写实主义

写实主义又译现实主义,一般被定义为关于现实和实际而排斥理想主义。不过,现实主义在博雅人文(Liberal Arts)范畴里可以有很多意思(特别是绘画、文学和哲学里)。它还可以被用于国际关系。现实主义摒弃理想化的想像,而主张细密观察事物的外表,依据这个说法,广义的写实主义便包含了不同文明中的许多艺术思潮。在视觉艺术和文学里,现实主义是一个19世纪的一场运动,起源于法国。

  • 中文名写实主义
  • 外文名 Realism
  • 别名现实主义
  • 起源19世纪法国
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写实主义的超越—郭北平油画艺术点评

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

在当代中国油画创作的谱系中,郭北平为中国当代本土油画奠定了最坚实的地基。在这里我不想用现实主义来判断郭北平的油画艺术,倒不是出于其他原因,而是现实主义的范围过宽,无法深入地切中郭北...
起源

西方19世纪的美术思潮 。写实主义起源于法国 ,中心也在法国,后波及欧洲各国 。1848 年革命后,首次使用“ 写实主义”一词。代表人物为画家G·库尔贝,最早的理论家为尚弗勒里。其第一份宣言发表于1855年。反对僵化的新古典主义,反对追求抽象理想的浪漫主义,坚持表现当代生活,往往以社会低层人物为作品的主人公并满怀同情地描绘他们的处境,以揭示资本主义社会的不合理性。 这种美术运动的形成和发展,有其历史原因.在法国,由于社会阶级矛盾的激化,继1830年革命以后,又掀起了规模更大、波及全欧的1848年革命.这场革命遭到残酷的镇压,"自由、平等、博爱"的口号被践踏,使人们不再抱任何浪漫主义的幻想,而迫切要求对现实作客观的认识.具有批判性质的写实主义,便是这种思想意识在艺术上的反映。

表现形式

文学
现实主义是文学艺术的基本创作方法之一,其实际运用时间相当早远,但直到19世纪50年代才由法国画家库尔贝和作家夏夫列里作为一个名称提出来,恩格斯为“现实主义”下的

定义是:除了细节的真实外,还要真实的再现典型环境中的典型人物。(1888年4月初致玛·哈克奈斯信)

绘画
兴起于19世纪的欧洲,又称为现实主义画派,或现实画派。

这是一个在艺术创作尤其是绘画、雕塑和文学、戏剧中常用的概念,更狭义的讲,属于造型艺术尤其是绘画和雕塑的范畴。 无论是面对真实存在的物体,还是想象出来的对象,绘画者总是在描述一个真实存在的物质而不是抽象的符号。这样的创作往往被统称为写实。遵循这样的创作原则和方法,就叫现实主义,让同个题材的作品有不同呈现。

最著名的写实主义画家是库尔贝,他反映底层人民的生活,如“碎石工”,他有一句名言:“我不会画天使,因为我从没有见过他。”

