拉斐尔前派

拉斐尔前派是1848年在英国兴起的美术改革运动。这个画派的活动时间虽然不是很长,但是对于19世纪的英国绘画史及方向,带来了很大的影响。拉斐尔前派最初是由3名年轻的英国画家(即:约翰·埃弗里特·米莱斯、但丁·加百利·罗塞蒂又译丹特·加布里埃尔·罗赛蒂和威廉·霍尔曼·亨特)所发起组织的一个艺术团体(也是艺术运动),他们的目的是为了改变当时的艺术潮流,反对那些在米开朗基罗和拉斐尔的时代之后在他们看来偏向了机械论的风格主义(Mannerist)画家。他们认为拉斐尔时代以前古典的姿势和优美的绘画成分已经被学院派(Academicart)的教学方法所腐化了,因此取名为拉斐尔前派。他们尤其反对由约书亚·雷诺兹(JoshuaReynolds)爵士所创立的英国皇家艺术学院(RoyalAcademyofArts)的画风,认为他的作画技巧只是懒散而公式化的学院风格主义。他们主张回归到15世纪意大利文艺复兴初期的,画出大量细节、并运用强烈色彩的画风。拉斐尔前派常被看作是艺术中的前卫派运动,不过他们否认这种描述,因为他们仍然以古典历史和神话作为绘画题材以及模仿的艺术态度,或者是以模拟自然的状态,来作为他们艺术的目的。不过,拉斐尔前派毫无疑问将自身视为艺术界的改革运动,为他们的运动取了名称以做区别,并且也出版了他们的期刊TheGerm,以宣扬他们的概念。有关他们的讨论则纪录在Pre-RaphaeliteJournal中。

  • 中文名拉斐尔前派
  • 外文名Pre-Raphaelites Brotherhood
  • 别名前拉斐尔派
  • 时间1848-1854
  • 发源地英国
  • 性质美术改革运动
最新新闻更多
拉斐尔前派杰作上拍伦敦佳士得

中国美术网 09-05 浏览

据佳士得透露,威廉·霍尔曼·亨特的代表作《女子与香草罐》将领衔伦敦佳士得将在6月17日举行的“维多利亚时期,拉斐尔前派与英国印象派艺术”拍卖会。此幅画作原本属于...
历史起源

背景

19世纪中后期,英国工业资本主义经济进入了一个蓬勃发展时期,处于维多利亚女王的“繁荣”时代。当时的画坛由皇家美术学院的艺术思想主宰,他们一直以拉斐尔的艺术为典范,弘扬学院派的古典主义,在社会上同时流行维多利亚时代的那种秀媚甜俗和空虚浅薄的匠气艺术。这种现状引起许多有思想和见解的艺术家不满。

当时的青年画家亨特米莱斯罗塞蒂也发现,文艺复兴初期的作品感情真挚、形象朴实生动,正是他们向往的艺术风格。因此他们认为真正的艺术存在于拉斐尔之前,企图发扬拉斐尔以前的艺术来挽救英国绘画。于是于1848年,他们三人发起成了立一个画派,史称“拉斐尔前派”。

开端
1848年,拉斐尔前派在约翰·埃弗里特·米莱斯于伦敦的家中发起了。在开始的聚会中只有约翰·埃弗里特·米莱斯、但丁·加百利·罗塞蒂和威廉·霍尔曼·亨特三人,而到了1848年的秋天,他们已经累积至7人,画派逐渐形成。他们是威廉·迈克尔·罗塞蒂托马斯·伍尔纳(Thomas Woolner)、詹姆士·柯林(James Collinson)、弗雷德里克·乔治·史蒂芬(Frederic George Stephens)。还有一些年轻的画家和雕刻家也和他们有紧密关系。他们将画派的成立作为秘密,没有让皇家学院的其他人知道。
发展
《死亡的图像》威廉·霍尔曼·亨特《死亡的图像》威廉·霍尔曼·亨特
1889年,受到拉斐尔前派影响的画家包括了亚瑟·休斯(Arthur Hughes)、弗雷德里克·桑迪斯(Frederic Sandys)、伊芙琳·摩根(Evelyn De Morgan)等人,以及福特·马多克斯·布朗布朗虽然没有加入画派,但他的画风却被认为是最接近拉斐尔前派原则的。

