美术

当前位置:首页 > 美术百科网 > 美术学术网 > 美术画派

巴洛克美术

巴洛克美术(Baroque art)欧洲17世纪的美术样式。发源于意大利,以其热情奔放、运动强烈、装饰华丽而自成一体,与16世纪盛期文艺复兴美术的庄重典雅相区别。巴洛克美术在文艺复兴美术之后,一定程度上发扬了现实主义的传统,从而克服了16世纪后期流行的样式主义消极倾向。另一方面,巴洛克美术符合当时天主教会利用宣传工具争取信众的需要,也适应各国宫廷贵族的爱好,因此在17世纪风靡全欧,影响到其他艺术流派,使欧洲的17世纪有巴洛克时代之称。

  • 中文名巴洛克美术
  • 外文名Baroque art
  • 起源欧洲
  • 时间6世纪下半期
简介

巴洛克是17世纪广为流传的一种艺术风格。它的名称由来,说法不一,一说来自葡萄牙或西班牙语,意思是不圆的珠子;又一说它来自意大利语,有奇特、古怪或推论上错误的含义。总的来说这个名称在当时含有贬意,是18世纪古典主义艺术理论家对于上一个世纪一种艺术风格的称呼。古典主义者认为巴洛克是一种堕落瓦解的艺术,只是到了后来,才对巴洛克艺术有了一个较为公正的评价。巴洛克艺术产生于16世纪下半期,它的盛期是17世纪,进入18世纪,除北欧和中欧地区外,它逐渐衰落。巴洛文艺术最早产生于意大利,它无疑与反宗教改革有关,罗马是当时教会势力的中心,所以它在罗马兴起就不足为奇了,可以说,巴格克艺术虽不是宗教发明的,但它是为教会服务,被宗教利用的,教会是它最强有力的支柱。
概括地讲巴洛克艺术有如下的一些特点:首先是它有豪华的特色,它既有宗教的特色又有享乐主义的色彩;二是它是一种激情的艺术,它打破理性的宁静和谐,具有浓郁的浪漫主义色彩,非常强调艺术家的丰富想象力;三是它极力强调、运动,运动与变化可以说是巴洛克艺术的灵魂;四是它很关注作品的空间感和立体感;五是它的综合性,巴洛克艺术强调艺术形式的综合手段,例如在建筑上重视建筑与雕刻、绘画的综合,此外,巴洛克艺术也吸收了文学、戏剧、音乐等领域里的一些因素和想象;六是它有着浓重的宗教色彩,宗教题材在巴洛克艺术中占有主导的地位;七是大多数巴洛克的艺术家有远离生活和时代的倾向,如在一些天顶画中,人的形象变得微不足道,如同是一些花纹。当然,一些积极的巴洛克艺术大师不在此例,如鲁本斯、贝尼尼的作品和生活仍然保持有密切的联系。

起源

巴洛克(Baroque)一词的来源至今仍不甚明确。它可能来自以下三词:意大利语的baroco,指中世纪繁缛可笑的一种神学讨论;意大利语的baroc-chio,指暧昧可疑的买卖活动;葡萄牙语的barocco,指畸形的珍珠。三词皆含悖理怪奇之意,因此自18世纪以来,它们都可能被对巴洛克美术怀有偏见的人用作讥讽的称呼。这种倾向在古典主义和新古典主义的文艺理论中尤为明显。这种贬意甚重的称谓不仅表示了古典主义学派的偏见,也说明当时对巴洛克美术研究甚少,了解不多。19世纪后期以来,巴洛克美术才得到积极评价,德国美术史家W.吕布克在其《建筑史》、瑞士史学家J.布尔克哈特在《意大利艺术指南》等书中,皆称颂巴洛克建筑之美,建筑界也出现一些仿效巴洛克风格的名作,如巴黎歌剧院。学术研究中确定其地位的是德国美术史家H.沃尔夫林1888年出版的《文艺复兴与巴洛克》一书,他指出巴洛克是继文艺复兴之后的主要流派,并对其形式特点作了分析和历史考察。在他之后,意大利学者E.南乔尼于1895年进而把17世纪文明的特点归纳为巴洛克主义,学术界逐渐形成了17世纪是巴洛克时代的概念,甚至有巴洛克音乐、巴洛克文学、巴洛克哲学等提法,使有关问题的研究在艺术史和文化史中逐渐深化。

