象征主义

象征主义是19世纪末始于文学,以后影响到戏剧、绘画、哲学等领域的一中文艺思想。文学中象征派有宣言、有理论,美术中的象征主义不过是一种艺术倾向而已。象征主义艺术家反对写实主义和印象主义对自然的客观摹写。强调主观精神的表现。他们认为人的内心世界是不明确的、难以把握的,只能通过象征的手法,用寓意和象征性的然而又是具体可感的形象来隐喻主题和情感,暗示微妙和神秘的内心世界,通过形象来寻找在外事物与内心世界的对应关系,带有神秘主义的色彩。象征主义反映了当时一种不正视现实,向神秘的精神世界寻求灵感和启迪的思想倾向。

  • 领域文学、戏剧、绘画、哲学
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刘国松:中国人的一面鲜明革新大旗,外国人眼中的新东方象征主义

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概述

象征主义名词源于希腊文Symbolon,它在希腊文中的原意是指“一块木板(或一种陶器)分成两半,主客双方各执其一,再次见面时拼成一块,以示友爱”的信物。几经演变,其义变成了“用一种形式作为一种概念的习馈代表”,即引中为任何观念或事物的代表,凡能表达某种观念及事物的符号或物品就叫做“象征”。它与通常人们用的比喻不同,它涉及事物的实质,含义远较比喻深广。是19世纪末在法国及西方几个国家出现的一种艺术思潮。是当时欧洲一部分知识分子对社会生活和官方沙龙文化不满的反映。他们不敢正视现实,不愿直接表述自己的意思,往往采用象征和寓意的手法,在幻想中虚构另外的世界,抒发自己的愿望,这样便产生了近代象征性的艺术。1886年诗人让·莫雷亚斯发表《象征主义宣言》首先提出这个名称。

象征派在艺术上受英国拉斐尔前派和象征派诗人马拉美、波特莱尔,音乐家瓦格纳及尼采主观唯心主义思想的影响。象征派主张强调主观、个性,以心灵的想象创造某种带有暗示和象征性的神奇画面,他们不再把一时所见真实的表现出来,而通过特定形象的综合来表达自己的观念和内在的精神世界。在形式上则追求华丽堆砌和装饰的效果。

象征主义是19世纪末产生于法国的文学艺术运动,在巴黎的知识界影响很大,并对20世纪美学的发展,起了一定的推动作用。该运动主要在法国,欧洲的其他文化中心也有一些追随者,如德国,比利时等。

象征主义分为前象征主义,和后象征主义。前象征主义︰19世纪后半叶产生于法国的诗歌流派。代表人物是:波德莱尔、魏尔伦、兰波和马拉美。波德莱尔的十四行诗《应和》首次提出著名的象征主义“应和”论。后象征主义出现于一次大战后的世界性文学潮流,20年代达到高潮,40年代接近尾,其创作手法延续到后来的各种写作中。它的主要特点是︰创造病态的“美”,表现内心的“最高真实”,运用象征暗示,在幻觉中构筑意象,用音乐性增加冥想效应。

文学

象征主义文学是起源于19世纪中叶的法国,并于20世纪初期扩及欧美各国的一个文学流派,是象征主义思潮在文学上的体现,也是现代主义文学的一个核心分支,主要涵盖诗歌和戏剧两大领域,其影响力一直持续到今天。西方主流学术界认为象征主义文学的诞生是古典文学和现代文学的分水岭。

法国诗人夏尔·波德莱尔和美国诗人爱伦·坡是象征主义的先驱。尽管“象征主义”一词最早出现于1886年,但波德莱尔和爱伦·坡早在19世纪中叶的创作就最初涉及到了一些象征主义的理念。

1857年,法国年轻诗人波德莱尔发表的《恶之花》是象征主义的开山之作。《恶之花》象怪物似的出现在法国诗坛上,成为法国文学,乃至世界文学史上一件令人瞩目的大事。波德莱尔成为文坛泰斗后,以他为中心的一种新的文学流派也迅速形成。而且,由于他的重要追随者魏尔伦、兰波和玛拉美的出现,这个新的流派在19世末;即1886—1891年左右达到昌盛时期。

