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新古典主义

新古典主义作为一个独立的流派名称,最早出现于十七世纪中叶欧洲的建筑装饰设计界,以及与之密切相关的家具设计界。 从法国开始,革新派的设计师们开始对传统的作品进行改良简化,运用了许多新的材料和工艺,但也保留了古典主义作品典雅端庄的高贵气质。这一风格很快取得了成功,欧洲各地纷纷效仿,新古典主义自此成为欧洲家居文化流派中特色鲜明的重要一支,至今长盛不衰。 兴起于18世纪的罗马,并迅速在欧美地区扩展的艺术运动。新古典主义,一方面起于对巴洛克(Baroque)和洛可可(Rococo)艺术的反动,另一方面则是希望以重振古希腊、古罗马的艺术为信念。新古典主义的艺术家刻意从风格与题材模仿古代艺术,并且知晓所模仿的内容为何。

  • 中文名新古典主义
  • 外文名Neoclassicism
  • 特点端庄、雅致、明显
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中国现代硬笔书法艺术研究断想之六:新古典主义的表现倾向——崔学路硬笔隶书研究断想 作者:齐玉新

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在十年的中国现代硬笔书法艺术发生期内,硬笔楷、行书的创作与发展比重似乎占据了真、草、隶、篆、行五大书体体系的绝大部分,其艺术水准,创作数量和长于此两种书体的硬笔书家和爱好者与硬笔隶...
起源

以复兴古希腊罗马艺术为旗号的古典主义艺术,早在17世纪的法国就已出现。一直延续到19世纪初叶,成为欧洲文学艺术的主要思潮。所谓古典主义,就是以古希腊、罗马的文学艺术为典范而得名。到了18世纪中叶,庞贝城的发掘,德国学者温克尔曼美学思想的传播,引起了人们对古典主义的兴趣,古典主义又重新复兴起来,故称新古典主义

17世纪出现的一个新现象。法兰西人作为拉丁民族,是古罗马的继承人。在政治上罗马帝国始终是法兰西人心目中的光辉的榜样。“帝国”这个响亮的称号是当时法国统治阶级所心醉神迷的。他们想在法兰西的土地上恢复古罗马帝国处在奥古斯都时代的那种宏伟的排场,在文艺上也很想效仿古罗马的风格。所以说,法国古典主义的原型是拉丁古典主义。法国的17世纪被称为路易十四时代,这位称霸欧洲的君主不忘建立统一的官方艺坛。为国王及其统治集团服务的艺术,把古代和当时的思想、天主教和世俗的思想兼收并蓄,并让现实描写带上神话的外表。它崇尚古典精神,表现出严整、高贵、酷爱秩序的特点。他们以希腊、罗马为典范。套用马克思所提到的一句话来说,法国古典主义就是穿着古罗马的服装,用借来的语言,上演世界历史的新场面。 
1789年法国大革命前夕,资产阶级为取得革命的胜利,在意识形态领域高举反封建反宗教神权、争取人类理想胜利的旗帜,号召和组织人民大众起来为资产阶级革命而献身。为取得这一革命斗争的彻底胜利,首先要在人们的心理上注入为革命献身的美德和勇气,那就是为共和国而战斗的英雄主义精神。古代希腊罗马的英雄成了资产阶级所推崇的偶像,资产阶级革命家利用这些古代英雄,号召人民大众为真理而献身。正如马克思所指出的,他们战战兢兢地请出亡灵来给他们以帮助,借用他们的名字、战斗口号和衣服,以便穿着这种久受崇敬的服装,用这种借来的语言,演出世界历史的新场面。就在这样的历史环境下,产生了借用古代艺术形式和古代英雄主义题材,大造资产阶级革命舆论的新古典主义。
当时在西班牙全国掀起了驱逐耶稣会教士的活动,西班牙兴起了古典主义的建筑风格。在耶稣会失利的情况下,巴洛克风格的建筑也随之日益衰落。来自法国的腓力五世,虽然是西班牙的国王,一心想着的是法国建筑风格。他从法国、意大利请来多位建筑师为他服务,极力提倡古典主义,如古典主义的建筑师巴.罗德里格斯.蒂松和胡安.德.比利亚努埃瓦等人。著名的马德里普拉多博物馆、天文台就是后者的作品