除了确认巴洛克美术的历史地位而外,西方学术界对有关问题的研究还有另一方面的发展,即把巴洛克相对于文艺复兴的风格特点当作具有普遍意义的艺术形式发展模式,认为其他时代和其他民族的艺术也有这种从文艺复兴到巴洛克的演进,甚至认为这是艺术形式或视觉形式的不依社会内容为转移的独立规律。首先提出这种主张的也是沃尔夫林(《美术史原理》,1915)。他把文艺复兴代表的古典主义和巴洛克当作艺术表现形式的两极,各有一系列互为对照的特点,并形成由此及彼的规律性发展。以此类推,则各地、各时代美术皆有其古典和巴洛克阶段,例如希腊美术在公元前5~前4世纪为古典阶段,希腊化时期则为巴洛克阶段;哥特式美术在13世纪为古典阶段,14~15世纪为巴洛克阶段;甚至日本美术也可如此划分。沃尔夫林的学说开启了形式主义分析的流派,在西方影响甚大,不少学者认为巴洛克可作为每一文化或文明进入后期阶段的特征,使之具有更为普遍的意义。
 

建筑

巴洛克建筑最早可追溯于米开朗琪罗的雄强风格和大胆设计,如圣彼得大教堂(梵蒂冈)的圆顶他的两位助手G.da维尼奥拉和G.della波尔塔在15681584年间完成的罗马耶稣教堂则被公认为是从样式主义转向巴洛克的代表作这座教堂内部突出了主厅和中央圆顶,加强了中央大门的作用,以其结构的严密和中心效果的强烈而显示了新的特色,因此,耶稣教堂的内部和门面后来都成为巴洛克教堂的模式。17世纪早期巴洛克建筑的主要代表则是C.马代尔诺建造的罗马圣苏珊娜教堂(1597~1603),虽大体仿效耶稣教堂,比例却更为高峻雄伟,门面的细部安排层层曲突,愈近中央大门愈为明显(例如由扁平的方柱变为半圆柱再变为3/4圆柱)。建筑的立体塑形复杂多变,动态强烈。马代尔诺还担任了圣彼得大教堂的内部改建和门面建筑设计。这座著名建筑曾按米开朗琪罗和波尔塔的设计,建成了中央圆顶,但教会出于宗教仪式需要,决定修改原来的中心型的设计,由马代尔诺加长了主厅前半部,使它成为符合教会传统的长方形十字教堂。马代尔诺扩建的内部和门面仍充分吸取了米开朗琪罗巨形柱式的基本图案,保持了整体的雄伟感,门面的安排还采取了类似圣苏珊娜教堂的手法,使这种教堂具有了巴洛克的面貌。但由于主厅加长,圆顶被置于后部,从门面上已看不到圆顶的雄姿,实为美中不足。

17世纪盛期巴洛克建筑的两位最杰出的大师,是G.L.贝尼尼和F·博罗米尼。贝尼尼以雕刻家而兼精建筑,他在1624~1633年间完成的、置于圣彼得大教堂内的青铜华盖,是一座高达29米的巨型幕棚,以4根螺旋形雕花大柱支撑盖顶,雄伟而又华丽。贝尼尼长期担任圣彼得大教堂内部装修,使建筑与雕刻融为一体。最为著名的是他为教堂祭坛设计的圣彼得法座,卫护的圣徒、飞腾的天使和云间透射的圣灵之光与建筑结合巧妙,充分发挥了巴洛克美术热烈奔放的特色。贝尼尼还为圣彼得大教堂设计了门前双臂环拱形的广场和柱廊,使它成为西方最美的广场建筑之一。博罗米尼的建筑喜用凹凸多变的曲线和多种几何形体的复杂交错,从整体布局到细部安排都能独出心裁,代表作如四泉的圣卡洛教堂、圣伊沃教堂等,被誉为巴洛克建筑的典范。在他俩影响下,罗马出现了一大批巴洛克建筑大师,著名的如彼得罗·达科尔托纳、C.拉伊纳尔迪、小M.伦吉、C.丰塔纳等。他们在罗马建造了许多华美的教堂、宫殿、广场与喷泉,遂使巴洛克风格流行全欧。