1856年后,但丁·罗塞蒂成了拉斐尔前派里中世纪派画风的领导人,他的作品也影响了威廉·莫里斯,他们两人成为伙伴,不过罗塞蒂也因此和莫里斯的妻子,作为模特的珍·莫里斯(Jane Morris)发生了绯闻。福特·马多克斯·布朗与画家爱德华·伯纳-琼斯也成了伙伴。

相较之下,米莱于1860年后抛弃了拉斐尔前派原则,而重采皇家艺术学院创始人雷诺兹那种广泛而松散的风格。莫里斯和其他人则极力批评米莱的这种改变。 拉斐尔前派持续影响许多英国画家直至20世纪。罗塞蒂后来成为了欧洲象征主义的先驱。

解散
1849年拉斐尔前派的作品被首次展览。约翰·埃弗里特·米莱斯所绘的《Isabella》和亨特的《Rienzi》在皇家学院进行了展示,而罗塞蒂的《Girlhood of Mary Virgin》则在伦敦海德公园的街角自由展示。画派里所有成员已达成共识,在他们作品的签名旁边留下拉斐尔前派的缩写— PRB 的记号。

在1850年1月至4月间他们又发行了杂志,名为“The Germ”。但丁·罗塞蒂的弟弟威廉·罗塞蒂负责编辑杂志,发行了包括罗塞蒂、托马斯·伍尔纳和詹姆士·柯林的诗,以及其他有关艺术与文学间的亲前拉斐尔派的论文,如考文垂·巴特摩尔(Coventry Patmore)的文章。但这也同时显现了为何拉斐尔前派仅维持短暂时间的原因,因为杂志并不能长时间的维持画派的气势 。

1850年,在约翰·埃弗里特·米莱斯的《基督在父母家中》进行展览后,拉斐尔前派引起了不小的争议。画中描绘基督一家人在满地木屑的杂乱木匠房里工作,包括查尔斯·狄更斯在内的许多人批评那是一种对基督的亵渎。他们的中世纪画风被批评为保守倒退,而详尽的描绘细节则被批评丑陋而刺眼。狄更斯批评米莱将基督一家人描绘得像是酗酒者和贫民窟,而“中世纪”的姿势则荒谬而扭曲。另一个名为“The Clique”的画派极力批评拉斐尔前派。皇家学院的主席查理斯·洛克·伊斯特莱克(Charles Lock Eastlake)也公开批评拉斐尔前派主张的原则。

不过,拉斐尔前派得到了评论家约翰·拉斯金的支持,他赞扬拉斐尔前派对于自然状态的描绘以及否定了传统绘画的方法。他继续在金融上和他的写作上支援拉斐尔前派。 在争议之后,詹姆士·柯林离开了画派。他们集合起来讨论应该由谁来取代他的位置,但最后却无法达成决定。于是画派便解散了,不过他们继续发挥着影响力,画家仍然继续用这些风格作画,但他们不再于作品上签下“PRB”了。

主要特点

一)要以确实存在的概念来表达;

(二)要专注于研究自然的状态

(三)要对以前的艺术中直接、认真而真诚的态度感同身受,并排斥那些陈腐的、自我炫耀的、死记硬背的态度

(四)要创作出非常好的画和雕像。

受到了浪漫主义的影响,他们将自由和个人责任视为不可分离的。不过,他们尤其着迷于中世纪的文化,相信中世纪文化有着后来的时代所失去的正直精神和创造性。后来强调中世纪文化的观点,与强调独立观察自然状态的现实主义产生了冲突,原本拉斐尔画派里认为这两者是能互相配合的,但在冲突产生后画派一分为二,现实主义派由亨特和米莱领导,中世纪派则由罗塞蒂和威廉·莫里斯等追随者领导。不过冲突并不是完全的,两派都相信艺术的实质是心灵上的,反对库尔贝唯物的现实主义以及印象派。

为了复兴15世纪艺术光辉的色彩风格,亨特和米莱发展了一种绘画的方法,用稀薄的透明颜料(Glaze)复盖在潮湿的白色表面上,以此让颜色保持如宝石一般的透明度和清晰度。这种色彩鲜明的强调是为了对比早期那些过度使用沥青的英国画家,沥青会产生出浑浊而不固定的黑暗区块,而这正是拉斐尔前派所轻视的。

