后印象主义

后印象主义是法国美术史上继印象主义之后的美术现象,也称“印象派之后”或“后期印象派”,该词由英国艺术评论家并曾任纽约大都会博物馆馆长福莱(Roger Fry,1866-1934)提出的。代表人物有:塞尚(Paul Cezanne,1839-1906)、高更(Paul Gauguin,1848-1903)、及梵高(Vincent Van Gogh,1853-1890)等。在他们的创作思想、艺术观念影响下产生了野兽主义、立体主义、表现主义、抽象主义等,是他们彻底地改变了西方绘画面貌,由客观再现走向主观表现,并使之走向现代,他们被誉为现代艺术之父。

  • 中文名后印象主义
  • 外文名Post-Impressionism
  • 代表人物塞尚、高更、梵高
  • 出现国家法国
历史起源

后印象主义由英国艺术评论家并曾任纽约大都会博物馆馆长福莱 (Roger Fry,1866-1934)提出的。他想对保罗·塞尚立论,就需要一个新术语。几十年来,法国人并没有将这三个人和印象主义加以区别,只是采用这一术语把他们和那些主要名家区分开来。虽然保罗·塞尚 一生中的大部分时间都和那群画家一起展出作品,但“后印象主义”仍是一个方便的术语用来突出这三位后来的画家,而且他们也确实与该群体十分不同。
这三位画家都是在去世后很久才得到社会的承认,他们三人共同开启了现代艺术 的大门,在他们的创作思想、艺术观念影响下产生了野兽主义 、立体主义、表现主义、抽象主义 等,是他们彻底地改变了西方绘画 面貌,由客观再现走向主观表现,并使之走向现代,他们被誉为现代艺术之父。
严格意义讲后印象主义不是一个画派,他们之间不是团体,也没有联合开过画展,更没有什么宣言,只是三人都脱胎于印象主义又有着共同创作倾向而已。后来的美术史家们发现他们既有与印象主义 联系又不同于印象主义,便称他们是“后印象主义者”

发展过程

所谓后印象主义是指塞尚、凡·高和高更的艺术观念和艺术创造。他们三个人最初都是学印象主义 。塞尚高更还参加过印象主义画展,凡·高虽然没有参加过印象主义展览,但他一直自称是印象主义。后来他们三人都认为绘画不能仅仅像印象主义那样去模仿客观世界,而应该更多地表现画家对客观事物的主观感受,他们虽有共同的创作倾向又有各自鲜明的艺术个性:塞尚一生的创作活动都是为了追求心目中永恒性的形体和坚实的结构,以创造形象的重量感、体积感、稳定感和宏伟感,最后达到简单化和几何化的效果,这使他成为后来的立体主义 和抽象主义 的始祖。高更主张不要面对实物,而凭记忆作画,提倡综合的和象征的美学原则。凡·高的新画风,可以说是印象主义、新印象主义,日本的浮世绘版画融合在他个人气质中的产物,是东西方绘画合流的结果。凡·高的画,一个突出的特点是强烈地表现了自己的个性有人说,他的画都是他的自画像。他是表现主义的先驱,并深深影响了二十世纪艺术,尤其是野兽派 与表现主义。
距印象主义第一次画展大约十年之后,一个“独立艺术家协会”的组织在法国宣告诞生。他们是印象主义理论与实践的发展和反拨,他们用光学科学的试验原理来指导艺术实践,是把科学自觉地运用于色彩的探索。他们自称新印象主义,修拉是这一流派惟一的理论家和卓越的艺术家,西涅克 则是该派的重要画家与宣传喉舌。
新印象派 的技法基础是分割主义,又称点彩主义 ——用对比强烈的不同的纯色彩小点或小块作科学的并列,使观众从一定距离观看时自行去获得混合的色彩效果。整个画面布满小色点(块),形象划分也不用线条,所有景物都沉浸在闪烁的光线中。色点(块)大小相同并与整个画面的比例相适应。光线的运用仍然像印象主义 那样强烈,但整体效果却是稳定、准确、和谐而庄严的,他们试图在作品中重新恢 复被印象主义所忽视了的物体造型的重量感,是印象主义转瞬即逝的光线和氛围的理想化形式。新印象主义一方面把印象主义的试验科学化和法则化,另一方面也被固定的法则所束缚,因而注定了它的短命。新印象主义的影响到19世纪90年代即告消失。
后印象主义是继印象主义之后存在于19世纪80至90年代的美术现象,并不含有风格意义。这些艺术家既不同于印象派狂热地追求外光和色彩,也不同于新印象派对光色进行分析和运用逻辑思维进行艺术创作。他们主张重新重视美术中形的观念,重视作者的主观个性,注意在作品中表现作者的主观感情和情绪,注意形式的 表现力。通常被称作后印象主义的画家是塞尚凡高高更
后印象主义画家的探索过程与成果对20世纪西方现代美术 流派产生很大的影响。 塞尚主张绘画摆脱文学性和情节性,充分发挥绘画语言 的表现力,推动了欧洲纯绘画观念的流行和形式主义 绘画的发展,被誉为西方“现代绘画之父”。他的作品注重理念、注重结构,注重画面的建筑美。他对体面的深入研究和高度重视,孕含了立体主义的因素。凡高的作品含有深刻的悲剧意识,他大胆地探索、自由地抒发内心的感情,追求强烈的个性和独特的形式,远远走在了时代的前面。后来的野兽主义、德国表现主义、以至于20世纪初出现的抒情抽象派,都从凡高的艺术中获得丰 厚的收益。高更受象征主义美学观念的影响,作品充满原始艺术的抽象性、神秘性和象征因素,结合他精致的艺术趣味,平绘的构成形式,浓郁的装饰效果,形成了鲜明的艺术特征。他推动了近代象征艺术的发展,对后来的超现实主义也有深远的影响。

