1848年，拉斐尔前派在约翰·埃弗里特·米莱斯于伦敦的家中发起了。在开始的聚会中只有约翰·埃弗里特·米莱斯、但丁·加百利·罗塞蒂和威廉·霍尔曼·亨特三人，而到了1848年的秋天，他们已经累积至7人，画派逐渐形成。他们是威廉·迈克尔·罗塞蒂、托马斯·伍尔纳（Thomas Woolner）、詹姆士·柯林（James Collinson）、弗雷德里克·乔治·史蒂芬（Frederic George Stephens）。还有一些年轻的画家和雕刻家也和他们有紧密关系。他们将画派的成立作为秘密，没有让皇家学院的其他人知道。
1889年，受到拉斐尔前派影响的画家包括了亚瑟·休斯（Arthur Hughes）、弗雷德里克·桑迪斯（Frederic Sandys）、伊芙琳·摩根（Evelyn De Morgan）等人，以及福特·马多克斯·布朗，布朗虽然没有加入画派，但他的画风却被认为是最接近拉斐尔前派原则的。
1850年，在约翰·埃弗里特·米莱斯的《基督在父母家中》进行展览后，拉斐尔前派引起了不小的争议。画中描绘基督一家人在满地木屑的杂乱木匠房里工作，包括查尔斯·狄更斯在内的许多人批评那是一种对基督的亵渎。他们的中世纪画风被批评为保守倒退，而详尽的描绘细节则被批评丑陋而刺眼。狄更斯批评米莱将基督一家人描绘得像是酗酒者和贫民窟，而“中世纪”的姿势则荒谬而扭曲。另一个名为“The Clique”的画派极力批评拉斐尔前派。皇家学院的主席查理斯·洛克·伊斯特莱克（Charles Lock Eastlake）也公开批评拉斐尔前派主张的原则。
In the mid and late nineteenth Century, the British industrial capitalist economy entered a period of vigorous development, in Queen Victoria's "prosperity" era. When the painting is dominated by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of art thought, they have been to Rafael's art as an example, promote the school of classical art in Vitoria, Jiang Qi era that charming sweet and vulgar and shallow emptiness and popular in the society. This situation has led to a lot of artists who have ideas and opinions.
At that time, young artists Hunter, Millais, and also found that the early Renaissance works of the feelings of sincere, simple and vivid image, it is the artistic style they aspire to. So they think that the real art existed before Rafael, trying to develop the art of the past to save the British painting of the Rafael. Then in 1848, three of them became a school sponsored, known as the "pre raphaelite".
In 1848, the pre Raphaelite launched in John Everett Millais in the London home. At the beginning of the party, only John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman, Hunter three people, and in the autumn of 1848, they have accumulated to 7 people, painting gradually formed. They are William Michael Rossetti, (Thomas Woolner), (James), (Collinson George), Stephens (Frederic). There are some young painters and sculptors have close relationship with them. They will set up the school as a secret, did not let other people know the Royal academy.
The image of death, William Holman Hunt, "the image of death" by William Holman Hunt
In 1889, influenced by the brotherhood of painters including Arthur Hughes (Arthur Hughes), Frederick Sandys (Frederic Sandys), Evelyn Morgan (Evelyn De Morgan) et al., and Ford Maddox Brown, although Brown did not join the school, but his style was considered to be the most close to the pre Raphaelite principles.
In 1856, Dante Rossetti became the leader of a medieval painting school, his work also influenced William Morris, two of them become partners, but also Rossetti and Maurice's wife, Jane Maurice as a model (Jane Morris) made a scandal. Ford Maddox Brown and painter - Jones - also became a partner in the company of the artist, the artist, and the artist, and the artist, and the.
In contrast, the pre Raphaelite principles Millais abandoned in 1860 after heavy mining Royal College of Art founder Reynolds that wide and loose style. Maurice and others strongly criticized what this change. A continue to affect many British artists until twentieth Century. Rossetti later became a pioneer of European symbolism.
