西方19世纪的美术思潮 。写实主义起源于法国 ，中心也在法国，后波及欧洲各国 。1848 年革命后，首次使用“ 写实主义”一词。代表人物为画家G·库尔贝，最早的理论家为尚弗勒里。其第一份宣言发表于1855年。反对僵化的新古典主义，反对追求抽象理想的浪漫主义，坚持表现当代生活，往往以社会低层人物为作品的主人公并满怀同情地描绘他们的处境，以揭示资本主义社会的不合理性。 这种美术运动的形成和发展，有其历史原因.在法国，由于社会阶级矛盾的激化，继1830年革命以后，又掀起了规模更大、波及全欧的1848年革命.这场革命遭到残酷的镇压，"自由、平等、博爱"的口号被践踏，使人们不再抱任何浪漫主义的幻想，而迫切要求对现实作客观的认识.具有批判性质的写实主义，便是这种思想意识在艺术上的反映。
Western art thought in the nineteenth Century. Realism originated in France, the center also in France, after the spread of European countries. After the 1848 revolution, the first use of the word "realism". The representative painter G Courbet, the earliest theorists to champfleury. Its first declaration was published in 1855. Against the rigid neoclassicism, against the pursuit of abstract ideal romanticism, adhere to the performance of contemporary life, tend to lower social character as the protagonist and sympathetic portrayal of their situation, it is unreasonable to reveal the capitalist society. The formation and development of the art movement, has its historical reasons. In France, the intensification of the contradictions of social class, following the 1830 revolution, there has been larger and spread throughout Europe in 1848 revolution. This revolution was a brutal crackdown, "liberty, equality and fraternity" slogan is trampled, make people no longer have any romantic fantasy, and urgent requirements for objective understanding of reality. With the nature of critical realism, is a reflection of this ideology in art.
Realism is one of the basic methods of literature and art creation, the actual use of time quite early, but until 1850s by the French artist Courbet and writer Natsu J Vlri as a name from Engels as the "realism" of the
Definition: in addition to the details of the real, but also a true representation of typical characters in the typical environment. (early April 1888 to m - Huck ness letter)
The rise in Europe in nineteenth Century, also known as realism, or realistic painting.
This is a commonly used concept in artistic creation, especially in painting, sculpture, literature and drama. Whether it is in the face of a real object, or imagined objects, the artist is always describing a real substance rather than an abstract symbol. Such creations are often referred to as realism. According to the principle and method of creation, it is called realism, which makes the works of the same theme different.
The most famous realist painter is Courbet, he reflected the underlying people's life, such as "stone", he had a famous saying: "I can't draw a angel, because I have never seen him."
At that time, the Soviet Union came to China to belittle the Chinese ink painting landscapes, considered to be abstract, but after a visit to Mount Huangshan, only to recognize ink landscape is realistic, which is the Soviet Union's highest evaluation of painting.
Realism is the mainstream of modern drama. In the drastic social changes in the twentieth Century, we can
The mastery of life to attract a new audience. He is generally regarded as a historical product of the western industrial society in 18 and nineteenth Century. The narrow sense of realism is after the mid nineteenth Century, the emerging art trend of European and American capitalist society.Talking about art in the history of "realism" is often a fuzzy boundary concept, it can sometimes refer to the Western Renaissance after the pursuit to reproduce the objective object of the whole art system, sometimes it only refers to the system with particular emphasis on some realistic style.
Atlas of realism
Starting from these different usages, realism also became a common reference, by some scholars to measure from ancient Greece to the middle ages, from the west to the east of the system of different artistic achievements and failures. Realism not only means a kind of style, but also represents an attitude, a method, in this layer of meaning reflect reality ", many art phenomenon does not belong to narrow realism style, will be placed in the same theme is thinking and evaluation.
With other art style defined vocabulary comparison, the word realism is more complex and easy to cause ambiguity, this poses a dilemma, can not avoid all more or less related topics began to discuss the realism of the knot. Analysis of Linda Nochlin made at the beginning of the monograph "realism".
She pointed out that "the stylism (Mannerism), Barok (Baroque) or neoclassical (Neo-classicism) of these words, although it is not easy to understand than realism, but they are in use after all relatively simple: these words are commonly used to define the genre of art and sports, the use scope is not beyond the scope of visual art. But the word is not so realistic, it is not only associated with the field of visual art, it had a close relationship with many philosophical and social and cultural issues......"
As early as in 1855, Courbet launched a solo exhibition and directly reveal the "realism" of the banner, the artist is one of the most important friend and supporter of Jean Fuller Lee (Champfleury) has been in his open letter pointed out that the "realism", "as a concept in use is too broad, in his opinion, even if at the time, or say realism became" a joke "," all the time because of the realism in art are".
It is based on this consideration, a summary of the concept of relative improvement of the category of realism. Realism, refers to as an art in the historical movement, which in France for the movement of the core, the whole of Europe became popular in the 18401880 years, and its subsequent effect has been active until today.
The realistic goal, at least its original goal, is to make the most rigorous observation based on contemporary life, trying to give the real world with a real and objective image. Compared to the then pretentious salon art and literature about fantasy and romantic, this is a "view" straightforward "avoid leaning to either side, the reality of reproduction.
Of course, even in the "narrow" on the "realism", it is still a very rich and covers the concept, we can not reject the "narrow realism" with a broader sense of realism actually exists in every aspect of social life and a correlation and echo. Based on the realism of "art" category, and not attempt to "art" isolated from the whole "history", but by the level of art reflects more vivid history.Realistic skill of French realist artists who developed the art works of the mid nineteenth Century, especially the sense of light and space in landscape painting, made fruitful exploration. On the one hand, they make the workers have been the upper classes of society have a contemptuous disregard, position in art creation; on the other hand, in the theory and practice of them, there are also some extreme place.
For example, a content representation of programs and Courbet in the resort to deceit academic painting against rigid when the proposed painting should only be to draw the eyes directly to see things like painting history painting genre in fact was denied. But overall, the realism art movement in France in mid nineteenth Century is a glorious chapter in the French literary history. Its influence on the nineteenth Century European literary movement reaching new stage of open democratic art.