影响

花卉装饰画高清欧美风景线图像图片手绘彩图简约
借由威廉·莫里斯的关系,前拉斐尔派的概念影响了许多室内设计师和建筑师,利用中世纪的风格做建筑设计,以及其他装饰品的设计。这也直接引导了莫里斯所发动的工艺美术运动,霍尔曼·亨特也参与了这项运动。在1850年后,由于现实主义和科学观点上的着重,亨特和米莱都已经不再直接模仿中世纪艺术。但亨特继续强调心灵在艺术上的重要性,试图利用准确的观察和研究来调和信仰与科学两者,而前往以色列和埃及以圣经故事作为绘画的题材。

拉斐尔派持续影响许多英国画家直至20世纪。罗塞蒂后来成为了欧洲象征主义的先驱。在英国伯明翰市的伯明翰博物馆和艺术画廊收藏着许多世界知名的前拉斐尔派画作,这些画作也对在当地长大的作家J.R.R.托尔金产生极大的影响。20世纪时画家的观点大量改变,由于摄影技术的发达,艺术的目的逐渐远离了重现实际的状态。因为前拉斐尔派主要专注于将事物描绘的如同摄影般逼真,尽管他们也特殊的专注于详细描绘表面图案上,他们的作品仍被许多批评家所贬低。不过自从1960年代以来,前拉斐尔派的作品开始重新受到重视,比如1984年伦敦泰特美术馆的展览,确立前拉斐尔派在艺术史上的地位。在2012年9月泰特美术馆又再次的对前拉斐尔派的画作进行展览。

English Introduction

background
In the mid and late nineteenth Century, the British industrial capitalist economy entered a period of vigorous development, in Queen Victoria's "prosperity" era. When the painting is dominated by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of art thought, they have been to Rafael's art as an example, promote the school of classical art in Vitoria, Jiang Qi era that charming sweet and vulgar and shallow emptiness and popular in the society. This situation has led to a lot of artists who have ideas and opinions.
At that time, young artists Hunter, Millais, and also found that the early Renaissance works of the feelings of sincere, simple and vivid image, it is the artistic style they aspire to. So they think that the real art existed before Rafael, trying to develop the art of the past to save the British painting of the Rafael. Then in 1848, three of them became a school sponsored, known as the "pre raphaelite".
Beginning
In 1848, the pre Raphaelite launched in John Everett Millais in the London home. At the beginning of the party, only John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman, Hunter three people, and in the autumn of 1848, they have accumulated to 7 people, painting gradually formed. They are William Michael Rossetti, (Thomas Woolner), (James), (Collinson George), Stephens (Frederic). There are some young painters and sculptors have close relationship with them. They will set up the school as a secret, did not let other people know the Royal academy.
Development
The image of death, William Holman Hunt, "the image of death" by William Holman Hunt
In 1889, influenced by the brotherhood of painters including Arthur Hughes (Arthur Hughes), Frederick Sandys (Frederic Sandys), Evelyn Morgan (Evelyn De Morgan) et al., and Ford Maddox Brown, although Brown did not join the school, but his style was considered to be the most close to the pre Raphaelite principles.
In 1856, Dante Rossetti became the leader of a medieval painting school, his work also influenced William Morris, two of them become partners, but also Rossetti and Maurice's wife, Jane Maurice as a model (Jane Morris) made a scandal. Ford Maddox Brown and painter - Jones - also became a partner in the company of the artist, the artist, and the artist, and the artist, and the.
In contrast, the pre Raphaelite principles Millais abandoned in 1860 after heavy mining Royal College of Art founder Reynolds that wide and loose style. Maurice and others strongly criticized what this change. A continue to affect many British artists until twentieth Century. Rossetti later became a pioneer of European symbolism.
dissolution
1849 is the first exhibition of pre Raphaelite works. The painting of John Everett Millais Hunter's "Isabella" and "Rienzi" were displayed at the Royal Academy, and Rossetti's "Girlhood of Mary Virgin" in London's Hyde Park corner free show. All group members have reached a consensus, the abbreviation PRB left a mark in their works beside the signature.
Between January 1850 and April, they published a magazine called "The Germ"". Dante Rossetti's brother William Rossetti is responsible for editing the magazine, issue including Rossetti, Thomas Woolner and James Colin's poems, and pro Rafael sent other relevant papers before art and literature, such as Coventry Patmore (Coventry Patmore) article. But it also shows why only a short time to maintain a long time, because the magazine did not maintain the momentum of the school.
In 1850, John Everett Millais's "Christ in his parents' home" exhibition, the pre Raphaelite caused controversy. The picture depicts the family of Christ working in a cluttered carpenter's house, and many, including Charles Dickens, have criticized it as a desecration of christ. Their medieval style was criticized for conservative backward, and the detail was condemned as ugly and dazzling. The criticism of Dickens Christ will Miley one family look like alcoholics and slums, and "medieval" poses absurd and distorted. Another name is "The Clique" strongly criticized the pre Raphaelite painting. The Royal Academy President Charles Locke Eastlake (Charles Lock Eastlake) also publicly advocated the principle of pre Raphaelite criticism.
However, the pre Raphaelite critic John Raskin's support, he praised their natural state for description and method of traditional painting denied. He continued to support a financially and in his writings. Following the controversy, James Colin left the school. They gathered together to discuss who should take his place, but in the end they could not reach a decision. Then the group disbanded, but they continue to exert influence, still continue to use the painting style of the artist, but they no longer signed works "PRB".