当时来中国的苏联专家贬低中国画的水墨山水,认为是抽象的,但参观一次黄山后,才承认水墨山水是现实主义的,这是苏联人对绘画的最高评价。

戏剧
写实主义是现代戏剧的主流。 在20世纪激烈的社会变迁中,能以对当代

生活的掌握来吸引一批新的观众。一般认为他是18、19世纪西方工业社会的历史产物。狭义的现实主义是19世纪中叶以后,欧美资本主义社会的新兴艺文思潮。
 

评价

在艺术史中谈论的“写实主义”往往是一个边界模糊的概念,它有的时候可以指代西方文艺复兴之后追求客观再现对象的整个艺术体系,有时则仅指这一体系当中尤其强调逼真的某些风格倾向。
写实主义
写实主义图册
从这些不同的用法出发,写实主义也一度成为一种普遍的参照物,被一些学者用以衡量从古典希腊到中世纪,从西方到东方不同艺术体系的成就和得失。写实主义不仅仅意味着一种风格,同时也代表着一种态度、一种方法,在“反映现实”这一层意义上,很多不属于狭义的写实主义风格的艺术现象,也会被放在同一个主题下被思考和评价。
与其他定义艺术风格的词汇相比较,写实主义这个词汇要更为复杂而容易引起歧义,这也构成了一个困境,一切与写实主义或多或少有关的话题开始讨论时所不能回避的死结。琳达·诺克林在其专着《写实主义》的开头所做的分析。
她指出“以样式主义(Mannerism)、巴罗克(Baroque)或新古典主义(Neo-classicism)这些词汇而言,尽管真要理解也并不比写实主义容易,但它们在用法上毕竟比较单纯:这些词汇一般用来界定艺术流派和相关运动,使用范围大致不会超出视觉艺术这个范畴。但写实主义这个词则不是这样,它不仅仅与视觉艺术领域关联,更与诸多哲学和社会文化的问题有相当密切的联系……”
早在1855年库尔贝发起个人展览并且直接亮出“写实主义”的旗帜之时,这位艺术家最重要的一个朋友和支持者尚弗勒里(Champfleury)就已经在他的一封公开信中指出了“写实主义”,“作为一个概念在使用上过于宽泛”,在他看来,即使在当时,谩言写实主义也已经成了“一个玩笑”,因为这个写实主义“在艺术中所有时候都存在”。
正是基于这样的考虑,对写实主义这一范畴做一个相对完善的概念化总结。写实主义,是特指作为一项在造型艺术上的历史性运动,它以法国为运动的核心,风行于1840-1880年间的整个欧洲,其后续和影响的效果则一直活跃至今日。
这种写实主义的目标,至少它最初的目标,是要在对当代生活作最严谨的观察的基础上,试图给予现实世界以一个真实、客观的形象。对比当时矫饰的官方沙龙艺术和讲求幻想和文学性的浪漫主义者而言,这是一种看来“不偏不倚”、“直截了当”的现实再现。
当然,即使是在这个“狭义”上的“写实主义”,也仍然是一个涵盖十分丰富的概念,并且人们并不能排斥这个“狭义写实主义”同更宽泛意义上的写实主义在社会生活的各个方面实际存在的种种关联和呼应。立足于写实主义的“艺术”范畴,并不是企图将“艺术”孤立于整个“历史”,而是将通过艺术的层面反射出更为生动的历史。

影响

19世纪中期法国写实主义美术家们发展了美术作品的写实技法,特别在风景画中对表现光线和空间感,作了富有成果的探索。一方面,他们使历来被上层社会不屑一顾的劳动者,在艺术创作中得到了一定的地位;另一方面,在他们的实践和理论中,也有某些偏激之处。

例如,库尔贝在反对学院派绘画的僵化了的表现程式和弄虚作假的陈腐内容时,提出绘画只应该去画眼睛直接看到的东西,从而把历史画之类绘画体裁事实上也给否定了。但从整体来看,19世纪中期法国的写实主义美术运动是法国文艺史上光辉的篇章.它对19世纪欧洲各国的文艺运动影响深远,开阔了民主艺术的新阶段。