除罗马外,意大利北部也出现了两位著名大师:威尼斯的B·隆盖纳和主要工作于都灵的G.瓜里尼。前者的代表作是威尼斯的健康圣玛丽亚教堂,后者则为都灵的圣洛伦佐教堂和圣辛多内礼拜堂,皆以灵巧秀逸取胜。传播于西欧诸国的巴洛克建筑,又结合各地特点而各有所长,如法、英等国带有较严谨的色彩,德国南部则华丽辉煌达于极致,西班牙及其统治下的拉丁美洲也是巴洛克的沃土之一。西班牙最倾心于繁富与瑰丽,而在拉丁美洲又一定程度上吸收了印第安人固有的装饰传统,形成世界美术中的奇葩。

绘画

巴洛克绘画也可溯源于米开朗琪罗和科雷乔等文艺复兴大师,但主要是通过克服16世纪后期的样式主义而发展的。而在这一过程之初,两位影响最大的艺术家卡拉瓦乔和A.卡拉奇又分别以现实主义和古典主义为主要特色因此巴洛克风格的形成比较复杂,它吸收了这些大师的健康的写实倾向和一些手法特点(如光暗、色彩、透视等),并配合巴洛克建筑而发展。意大利巴洛克绘画的名家有G.雷尼、圭尔奇诺、B.斯特罗齐、S.罗萨等,尤以兼工建筑的彼得罗?达科尔托纳为杰出。他的主要作品是罗马巴尔贝里尼宫大厅壁画和佛罗伦萨皮蒂宫壁画与装饰,前者继承了卡拉奇圭尔奇诺以来的屋顶壁画传统,在建筑透视背景上让空中翱翔的神话人物穿插其间,气势磅礴,动感极其强烈;后者则将华丽的壁画、雕塑与建筑结为一体,充分发挥了巴洛克的特色,在室内装修艺术上具有划时代意义。17世纪后期的典型巴洛克绘画作品都是这类天顶壁画和装饰壁画。其中最著名的是A.波佐创作的圣伊尼亚齐奥教堂天顶壁画,把巴洛克透视画法发挥得淋漓尽致。但最伟大的巴洛克画家不是意大利人,而是佛兰德斯的P.P.鲁本斯,他的热情奔放、绚丽多彩的艺术对西方画坛具有更持久的影响。另一方面,从17世纪是巴洛克时代的角度看,另几位现实主义大师如荷兰伦勃朗、西班牙的D.委拉斯贵支等,也在一定程度上具有若干巴洛克的风格特色。