前期象征主义又可以分为3个阶段:波德莱尔以前为萌芽期象征主义。这个时期里,有法国第一散文诗人贝尔特朗;散文家奈瓦尔、诗人洛特雷亚蒙和美国著名诗人和作家爱伦·坡。他俩的诗和诗歌理论都曾对波德莱尔以及后来的一大批象征派诗人的创作发生过作用,但还算不上真正的’象征主义诗歌。第二个阶段是波德莱尔时期。波德莱尔不但是象征主义的鼻祖;也是整个现代派文学的先驱,我们把他这一个阶段称为先驱期象征主义。第三个阶段是继波德莱尔之后出朝的3个重要诗人:兰波、魏尔伦、玛拉美时期。我们称这个时期为正统的前期象征主义时期。由于他们3个人的努力,象征主义到19世纪末出现了前所未有的热潮。法国的拉弗格、歇尼埃和上面提到的莫雷亚斯等诗人都先后加入到象征主义行列。用象征主义手法创作了大量诗歌,形成了一种要淹没已基本解体的浪漫主义的声势和与还在流行的帕尔纳斯派相对抗的格局。19世纪90年代后,象征主义诗歌又开始向西欧、北美各国传播,在那里找到了许多知音。‘那些人又成了20世纪20年代出现的后期象征主义的中坚。但是,在‘法国,高峰过后,前期象征主义随即开始衰落。

1891年,象征派“文学宣言”的作者莫雷亚斯首先宣布脱离象征派,而提倡一种所谓“罗曼派”的文学,试图恢复他的先祖希腊罗马古代文学的传统。接着,兰波、魏尔伦、玛拉美分别于1891、1896、1898年过世,其他许多象征派诗人也纷纷选择新的发展方向,不再遵循象征主义艺术标准。前期象征主义作为70个文学流派,到19世纪末实际上已经解体。但是,前期象征主义作为一种文艺思潮,其影响已在法国深深扎根。而且由于玛拉美等著名诗人的作用,象征主义在19世纪末开始越过法国国界线,向西欧、北美扩展,到上世纪20年代,又兴起了后象征主义。

绘画

自1885年起一种以象征主义为名,对理想主义倾向的逆反在文学和造型艺术领域同时发展起来,画家和作家不再致力于忠实地表现外部世界,而是要通过象征的、隐喻的和装饰性的画面来表现虚幻的梦想以启示于人。

具有象征主义的代表画家主要是皮维・德・夏凡纳和雷东。象征派画家们并未创造一种新的形式流派,他们关心的只是诗意的表达、玄理的揭示。象征主义绘画是一种以感情为基础对新内容的探索,不是以理智或客观的观察为基础,而是超越外表的直觉的内在力量和想象。

法国是19世纪绘画艺术的中心,在法国象征主义的主要代表是摩罗、夏凡纳与雷东

象征主义绘画在欧洲各国均有表现。瑞士的画家勃克林、霍德拉,意大利画家塞冈提尼,比利时的画家思索尔等等,都是具有象征主义倾向的画家。

English Introduction

The symbolism of nouns derived from the Greek Symbolon, which in Greek means "a piece of wood (or a pottery) is divided into two parts, both sides each hold a meeting again into a block, a token of love". After the evolution will become "as a concept with a form of learning, which is fed on behalf of any ideas or things on behalf of lead, who can express some concepts and symbols or items of things is called the" symbol". It is usually people use metaphor, it relates to the essence of things, meaning far deeper than metaphor. It was an art trend in France and several western countries in the late nineteenth Century. It was a reflection of some European intellectuals' dissatisfaction with social life and official salon culture. They did not dare to face reality, do not want to directly express their meaning, often using symbolic and allegorical way, another fictional world in fantasy, express their desire, thus resulting in a modern symbolic art. In 1886, Jean Moreas published "the poet first proposed the name" Manifesto of symbolism.
Symbolism in art and by the British pre Raphaelite poet Mallarme, Porter Lyle, musician Wagner and Nietzsche influence subjective idealism thought. The symbol advocates the emphasis on subjective imagination and personality, to create a magical picture with hints and symbolic, they no longer have time to see the true performance, and through specific images to express their own ideas and inner spiritual world. In the form of the pursuit of gorgeous stacking and decorative effect.
Symbolism is a literary and artistic movement at the end of nineteenth Century was born in France, great influence of intelligentsia in Paris, and on twentieth Century the development of aesthetics, and played a certain role. The movement is mainly in France, other cultural centers in Europe, there are some followers, such as Germany, Belgium, etc..
The symbolism is divided into before and after symbolism symbolism. The symbolism of the nineteenth Century, during the French School of poetry. Representative: Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud and mallarme. Baudelaire's Sonnets "and" for the first time put forward the famous "and" theory of symbolism. After the symbolism emerged in the post-war world literary trend, reached its peak in 20s, near the end of 40s, the creation of a variety of writing until later in. Its main features are: the creation of morbid "beauty", the performance of the heart of the "highest reality", the use of symbolic cues in the illusion of the image, the use of music to increase the effect of meditation.

