古典主义

古典主义(法语:Le Classicisme 英语:Western classical),在艺术上主要是指对包含希腊及古罗马的古典时代文化的高度认同。古典主义将古典时代的品味作为标准,并试图模仿其风格。古典主义形成和繁荣于法国,随后扩展到欧洲其他国家,是启蒙时代、理性时代以及部分现代主义思想所提倡的概念。
17世纪开始流行在西欧、特别是法国的一种文学思潮。这一潮流是特定历史时期产物,因它在文艺理论和创作实践上以古希腊、罗马文学为典范和样板而被称为“古典主义”。作为一种文艺思潮,古典主义在欧洲流行了两个世纪,直到19世纪初浪漫主义文艺兴起才结束。它在17世纪的法国最为盛行,发展也最为完备。法国古典主义的政治基础是中央集权的君主专制,哲学基础是笛卡儿的唯理主义理论。古典主义在创作理论上强调模仿古代,主张用民族规范语言,按照规定的创作原则(如戏剧的三一律)进行创作,追求艺术完美

  • 中文名古典主义
  • 外文名Western classical
  • 起源17世纪初
  • 领域音乐、文学 、绘画、建筑
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演绎精彩的古典主义的乐章——刘育新及其书法艺术

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近年来,中国楹联学会副会长兼秘书长刘育新既享誉联界,也享誉书坛,这不能说与他在楹联界担任要职无关,也不能说与他的作家、文物鉴定家之身份和建树没有关系(如今也已出版了8部长篇小说,尤以...
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简介

古典主义于17世纪流行在西欧、特别是法国的一种文学思潮。因为它在文艺理论和创作实践上以古希腊、罗马文学为典范,而被称为“古典主义”。
在法国,从17世纪初年至1660年左右,是古典主义逐步形成的阶段,主要表现为古典主义文学语言的定型和各种文学作品体裁的确立,古典主义先后在欧洲流行了200多年,可以说许多国家在不同时代、不同程度和意义上,都有过它们的古典主义文学时期。英国在17世纪后期形成了古典主义流派,但直到18世纪初期才得到发展;俄国则在18世纪上半期,古典主义曾经成为当时文学中的主导倾向。 

文艺思潮

从文艺思潮上说,古典主义是十七世纪君主政体民族国家开始建立,资本主义渐趋发展的历史阶段产生的一种文艺思期。以十七世纪的法国发展得最为完备,也出现于英国,德国、俄罗斯,在欧洲曾居支配地位。它是由于学习古代、祟尚古代,模仿古代、以古代的希腊、罗马文学为典范而得名的。从政治和社会根源上考察,古典主义是商业资本发展时期的产物,以重商政策为基础.它服从于当时绝对君权的统治,是绝对君权政治在文学上的反映,也是当时资产阶级在政治上对封建王权暂时的迁就,妥协、让步的一种表现。

十七世纪的法国,正是处于君主专制的全盛时期,资产阶级政治革命的条件尚未成熟。这是法国国王路易十三(1610--1643)和路易十四(1638--1715)掌权的时代,法国的商业资本高度发达,货币成了国民的主要财富。代表大资产阶级和新贵族利益的国王,为了推行重商政策,发展国外贸易,必须从教皇和旧贵族手中夺取政权,集中控制,压制地方贵族的分裂活动,开辟税源,鼓励海外殖民扩张,这就是中央集权的君主专制政体的由来。当时的资产阶级正处于上升时期,二方面由于力量不够壮大,没有发展到足以推翻封建统治,夺取政权的地步,需要依附王权来发展资本主义。另一方面,又不甘心于政治上的附庸地位,在思想上要求革命,提出了限制王权的要求。因此,资产阶级与封建贵族之间暂时形成相互牵制,相互斗争的局面。正如马克思所指出;"君主专制发生在一个过渡时期,那时旧封建等级趋于衰亡,中世纪市民等级正在形成现代资产阶级,斗争的任何一方尚未压倒另一方。"而当时的王权就成了这两个阶级之间"表面上的调停人"。

艺术风格

从17世纪至19世纪流行于欧洲各国的一种文化思潮和美术倾向。它发端于17世纪的法国,先后有三种不同的艺术倾向。一是主要是对古希腊、罗马古典作品艺术风格的怀旧与模仿之风,以普桑代表的崇尚永恒和自然理性的古典主义。从狭义上讲,有把18实际末至19世纪初,法国大革命时期兴起的这种怀旧风格的回哈作为第二倾向,以达维特为代表的宣扬革命和斗争精神的古典主义,或成为新古典主义。三是以安格尔为代表的追求完美形式的和典范风格的学院古典主义。

古典主义作为一种艺术思潮,它的美学原则是用古代的艺术理想与规范来表现现实的道德观念,以典型的历史事件表现当代的思想主题,也就是借古喻今。古典主义绘画以此精神为内涵,提倡典雅崇高的题材,庄重单纯的形式,强调理性而轻视情感,强调素描与严谨的外表、贬低色彩与笔触的表现,追求构图的均衡与完整,努力使作品产生一种古代的静穆而严峻的美。在技巧上,古典主义绘画强调精确的素描技术和柔妙的明暗色调,并注重使形象造型呈现出雕塑般的简练和概括,追求一种宏大的构图方式和庄重的的风格、气魄。