表现

所谓“新古典主义”,首先是遵循唯理主义观点,认为艺术必须从理性出发,排斥艺术家主观思想感情,尤其是在社会和个人利益冲突面前,个人要克制自己的感情,服从理智和法律,倡导公民的完美道德就是牺牲自己,为祖国尽责。艺术形象的创造崇尚古希腊的理想美;注重古典艺术形式的完整、雕刻般的造型,追求典雅、庄重、
和谐,同时坚持严格的素描和明朗的轮廓,极力减弱绘画的色彩要素。“新古典主义”的“新”在于借用古代英雄主义题材和表现形式,直接描绘现实斗争中的重大事件和英雄人物,紧密配合现实斗争,直接为资产阶级夺取政权和巩固政权服务,具有鲜明的现实主义倾向。因此,新古典主义又称革命古典主义,它的杰出代表是达维特。文学理论中的定义
新古典主义是在古典美学规范下,采用现代先进的工艺技术和新材质,重新诠释传统文化的精神内涵,具有端庄、雅致、明显的时代特征。古典与现代的完美结合的新古典主义风格起源于古典时代,却不是仿古、复古,而是推崇神似。新古典主义风格用简化手法、现代新材料和新进的工艺技术区探求传统的内涵,以装饰效果的注重来增强历史文化底蕴。
古典主义指对古代文学作品和文论的学习发扬。在贺拉斯与朗吉弩斯提出向古代借鉴的原则之后,后世文学用“古典主义”表达这一思想。17世纪法国的新古典主义创造实践与文艺都以古希腊罗马为典范和依据。故有“古典主义”之称。“新”是较之于古罗马的“古典主义”而言的。

特点

1、“形散神聚”是新古典的主要特点。在注重装饰效果的同时,用现代的手法和材质还原古典气质,新古典具备了古典与现代的双重审美效果,完美的结合也让人们在享受物质文明的同时得到了精神上的慰藉。
2、讲求风格,在造型设计上不是仿古,也不是复古,而是追求神似。
3、用简化的手法、现代的材料和加工技术去追求传统式样的大致轮廓特点。
英国塞特维那stvilla皇室家具新古典风格
英国塞特维那stvilla皇室家具新古典风格
4、注重装饰效果,用室内陈设品来增强历史文脉特色,往往会照搬古典设施、家具及陈设品来烘托室内环境气氛。
5、白色、金色、黄色、暗红色是欧式风格中常见的主色调,少量白色糅合,使色彩看起来明亮。
新古典主义的室内设计去芜存菁,保留了路易十四风格的线条Curve,去除了线条上过多的繁杂装饰;保留了细节Detail,却又不过多的细节堆杂以至于失去重点;保留了镶花刻金,却又不是满眼金晃晃的让人眼拙。这种保留了材质、色彩、风格,摒弃了过于复杂的线条、装饰、肌理,却没有丢失性格,仍然可以强烈感受到传统的历史痕迹和浑厚的文化底蕴,便是完美折中主义的新古典主义风格。
新古典主义的精华-高雅的底蕴、开放的姿态、尊贵的精细
新古典主义的特点-Lady感的线条、金银暗调的色彩、低调奢华的细节
新古典主义的好处—可浓可淡,色泽上多用金色和暗红就浓,稍加白色柔和则明亮而淡;加以洛可可的配饰或巴洛克的优化,便尊贵雍容;配上现代化的皮制品,或间接的床头灯,便优雅非凡。
这种多元化和可伸缩性,便是新古典主义后工业时代个性化的独到之处

English Introduction

The art of classicism, which was based on the revival of the art of ancient Greece and Rome, appeared in France in the early seventeenth Century. Until the early nineteenth Century, has become the main trend of European literature and art. The so-called classical, is the ancient Greece, Rome's literature and art as a model named. By the middle of the eighteenth Century, explore the city of Pompeii, the spread of the German scholar Winckelmann's aesthetic thoughts, has aroused interest in classical, classical revived, called Neoclassicism
A new phenomenon appeared in seventeenth Century. French as Latin, ancient Rome's heir. In the political empire of Rome is always the French in the eyes of the shining example. "Empire" the resounding title was the French ruling class in ecstasies over the. They want to be in the Augustus era that grand pomp restore ancient Rome empire in France on the land, in the literature also want to Rome antique style. Therefore, the prototype of French classicism is the Latin classicism. France in seventeenth Century known as the Louis Xiv era, the monarch did not forget to dominate Europe to establish a unified official art. For the king and the ruling group of the ancient art, and thinking of that time, the Catholic Church and the secular thought eclectic, and let the reality description with the myth of the appearance. It shows the characteristics of advocating classical spirit, rigorous, noble, love of order. They take Greece and Rome as examples. Marx used to mention the word, the French classicism is dressed in ancient Rome clothing, borrowed language, staged a new scene in the history of the world.
1789 on the eve of the French Revolution, the bourgeoisie for victory in the revolution in the field of ideology, anti feudalism and religious theocracy, win the ideal human banner, called the public up and organize the people devoted to the bourgeois revolution. For the complete victory of the revolution, we must first in people's psychology into revolution the virtue of self sacrifice and courage, that is for the Republic and fighting spirit of heroism. The heroes of ancient Greece and Rome became the heroes of the bourgeoisie, and the bourgeois revolutionaries used these ancient heroes to call on the people to devote themselves to the truth. As Marx pointed out, they fear the please give them to help, borrow their names, the battle cry and clothes, to wear the long revered clothing, with the borrowed language, performances of the new world history scene. In such a historical environment, produced with ancient art form and ancient heroism theme, creating a big bourgeois revolutionary public opinion of neoclassicism.
At that time, the whole country in Spain set off the expulsion of Jesus missionary activities, the rise of the classical style of architecture in spain. In the case of Jesus will lose, Baroque architecture is also increasingly decline. From the French Philip V, although is the king of Spain, is obsessed with French architectural style. He invited a number of architects from France and Italy for his service, strongly advocated neoclassicism, such as classical architect Pakistan. Rodrigues. Tizon and Juan de Nueva David Villa et al. The famous Madrid Prado Museum, the observatory is the latter works