English Introduction

Western art thought in the nineteenth Century. Realism originated in France, the center also in France, after the spread of European countries. After the 1848 revolution, the first use of the word "realism". The representative painter G Courbet, the earliest theorists to champfleury. Its first declaration was published in 1855. Against the rigid neoclassicism, against the pursuit of abstract ideal romanticism, adhere to the performance of contemporary life, tend to lower social character as the protagonist and sympathetic portrayal of their situation, it is unreasonable to reveal the capitalist society. The formation and development of the art movement, has its historical reasons. In France, the intensification of the contradictions of social class, following the 1830 revolution, there has been larger and spread throughout Europe in 1848 revolution. This revolution was a brutal crackdown, "liberty, equality and fraternity" slogan is trampled, make people no longer have any romantic fantasy, and urgent requirements for objective understanding of reality. With the nature of critical realism, is a reflection of this ideology in art.
literature
Realism is one of the basic methods of literature and art creation, the actual use of time quite early, but until 1850s by the French artist Courbet and writer Natsu J Vlri as a name from Engels as the "realism" of the
Definition: in addition to the details of the real, but also a true representation of typical characters in the typical environment. (early April 1888 to m - Huck ness letter)
painting
The rise in Europe in nineteenth Century, also known as realism, or realistic painting.
This is a commonly used concept in artistic creation, especially in painting, sculpture, literature and drama. Whether it is in the face of a real object, or imagined objects, the artist is always describing a real substance rather than an abstract symbol. Such creations are often referred to as realism. According to the principle and method of creation, it is called realism, which makes the works of the same theme different.
The most famous realist painter is Courbet, he reflected the underlying people's life, such as "stone", he had a famous saying: "I can't draw a angel, because I have never seen him."
At that time, the Soviet Union came to China to belittle the Chinese ink painting landscapes, considered to be abstract, but after a visit to Mount Huangshan, only to recognize ink landscape is realistic, which is the Soviet Union's highest evaluation of painting.
Theatre
Realism is the mainstream of modern drama. In the drastic social changes in the twentieth Century, we can
The mastery of life to attract a new audience. He is generally regarded as a historical product of the western industrial society in 18 and nineteenth Century. The narrow sense of realism is after the mid nineteenth Century, the emerging art trend of European and American capitalist society.Talking about art in the history of "realism" is often a fuzzy boundary concept, it can sometimes refer to the Western Renaissance after the pursuit to reproduce the objective object of the whole art system, sometimes it only refers to the system with particular emphasis on some realistic style.
realism
Atlas of realism
Starting from these different usages, realism also became a common reference, by some scholars to measure from ancient Greece to the middle ages, from the west to the east of the system of different artistic achievements and failures. Realism not only means a kind of style, but also represents an attitude, a method, in this layer of meaning reflect reality ", many art phenomenon does not belong to narrow realism style, will be placed in the same theme is thinking and evaluation.
With other art style defined vocabulary comparison, the word realism is more complex and easy to cause ambiguity, this poses a dilemma, can not avoid all more or less related topics began to discuss the realism of the knot. Analysis of Linda Nochlin made at the beginning of the monograph "realism".
She pointed out that "the stylism (Mannerism), Barok (Baroque) or neoclassical (Neo-classicism) of these words, although it is not easy to understand than realism, but they are in use after all relatively simple: these words are commonly used to define the genre of art and sports, the use scope is not beyond the scope of visual art. But the word is not so realistic, it is not only associated with the field of visual art, it had a close relationship with many philosophical and social and cultural issues......"
As early as in 1855, Courbet launched a solo exhibition and directly reveal the "realism" of the banner, the artist is one of the most important friend and supporter of Jean Fuller Lee (Champfleury) has been in his open letter pointed out that the "realism", "as a concept in use is too broad, in his opinion, even if at the time, or say realism became" a joke "," all the time because of the realism in art are".
It is based on this consideration, a summary of the concept of relative improvement of the category of realism. Realism, refers to as an art in the historical movement, which in France for the movement of the core, the whole of Europe became popular in the 18401880 years, and its subsequent effect has been active until today.
The realistic goal, at least its original goal, is to make the most rigorous observation based on contemporary life, trying to give the real world with a real and objective image. Compared to the then pretentious salon art and literature about fantasy and romantic, this is a "view" straightforward "avoid leaning to either side, the reality of reproduction.
Of course, even in the "narrow" on the "realism", it is still a very rich and covers the concept, we can not reject the "narrow realism" with a broader sense of realism actually exists in every aspect of social life and a correlation and echo. Based on the realism of "art" category, and not attempt to "art" isolated from the whole "history", but by the level of art reflects more vivid history.Realistic skill of French realist artists who developed the art works of the mid nineteenth Century, especially the sense of light and space in landscape painting, made fruitful exploration. On the one hand, they make the workers have been the upper classes of society have a contemptuous disregard, position in art creation; on the other hand, in the theory and practice of them, there are also some extreme place.
For example, a content representation of programs and Courbet in the resort to deceit academic painting against rigid when the proposed painting should only be to draw the eyes directly to see things like painting history painting genre in fact was denied. But overall, the realism art movement in France in mid nineteenth Century is a glorious chapter in the French literary history. Its influence on the nineteenth Century European literary movement reaching new stage of open democratic art.

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