影响

古典主义文学的读者和观众限于朝廷和城市。“朝廷”是指国君与封建贵族,“城市”是指资产阶级上层。据文献资料统计,上述两方面的人士,在路易十四朝时期,总共不过 3,000多人,其中关心文学艺术的人当然更少一些。所以17世纪法国古典主义文学的读者与观众的范围是非常狭窄的,然而它对法国文学的影响十分深远。直到今天,古典主义仍被认为是法国文学史上的正宗,这个传统概念,几百年来基本上没有改变。
古典主义先后在欧洲流行了200多年,可以说许多国家在不同时代、不同程度和意义上,都有过它们的古典主义文学时期。英国在17世纪后期形成了古典主义流派,但直到18世纪初期才得到发展;俄国则在18世纪上半期,古典主义曾经成为当时文学中的主导的倾向。

English Introduction

A literary trend in Western Europe, especially France, that was popular in the seventeenth Century. Because it takes the ancient Greece and Rome literature as the model in the theory of literature and art and the practice of creation, it is called "classicism"".
In France, from the beginning of the seventeenth Century to 1660 or so, is the classical gradually formed stage, mainly for the language of classical literature in the setting and various literary genres established, classical has popular in Europe for more than 200 years, can be said that many countries in different degrees and at the same time, generation of sense, have them the classical literature. In the late seventeenth Century, England formed a classical school, but it was not developed until the early eighteenth Century. In the first half of the eighteenth Century, in the first half of the 20th century.
From the literary and artistic trend of thought, classicism is a kind of literary and artistic thought, which was founded in the seventeenth Century, when the nation-state began to be established and the capitalism developed gradually. France in seventeenth Century to develop the most complete, but also in the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, in Europe had a dominant position. It is because of the learning of ancient times, advocating ancient imitation of ancient, ancient Greece, Rome literature as a model named. From the perspective of political and social causes, the classical period of development is a product of commercial capital, the mercantilist policy basis. It is subject to the absolute monarchical rule is reflected in the literature on absolute monarchical politics, is also the time of the bourgeoisie in the politics of the feudal monarchy of temporary accommodation, a compromise the.
In seventeenth Century France, is the monarchy's heyday, bourgeois political revolution, the conditions are not yet ripe. This is the French king Louis thirteen (1610--1643) and (1638--1715) came to power in the era of highly developed commercial capital of France, the currency has become the main wealth of the nation. On behalf of the big bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy of the king, in order to carry out the mercantilist policies, the development of foreign trade, must seize power from the Pope and the old aristocracy centralized control of the local aristocracy, suppress separatist activities, open sources, to encourage overseas colonial expansion, which is the origin of centralized monarchy. At the time of the bourgeoisie in the rising period, two due to insufficient strength to grow, not developed enough to overthrow the feudal rule, seize power point, need to attach to the development of capitalist monarchy. On the other hand, they can not be reconciled to the dominance of politics, calling for a revolution in thought, to limit the crown's request. Therefore, the bourgeoisie and the feudal aristocracy between the temporary formation of mutual restraint, mutual struggle situation. As Marx pointed out; "autocratic monarchy in a transitional period, when the old feudal hierarchy tends to decline, the medieval burgesses are forming the modern bourgeoisie, the struggle of any party has yet to overwhelm the other party. "At that time, the monarchy became" between the two classes on the surface of the mediator".

English Introduction

From seventeenth Century to nineteenth Century, a cultural trend of thought and art trend in European countries. It originated in France in seventeenth Century, there are three different artistic tendencies. First, the ancient Greek and Rome classical works of art style of nostalgia and imitation of the wind, represented by Poussin's eternal and natural reason for the classical. In a narrow sense, the actual end of 18 to early nineteenth Century, the rise of nostalgic style during the French Revolution to Kazakhstan as the second tendencies, as the representative to davitt preaching revolution and the struggle spirit of classicism, or become a new classicism. The three is the pursuit of the perfect form and the classical style of the college classicism represented by Angell.
As a kind of classical art, it is the aesthetic principles and norms of ancient art ideal to express the reality of moral concept, contemporary themes with typical historical events, that is using the. The spirit of classical paintings as the connotation, promote the lofty theme of elegant, stately simple form, emphasizing the rational and emotional neglect, sketch and strict appearance, color and brush strokes to belittle the performance, the pursuit of a balanced composition and complete, to produce an ancient solemn and austere beauty. In the technique, classical painting emphasizes precise drawing technique and soft subtle tonal, and focus on the image showing a sculptural and concise summary, the pursuit of a grand composition and solemn style, style.
The reader and audience of classical literature is limited to the court and the city. "The court" refers to the monarch and the feudal aristocracy, "city" refers to the upper bourgeoisie. According to statistics, the above two aspects of the people, in the Louis Xiv era, a total of only more than 3 thousand people, of course, who cares about literature and art, of course, some less. Therefore, the scope of the French classical literature in seventeenth Century is very narrow, but it has a profound influence on French literature. To this day, classicism is still regarded as the orthodox history of French literature.
Classicism has been popular in Europe for more than 200 years, it can be said that many countries in different times, different degrees and significance, have their classical literary period. In the late seventeenth Century, England formed a classical school, but it was not developed until the early eighteenth Century. In the first half of the eighteenth Century, in the first half of the 20th century.

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