English Introduction

The Baroque art style is a popular seventeenth Century. Its name comes from a different point of view. It is said to be from Portugal or Spain, which means the beads are not round; and it is said to come from Italian, with a strange, eccentric, or wrong meaning. On the whole, the name contained a derogatory meaning at that time, which was the title of a kind of artistic style in the eighteenth Century. The classical view of the Baroque is a kind of art of disintegration and collapse, but only to a later time, the Baroque art has a more fair evaluation. Baroque art came into being in the second half of sixteenth Century, it was in seventeenth Century, entered in eighteenth Century, in addition to northern Europe and central Europe, it gradually declined. Baluowen art originated in Italy, it is undoubtedly related to the Counter Reformation, Rome was the center of the church, so it will be not at all surprising rise in Rome, it can be said that Bagk is not a religious art invention, but it is for the service of the church, by religious use, the church is the most strong pillar of it.
Generally speaking, the Baroque art has some characteristics as follows: first, it is a luxury feature, it has both religious characteristics and hedonism colors; the two is that it is a passion for art, it breaks the rational peace and harmony, with a strong romantic color, very strong imagination of the artist's three tone; it is strongly emphasized, movement, movement and change can be said to be the soul of Baroque art; the four is the sense of space it works and three-dimensional sense; five is its comprehensive nature, Baroque art emphasized the art forms, such as in the construction of architecture and sculpture, drawing attention to comprehensive, in addition, Baroque art also absorbed some factors and imagine the fields of literature, drama, music and other; six is that it has a strong religious color, religious themes in Baroque art in the dominant Status; seven is the most Baroque artists from the tendency of the life and times, such as in some people's image became the zenith, not worth mentioning, as are some patterns. Of course, some positive Baroque art master is not in this case, such as Lubensi, Benigni's works and life remained closely.The origin of the word "Baroque" is still unclear. It may come from the following three words: Italian Baroco, to discuss a medieval theology quite ridiculous; Italian baroc-chio, refers to the dubious business activities; the Portuguese Barocco, syndactyly of pearl. Three words are containing Qizhiyi strange paradox, so since eighteenth Century, as a sarcastic call them are likely to be prejudiced to the Baroque art. This tendency is particularly evident in the classical and neo classical literary theories. This derogatory meaning of the title not only represents the classical school of prejudice, but also shows that the Baroque art research is very little, not much understanding. Since the late nineteenth Century, it received a positive evaluation of Baroque art, German art historian W. Lv Bu g in its architectural history "," Swiss historian J. Lockhart in Boolean "Italy art guide" and other books, all praise the beauty of the Baroque architecture, the construction industry also appeared some follow Pakistan Rock style works, such as the The Paris Opera House. To determine the status of academic research in the German art historian H. woerfulin published in 1888 the "Renaissance and Baroque" one book, he pointed out that the Baroque main schools after the Renaissance, and has made the analysis and Study on the characteristics of history. After him, the Italy scholar E. Jonny in 1895 and the characteristics of the Southern Civilization of seventeenth Century divided into Baroque, academic circles gradually formed in seventeenth Century is the concept of the Baroque era, even Baroque music and Baroque Baroque Literature, philosophy was gradually deepening in the history of art and culture in the research of the problem.
In addition to confirm the historical status of Baroque art. The western academic research on relevant issues and on the other hand the development, which is relative to the baroque style characteristics of the Renaissance as a universal art form development mode, think of other times and other folk art also have the evolution from Renaissance to Baroque, even think this is not the social content of art or visual form as an independent law transfer. First of all, it is also Wolfflin ("the principle of art history", 1915). He put the Renaissance represented classical and Baroque art as a form of bipolar, each have a series of mutual control features, and the formation of regular development from here. And so on, throughout the era of art has its classical and Baroque period, such as Greek art in 5 BC to fourth Century prior to the classical stage, the Hellenistic period for the Baroque stage; Gothic art in thirteenth Century 14 to fifteenth Century for the classical stage, Baroque stage; even Japanese art can be so classified. Wolfflin opened the doctrine of formalism in the genre analysis, Western influence is very large, many scholars believe that the characteristics of Baroque as each culture or civilization in the late stage, so that it has more general significance.