1849 is the first exhibition of pre Raphaelite works. The painting of John Everett Millais Hunter's "Isabella" and "Rienzi" were displayed at the Royal Academy, and Rossetti's "Girlhood of Mary Virgin" in London's Hyde Park corner free show. All group members have reached a consensus, the abbreviation PRB left a mark in their works beside the signature.
Between January 1850 and April, they published a magazine called "The Germ"". Dante Rossetti's brother William Rossetti is responsible for editing the magazine, issue including Rossetti, Thomas Woolner and James Colin's poems, and pro Rafael sent other relevant papers before art and literature, such as Coventry Patmore (Coventry Patmore) article. But it also shows why only a short time to maintain a long time, because the magazine did not maintain the momentum of the school.
In 1850, John Everett Millais's "Christ in his parents' home" exhibition, the pre Raphaelite caused controversy. The picture depicts the family of Christ working in a cluttered carpenter's house, and many, including Charles Dickens, have criticized it as a desecration of christ. Their medieval style was criticized for conservative backward, and the detail was condemned as ugly and dazzling. The criticism of Dickens Christ will Miley one family look like alcoholics and slums, and "medieval" poses absurd and distorted. Another name is "The Clique" strongly criticized the pre Raphaelite painting. The Royal Academy President Charles Locke Eastlake (Charles Lock Eastlake) also publicly advocated the principle of pre Raphaelite criticism.
However, the pre Raphaelite critic John Raskin's support, he praised their natural state for description and method of traditional painting denied. He continued to support a financially and in his writings. Following the controversy, James Colin left the school. They gathered together to discuss who should take his place, but in the end they could not reach a decision. Then the group disbanded, but they continue to exert influence, still continue to use the painting style of the artist, but they no longer signed works "PRB".
To express in a real concept;
(two) focus on the state of nature
(three) to the previous art direct and serious and sincere attitude of empathy, and the exclusion of what is conventional and self display, rote learning attitude
(four) to create very good paintings and statues.
Influenced by Romanticism, they see freedom and personal responsibility as non separable. However, they were particularly fascinated by the medieval culture, believing that the medieval culture had the integrity and creativity lost in the later ages. This emphasis on medieval culture, conflict and stress the independent observation of nature. The original painting realism, Rafael think this is both can cooperate with each other, but in the conflict after school One divides into two. realism led by Hunter, and MI, in the century sent by Rossetti and William Morris and other followers of leadership. But conflict is not complete, both believe that art is the essence of the soul, against Courbet's materialist realism and impressionism.
In order to restore the brilliant colors of fifteenth Century art style, Hunter and Millais developed a method of painting, with a thin transparent pigment (Glaze) covered in white surface wet, so keep the color jewel like transparency and clarity. The bright color to the excessive use of bitumen by earlier British painter, bitumen produces muddy and unfixed dark blocks, which is a despised.
Flower decoration painting our landscape image simple hand painting
By William Morris's relationship, the concept of the former school of the influence of many interior designers and architects, the use of medieval style architectural design, as well as other decorative design of the. It also directly led to the arts and crafts movement launched by Maurice, Holman Hunt also participated in the campaign. In 1850, due to emphasis on realism and scientific point of view, Hunter and Miley are no longer direct imitation of medieval art. But Hunter continued to emphasize the importance of the soul in art, trying to reconcile the belief and science with accurate observation and research, and went to Israel and Egypt to use the Bible as the theme of painting.
The former Rafael faction continued to influence many British painters until twentieth Century. Rossetti later became a pioneer of European symbolism. In Bermingham, the British Bermingham Museum and art gallery with a collection of many of the world famous Rafael paintings, the paintings also have a great impact on the growth in the local writer J.R.R. tolkien. In twentieth Century, the artist's views changed a lot, because of the development of photography technology, the purpose of art is gradually away from the actual state. Because the former Rafael school mainly focused on depicting things as photographic reality, although they are also particularly focused on the detailed description of the surface patterns, their work is still being criticized by many critics. But since 1960s, before Rafael painting began to receive attention, such as the 1984 London Tate exhibition, prior to the establishment of Rafael's place in the history of art. Again on the front of the Rafael School of painting exhibition in September 2012 the Tate gallery.