主要特点

印象派运动可以看作是19世纪自然主义倾向的巅峰,也可以看作是现代艺术的起点。印象主义绘画专注外光画,主题的作用被弱化了,而且把兴趣扩大到从前认为难以处理的题材。印象主义绘画以再现自然对象瞬间的光色关系为目的,它基本上属于一种图绘的风格,从这个意义上说,印象主义是巴罗克风格的发展,是写实主义视觉实验的延伸,是文艺复兴以来“再现性”传统绘画发展的极至。前期印象派的大师人物主要有莫奈、德加和雷诺阿
印象主义是一个松散的艺术社团。这个社团没有明确的纲领。艺术家集合在一起,仅仅因为画风比较一致,便于共同举办展览。参与展出的艺术家,有的仅在一段时间内迷恋于印象主义画风,后来则另有追求;有的在绘画风格上曾多次变化反复。此外,参与画家的水平也不尽一致。绘画中的印象主义是和法国文学中的自然主义流派相对应的。印象主义和自然主义都曾受到哲学上实证主义的影响。
后印象主义艺术运动是1885年至1905年间出现于法国的一种绘画风格,它包括所有印象主义派生出来的或者与之对立艺术运动,譬如:新印象主义、象征主义、综合主义和纳比派等等。印象主义和后印象主义皆是以感觉而用科学的方法作画, 是一种非常客观的艺术,也是写实主义过分发达的结果。受哲学及文学方面反客观的科学之影响,绘画不得不加入了主观的成份,亦即以个性为基础的强烈自我表现。另受东方简洁明了的山水画风影响,以及更为精密和正确的照相术之纯客观比较观点来看,都是激起后期印象派艺术兴起的原因。
通俗地说,印象主义表现的是瞬息即逝的光色效果,过分的最求感受光色,以偶然代替必然。既然是凭感觉,那必然是主观的,所以印象派所描绘的是运用主观的颜色来描绘的客观事物
后印象派完全不一样了,能够先自己主观的感情,表现自己的主观情绪,这种色彩就是客观物体的原来色彩已经不重要了,更重要的是用这种的物象来表达人类自身内心的一种主观情感,所以这种画派更多的是认为不能像印象主义模仿世界,而是表达画家对客观世界的主观感受。如果你那天心情非常不好,或者心情灰暗,哪怕是阳光灰暗你都会觉得很惨淡。这就是人的主观感受对客观世界的不同的反映。

主要影响

印象主义是以当时光学理论的启发下得以兴起的,具有相当的科学性,发展到新印象主义更是将光学原理的运用发挥到了及至.若从艺术是情感的产物的角度来讲,它们就偏颇了艺术,从艺术最本真的出发,后印象主义才真正是算是艺术,一如印象派对传统的反叛一样,后印象熔铸了个人的情感,思想,出现了史无前列的革命.在中国文化里从庄子提出的"天人和一"在西方的这个时期出现了端倪.后印象主义绘画偏离了西方客观再现的艺术传统,启迪了两大现代主义艺术潮流,即强调结构秩序的抽象艺术(如立体主义,风格主义等)与强调主观情感的表现主义(如野兽主义,德国表现主义等).所以,在艺术史上,后印象主义被称为西方现代艺术的起源.
文艺作品有重内容和重形式的两种类型.可以这么说,在后印象主义之前,侧重的都是重在内容和客观的再现,尤其古典主义,直接取裁于宗教神话题材,为宗教服务,不曾脱离文学的影子,没有找寻到美术本身,即提上"美"这样的概念上来.而"美"本身,纯粹的美,换言之,即"形式".并不是剔除内容不要,而是更侧重于情感的外在表现,我思故我画,我画故我在,更注重人生个人的存在价值;而这时的西方美术真正迈入一个个性强烈张扬,表现自由的时代了,艺术不再是宗教宣传的工具,从此,艺术也对人生有着哲学一样的终极思索.
其实,越是个性的也便越具有共性,越是个人的也便越是世界的,因为,人都是群体中的一员,后印象主义的出现,是人类在挖掘自身内在的情感规律.
印象,后印象对前是继承,对后是拓展,是继往开来,承上启下的作用.可以这样打个比方,印象主义相当于开国元勋,而后印象主义则是昌盛时期的治世能臣,真正的艺术从此欣欣向荣.后印象主义画派,注重如何在绘画中强调表现画家的主观情感和内心世界,不在片面追求外光和色彩效果在画面上产生的真实感觉,而是具有更为主观化的感情因素和象征性的精神观念。这种观念的变革,具有划时代的意义。

