaissance instead. This is not because artists are not able to achieve the balance of the Rafael style and immediate appeal to despair to change the style, but because this balance is no longer in line with the atmosphere and the trend of the. Style in two - Julio Romano Rafael's Apprentice (Giulio Romano) and Andrea Del Sarto (Andrea del Sarto) under the development of mature, Andrea Del Sarto studio has produced the standard style painter Pontormo (Pontormo) and Rosso Fiorentino (Rosso Fiorentino).
In the Renaissance, when classical realism on the human body drawing and perspective has reached the pinnacle of the degree, some artists began to deliberately distorted picture of the structure, irrational emotion and art space. Greco is also considered by some to be the Mannerist painter, but Gray admitted in his paintings also express the unique personal characteristics, and is not only a distorted picture design, in his paintings can also feel the "acidic" tone, he portrayed the character very thin and highly distorted, non rational perspective and make people the light asphyxia and crowded composition, make viewers feel hazy and trouble.
Rome, Florence and (Mantua) are the center of the development of style. The people of Venice painting in different "schools" in the development of their unique style, to Titian's painting career as a representative.

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