Symbolism is originated in France in the mid nineteenth Century, and extended a literary genre in Europe and the United States in the early twentieth Century, is the embodiment of symbolism thoughts in literature, but also a core branch of modern literature, poetry and drama mainly covers two areas, its influence continues today. The western mainstream academic circles hold the birth of symbolism literature is the watershed of classical literature and modern literature.
French poet Charles Baudelaire and American poet Edgar Allan Poe is the symbolism pioneer. Although the "symbolism" first appeared in 1886, but the works of Baudelaire and Poe early in the middle of the nineteenth Century the first involves the concept of symbolism.
In 1857, the young French poet Baudelaire published the "flowers of evil" is a masterpiece of symbolism. "Flowers of evil" as like a monster appeared in the French poetry, a French literature, a remarkable event and the history of world literature. Baudelaire became a literary scholar, of which he was the centre of a new literary genre is rapidly formed. But, because of his important followers Verlaine, Rimbaud and Mara beauty, this new genre in the late 19 century; the 1886 and 1891 reached the period of prosperity.
The symbolism and can be divided into 3 stages: Baudelaire before bud symbolism. In this period, France's first prose poet, essayist Naval Bertrand; poet Lott Rea Mon and the famous American poet and writer Edgar Allan poe. They and poetry theory has to Baudelaire and a large number of symbol later poets creation happened, but also not true "symbolism poetry. The second stage is the Baudelaire era. Baudelaire is not only the ancestor of symbolism; is the pioneer of the modernist literature, we put him in this stage called pioneer period symbolism. The third stage is the Baudelaire after 3 important poets: Rimbaud, Verlaine in Mara period, the United states. We call this period for the symbolism of the orthodox. 3 because of their personal efforts, symbolism at the end of nineteenth Century appeared the upsurge of hitherto unknown. Rafg of France, and Xieniai mentioned above are poets such as Moreas has joined symbolism. With the creation of a large number of symbolism poetry, formed a romantic to drown the disintegration of the momentum in popularity with the Pearl, send in the pattern. After 1890s, poetry and began to spread to the Western European and North American countries, where to find many companion. Those who became the backbone of the late symbolism in 1920s. However, in France, after the summit, the symbolism immediately began to decline.
In 1891, the "symbolism literature declaration" author Moreas from the first announced symbolism, and advocate a so-called "Roman style" literature, trying to restore his ancestors of the Greek tradition of ancient literature in Rome. Then, Mara, Rimbaud, Verlaine America respectively in 1891, 1896 and 1898 died, many other symbolist poets have chosen a new development direction, no longer follow the standard of symbolic art. The symbolism as 70 literary schools, to the end of nineteenth Century has actually disintegration. However, the symbolism as a literary trend, its influence has been deeply rooted in france. And because Mara America famous poet, symbolism in late nineteenth Century began to cross the border to France, Western Europe, North America, to the last century in 20s, and rise after symbolism.Since 1885 a symbolism in the name of the rebellious idealism in literature and art field also developed, painters and writers are no longer committed to the faithful performance of the outside world, but to show through the illusion of symbols and metaphors and decorative picture of the dream to enlightenment to people.
Is the main representative painter with symbolism peevey de Chavannes and Redon. Symbolist painters did not create a new form of school, they only care about the poetic expression, the mystery revealed. Symbolism painting is a kind of exploration of new content on the basis of feelings, not by reason or objective observation as the foundation, but beyond the appearance of intuitive inner strength and imagination.
France is the nineteenth Century painting art center, the main representative of French Symbolism, and Redon Moro chavannes.
Symbolism painting performance in the European countries are. The Swiss painter Bcklin, David Jose Gangte Ni, the Italy painter, a Belgian painter, thinking and so on, are symbolism painters.

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