English Introductio

Post Impressionism by British art critic and a former New York Metropolitan Museum curator Faure (Roger Fry, 1866 - 1934) proposed. He thought of Paul Cescon theory, we need a new term. For decades, the French are not the three person and Impressionism distinction, but uses the term to distinguish them and those masters. Although most of the time in Paul Cescon's life and the painter works on display, but "a convenient term of Post Impressionism" is used to highlight the three later painter, and they are really quite different with the group.
These three artists are a long time to get social recognition in died, three of them jointly opened the door to modern art, in their creative thinking and artistic conception under the influence of the Fauvism, cubism, expressionism and abstractionism, they completely changed the appearance of Western painting, to reproduce the objective by the subjective performance, and make it to modern, they are known as the father of modern art.
Strictly speaking is not a post impressionist painting, they are not groups, no joint open art exhibition, not what the declaration, only three people were born out of Impressionism and has the common tendency of creation. Later art historians find they both related and different from Impressionism and Impressionist, he called them "post impressionist"The so-called Post Impressionism refers to art and artistic conception of Cezanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin's creation. Three of them are initially learn impressionism. Cezanne and Gauguin also participated in the exhibition of Impressionism, although Van Gogh did not participate in the exhibition of Impressionism, but he has been claimed to be impressionism. Then the three of them that painting is not just like impressionism as to imitate the objective world, but should be more performance artists to the subjective experience of objective things, though they have a common tendency of creation has its own distinctive artistic personality: Cezanne's literary activities are to the eternal pursuit of mind body and solid structure in order to create the image, weight, volume and the sense of stability and a sense of grandeur, and finally achieve the simple and geometric effect, which makes him an ancestor of later cubism and abstract expressionism. Gauguin won't face the real, and paint from memory, and promote comprehensive and symbolic aesthetic principles. The new style of Van Gogh, can be said to be the product of Impressionism, Neo Impressionism and Japanese Ukiyo-e prints fusion in his personal temperament, is the confluence of eastern and Western painting. A prominent feature of Van Gogh's painting is a strong expression of his personality, and some people say that his paintings are his self portraits. He is a pioneer of expressionism, and deeply influenced the art of the twentieth Century, especially Fauvism and expressionism.
From the first exhibition of Impressionism in about ten years, an "Independent Artists Association Organization announced the birth in france. They are the development of the theory and practice of Impressionism and washback, they used the test principle of optical science to guide the practice of art, is the science and applied self-consciously explore color. They called themselves the new Impressionism, this genre is Seurat only theorist and outstanding artist, painter and an important propaganda mouthpiece is the school of Sinek.
The basic techniques of Neo Impressionism is segmentation doctrine, also called "-- stippling with different color dots or small pieces of pure contrasting scientific parallel, so that the audience to obtain a mixed color effect viewed from a certain distance. The entire screen is full of small color points (blocks), the image is not divided into lines, all the scenes are immersed in the flashing light. The size of the color point (block) is the same as that of the whole picture. The use of light is still as strong as Impressionism, but the overall effect is stable, accurate, harmonious and solemn, they tried to recover neglected by the impressionistic object modeling in the works is a sense of weight, Impressionism flashes of light and atmosphere to form. On the one hand to test new impressionism scientific and law of Impressionism, on the other hand, bound by fixed laws, so it is doomed to be short-lived. The influence of Neo Impressionism in 1890s to disappear.
Post Impressionism Impressionism is the art phenomenon after existed from nineteenth Century 80 to 90s, which does not contain the meaning of style. These artists are different from Impressionist fanatical pursuit of light and color, but also different from the new Impressionist light and color analysis and the use of logical thinking and artistic creation. They advocate to pay attention to the concept of art form, pay attention to the author's subjective personality, pay attention to the performance of the author's subjective feelings and emotions, pay attention to the expression of the form. Often called the post impressionist painter Cezanne, Gauguin and van gogh.
To explore the process and outcome of post Impressionist painters have a great influence on the western modern art schools in twentieth Century. Cezanne advocated painting from the literature and the plot, give full play to the drawing language expressive force, promote the European pure painting popular and formalism in the development of painting, known as the "father of modern painting". His works focus on the concept, pay attention to the structure, focus on the architectural beauty of the picture. He attaches great importance to the in-depth study and decent, pregnant with the factors of cubism. The van Gogh contains profound tragedy consciousness, he boldly and freely express their inner feelings, the pursuit of a strong personality and unique form, far ahead of her time. Later, German Expressionism, Fauvism Abstract lyric that early twentieth Century, will get huge profits from Van Gogh's art. Influence of Gauguin influenced by the symbolism of aesthetic ideas, abstract, mysterious and symbolic factors works full of primitive art, with his exquisite artistic taste, form painting, rich decorative effect, the formation of distinctive characteristics of art. He promoted the development of modern symbolic art, and had a profound influence on later surrealism.

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