English Introduction

Baroque architecture can be traced back to Michelangelo's strong style and bold design, such as the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter (the Vatican dome) his two assistants, G.da Vigny and G.della in the 15681584 porta ora between the Rome Jesus church was recognized as the representative of Baroque style doctrine to the church interior is highlighted by the main hall and the central the dome, strengthen the central door role, with its structure and effect of the strong and tight Center shows new features, therefore, Jesus within the church and later became a baroque church facade pattern. The main representative of the early seventeenth Century Baroque architecture is the C. construction of the Rome Santa Susanna church Mardell Nobel (1597 ~ 1603), although in imitation of Jesus church, the proportion is more high and magnificent, the facade of the detail arrangement of layers of curved process, the closer the central gate more obvious (for example by a flat square column as a semi cylindrical longer 3/4 cylinder). The construction of three-dimensional shaping complex, dynamic strong. Madail Nor also served as an interior renovation and facade architectural design of Papal Basilica of Saint Peter. This famous building was designed according to Michelangelo and Baltar, built the central dome, but the church for religious ceremony, decided to modify the original design center, the main hall is lengthened Nobel Mardell first half, making it consistent with the traditional rectangular cross church church. The extension of the interior and Nobel Mardell facade still fully absorb the basic pattern of the giant Michelangelo shaped column, maintaining the overall sense of the magnificent, the facade of the Church of Santa Susanna arrangements have also taken a similar approach, the church with Baroque appearance. But because the main hall is lengthened, dome is arranged at the rear part, from the facade has not see the majestic dome, is in want of perfection.
Two of the most outstanding masters of the Baroque architecture of the period in seventeenth Century, G.L. Benigni and F at Boluo. Benigni and the sculptor and fine buildings, he in 1624 ~ 1633 years to complete, in the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter bronze canopy, is a 29 meter high giant screen to shed 4 spiral carved pillars supporting the roof, magnificent and gorgeous. Benigni has long served as the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter interior decoration, so that the integration of architecture and sculpture. The most famous is he for St. Peter's church altar design method, the holy light and the building of saints, angels and clouds soar stands by transmission with clever, give full play to the enthusiastic feature of Baroque art. Benigni also designed the front arms ring square and arched colonnade for Papal Basilica of Saint Peter, making it one of the most beautiful West square building. Boluo Minnie building hi with complicated uneven curves and a variety of geometric shapes, from the overall layout to the detailed arrangements can create new styles, such as the representative of the four spring of San Carlo church, Saint Ivo church, known as a model for the Baroque architecture. They were in Rome under the influence of the emergence of a large number of famous Baroque masters, such as Pietro Dakotona, C., M., C. Layinaerdi lenghi Fontana. They built many beautiful churches, palaces, squares and fountains in Rome, which made the Baroque pop all over europe.
In addition to Rome, north of Italy also appeared two famous masters: Venice B long, and the main work in Turin G. Gualini geithner. The former is representative of Venice health Santa Maria church, the latter Turin Church of St. Lorenzo and Shengxinduoneili chapel, with smart hideitsu win. The spread of Western Europe in the Baroque architecture, and with all the features and each one has his good points France and Britain, as with more rigorous color, southern Germany is up to the ultimate gorgeous brilliant, one of the fertile soil in Spain and Latin America is under the rule of the baroque. Spain's most enamored of Fanfu and magnificent, while in Latin America and some extent absorbed the Indians inherent traditional decoration art in the world, the formation of flower.Baroque painting can also be traced back to Michelangelo and the Renaissance masters such as Korejo and so on, but it was mainly developed by overcoming the style of the late sixteenth Century. In this process, the two biggest artists Caravaggio and A. Karachi respectively to realism and classicism is the main feature of the baroque style so formed is complex, it absorbed the master of health the realistic tendency and some skill characteristics (such as brightness, color, perspective, and etc.) Baroque architecture and development. Italy famous Baroque painting G., B. Strozzi, Reni, Guercino S. Rosa, especially in the construction and Peter Rowe of Cortona for outstanding?. His main work is Rome Barr Bellini palace hall murals and Florence Sapidi palace murals and decorative murals, the former inherits the traditional roof of Karachi and Guercino since, in the construction of the X-ray background let sky mythological figures with their extremely strong sense of great momentum, moving; the latter mural painting, sculpture and architecture with gorgeous as a whole and give full play to the Baroque features, has epoch-making significance in interior decoration art. The typical baroque paintings of the late seventeenth Century is the zenith of murals and decorative murals. The most famous is the creation of Shengyini Austria A. Pozzo Aceh church ceiling frescoes, the Baroque scenography played most incisive. But the greatest painter of the Baroque but not Italian, Flemish P.P. Lubensi, his passionate, bright and colorful art has a more lasting impact on Western painting. On the other hand, seventeenth Century is from the Baroque era perspective, several other realist masters such as Rembrandt of Holland, Spain D. Velazquez, also has some baroque style to a certain extent.
 