English Introduction

To express in a real concept;
(two) focus on the state of nature
(three) to the previous art direct and serious and sincere attitude of empathy, and the exclusion of what is conventional and self display, rote learning attitude
(four) to create very good paintings and statues.
Influenced by Romanticism, they see freedom and personal responsibility as non separable. However, they were particularly fascinated by the medieval culture, believing that the medieval culture had the integrity and creativity lost in the later ages. This emphasis on medieval culture, conflict and stress the independent observation of nature. The original painting realism, Rafael think this is both can cooperate with each other, but in the conflict after school One divides into two. realism led by Hunter, and MI, in the century sent by Rossetti and William Morris and other followers of leadership. But conflict is not complete, both believe that art is the essence of the soul, against Courbet's materialist realism and impressionism.
In order to restore the brilliant colors of fifteenth Century art style, Hunter and Millais developed a method of painting, with a thin transparent pigment (Glaze) covered in white surface wet, so keep the color jewel like transparency and clarity. The bright color to the excessive use of bitumen by earlier British painter, bitumen produces muddy and unfixed dark blocks, which is a despised.
Flower decoration painting our landscape image simple hand painting
By William Morris's relationship, the concept of the former school of the influence of many interior designers and architects, the use of medieval style architectural design, as well as other decorative design of the. It also directly led to the arts and crafts movement launched by Maurice, Holman Hunt also participated in the campaign. In 1850, due to emphasis on realism and scientific point of view, Hunter and Miley are no longer direct imitation of medieval art. But Hunter continued to emphasize the importance of the soul in art, trying to reconcile the belief and science with accurate observation and research, and went to Israel and Egypt to use the Bible as the theme of painting.
The former Rafael faction continued to influence many British painters until twentieth Century. Rossetti later became a pioneer of European symbolism. In Bermingham, the British Bermingham Museum and art gallery with a collection of many of the world famous Rafael paintings, the paintings also have a great impact on the growth in the local writer J.R.R. tolkien. In twentieth Century, the artist's views changed a lot, because of the development of photography technology, the purpose of art is gradually away from the actual state. Because the former Rafael school mainly focused on depicting things as photographic reality, although they are also particularly focused on the detailed description of the surface patterns, their work is still being criticized by many critics. But since 1960s, before Rafael painting began to receive attention, such as the 1984 London Tate exhibition, prior to the establishment of Rafael's place in the history of art. Again on the front of the Rafael School of painting exhibition in September 2012 the Tate gallery.

美术家百科推荐
美术百科信息统计与合作
  • 1
  • 2
关于美术网

美术网(www.meishu.com)专注解决美术家网络推广问题,全力打造美术家专属网络经纪人服务,美术网站内设美术搜索,网络美术展,美术报,美术知识库,名家档案,美术视频库,资源库,美术论坛,美术高考网及书画衍生品的加工与分销等为一体的名画库等总共20余个栏目,我们以弘扬中华民族的文化事业为己任,以建设世界一流的美术文化生态系统为目标,诚邀合作共赢。

Copyright (c) 2013-2019 中国美术网 All Rights Reserved 鲁ICP备12031715号-1 法律顾问:杨俊涛律师 客服QQ:800015090 微信①:4081532
会员 客服 名家 我的
复制链接 微信 QQ好友 QQ空间 新浪微博