English Introduction

The so-called "neo classical", the first is to follow the rationalist view that art must exclude artists from reason, the subjective thoughts and feelings, especially in the social and personal benefits and conflicts, to restrain their personal feelings, reason and obey the law, advocating citizen moral perfection is to sacrifice themselves for the motherland. The creation of the artistic image advocates the ideal beauty of ancient Greece; pays attention to the integrity of the classical art form, the shape of sculpture, the pursuit of elegance and dignity,
Harmony, while adhering to the strict sketch and clear outline, to weaken the color elements of painting. The "new classical" "new" is borrowed from ancient heroism themes and forms, directly depicting events in the struggle of reality and heroes, closely with the reality of struggle for the bourgeoisie to seize power and consolidate the regime, with a distinctive realism tendency. Therefore, Neo classicism is also called revolutionary classicism, and its outstanding representative is Dawit. The definition of literary theory
Under the criterion of classical aesthetics, neo classical, using modern advanced technology and new material, re interpretation of the spirit of traditional culture, with a dignified, elegant, obvious characteristics of the times. The perfect combination of classic and modern Neo Classical style originated in the classical era, but not antique, vintage, but praised the spirit. Neo classical style with simplified techniques, modern new materials and new technology areas to explore the traditional connotation of the decorative effect to enhance the historical and cultural heritage.
Classicism refers to the study and development of ancient literary works and literary theories. After the principles of Horace and Lang Lang's reference to the ancient times, the later literature expressed this idea with "classicism". In seventeenth Century, the practice of Neo classicism in France and the literature and art are based on ancient Greece and Rome. It is the "classical". The "new" is compared with the ancient Rome "classical" is concerned.
1, the form of scattered poly God is the main characteristics of the new classical. At the same time pay attention to decorative effect, to restore the classical temperament with modern techniques and materials, new classical with the classical and modern aesthetic effect, the perfect combination also let people get spiritual comfort at the same time enjoy the material.
2, emphasis in the design style, not antique, nor a retro, but the pursuit of spirit.
3, the use of simplified techniques, modern materials and processing technology to pursue the general outline of the traditional style characteristics.
The Royal British Saitewei stvilla neo classical style furniture
The Royal British Saitewei stvilla neo classical style furniture
4, pay attention to decorative effect, with furnishings to enhance the historical context features, often copying classical facilities, furniture and furnishings to heighten the atmosphere of the indoor environment.
5, white, golden, yellow, dark red is the main color of common European style, blend a small amount of white color looks bright.
The interior design from the neoclassical style, Louis Xiv retained the lines of Curve, the removal of complicated decorative lines too much; retaining the details of Detail, but however many details that heap miscellaneous lose focus; keep spend time with gold, but gold was not eyeful let people yanzhuo. This preserves the material, color, style, abandons the complicated lines, decoration, texture, but no loss of character, can still feel the traditional history and richculture, is the perfect eclectic neoclassical style.
The essence of Neo Classicism: the refined information, the open attitude, and the fine
Lady features new classical sense lines, gold and silver, darkened color low-key luxury details
New classical - benefits can be concentrated to light, color with gold and red is thick, slightly soft white is bright and light; to optimize the Baroque or Rococo accessories, then with the noble grace; modern leather products, or indirect bedside lamp, will extraordinary elegance.
This diversity and scalability is the industrial era of personalized new classicism after originality

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