美术家百科信息声明创建我的百科档案

1、本站美术家百科信息均来自于美术家自己投稿或网络,本站无法确定每条信息或事件的真伪,信息仅做浏览者参考。

2、只要用户使用本站则意味着该用户以同意《美术网(Meishu.com)注册及使用协议》,否则请勿使用本站任何服务。

3、信息修改或删除请联系美术网客服QQ800015090。

关于美术网

美术网(www.meishu.com)是国内专业的艺术类门户网站,下设美术百科网,365美术网,美术视频网,美术资源网等二十余个板块,专注为书画家、收藏家、艺术品公司等提供免费的艺术资讯,艺术展览等信息服务,是广大美术爱好者的展示学习平台!

Copyright (c) 2013-2020 中国美术网 All Rights Reserved 鲁公网安备 37068702000079号 鲁ICP备12031715号-1 工商电子标识 法律顾问:山东百融律师事务所 建议反馈 帮助中心 关于我们
会员 百科 客服
公众号二维码 长按二维码,进入公众号
超现实主义
矫饰主义
新艺术派
写实主义
清初四高僧
新古典主义
文艺复兴初期
新安画派
元四家
后印象主义
吴派
无相画派
新造型主义
娄东画派(清四王)
学院美术
南宋四家
吴门画派
未来派
浙江画派
野兽派
巴洛克美术
黄山画派
歌德艺术
立体派
画中九友
那比派
湖州竹派
文艺复兴北欧
金陵画派
古典主义
文艺复兴盛期
松江画派
徐熙画派
江西画派
拉斐尔前派
扬州八怪
长安画派
海上画派
北方山水画派
点描派
印象主义
黄筌画派
京津画派
海阳四家
虞山画派
米派
画中十哲
巴比桑学派
常州画派
洛可可美术
南方山水画派
浪漫主义
金陵八家
六朝四家
岭南画派
南北宗
表现主义
象征主义
王元友
琼·米罗 Joan Miro
惠波
艾萨克.雪人Isaac Snowman
王禄
邢健健
陈义丰
赵修柱
魏聿功
宁大明
韩和平
宋懋晋
黄骏
易礼容
张运辉
周少华
刘泉义
徐启中
周东申
王元寿
唐世昌
牟桓
陈仕彬
张达平
田云鹏
刘畅
程宗敏
陈恩
陈奇峰
刘文西
梅健鹰
潘长臻
武欣
潘锡柔
王生琏
弗兰斯.弗洛里斯Floris, Frans
郝荣国
郝强
代闯
郜宗远
王心竟
王子武
李永刚
张雷平
白金尧
彭强
姜启才
王利军
李玉昌
彭博望
骆振龙
臧亮
李平凡
孙宗龙
段七丁
孙世伟
杨宇辉
吴同彦
梁朝水
埃弗特.彼得斯Evert Pieters
颠道人
董劲峰
杨妹子
赫纳罗.拉韦尔塔Genaro Lahuerta
奥斯卡.多明戈斯Oscar Dominguez
蒋铁骊
方民
雅各布Ochtervelt Jacob Ochtervelt
孙发安
盛茂烨
祝平
吴凡
王士祯
黄云松
高云
约翰·彼得·克拉夫Johann Peter Krafft
耿玉朴
顾朴
周臣
王永生
吉梅文
张莉
徐继先
朱豹卿
崔来州
黄树楷
陈景凯
朱天杰
田世光
桑吉星
谭立群
李士俊
和维垣
李庆富
罗松桑丁
肖蓉成
鲁世萍
陈培荣
陈齐堃
杨玉明