点描派

法国19世纪80年代后期出现的美术流派,他们不用轮廓线条划分形象,而用点状的小笔触,通过合乎科学的光色规律的并置,让无数小色点在观者视觉中混合,从而构成色点组成的形象。

  • 中文名新印象派
  • 外文名neo-impressionism
  • 别名新印象派
简介

新印象派的奠基人之一保罗·西涅克在其著作《从E·德拉克洛瓦到新印象主义》(1899)中为新印象主义下定义说:“他们是自1886年以来发展了分割主义技术的人,分割主义用色彩和色彩进行光的混合,以此来表现自己的意图。”分割主义技术的目的,是采用光学原理将纯粹的色彩用小点块的方法,彼此相邻近地排列在画布上,以求得比在画板上进行色调混合更高明的亮度。所以新印象派又叫作点彩派。

宗旨是:光和颜色(影子)在(瞬间)一段时间内的变化。

发展过程

新印象派的出现和科学的迅猛发展有密切的联系。光学和色彩学的理论以及实验成果,有力地推动着包括绘画在内的造型艺术的观念和技术的发展。新印象派画家们吸收了关于色彩对比以及颜色、色调并列所产生的混合效果的理论,认识到单纯色彩通过视觉的混合比色彩色素的混合更有艺术效果。此外,瑞士学者D·萨特的著作《美学概念及应用》(1865),强调科学在绘画创作中的作用,主张运用科学试验成果和建立法则,都促进了新印象派的产生。
新印象主义的倡导者是乔治·修拉(Georges Seurat,1859--1891)。修拉潜心研究关于色彩学的著作,试图把感觉加以综合上升到理性分析,变成科学的表现形式。他的画尺寸很大,虽然数量不多,但却有重要地位,因为这些精心设计的作品表现出对几何学和形式结构要素的关注,预示了20世纪抽象艺术家的创作。修拉的代表作是《大碗岛的星期日下午》(1884--1885),在这幅画中,人物众多却很少交搭,画家运用了精确而有条理的科学方法处理人物之间的空间距离。画中稳定的结构关系给人以古典艺术的印象。画面上红与绿、黄与紫、蓝与橙的对比成为基本色调。修拉很有才华,可惜英年早逝。
不久, 二十世纪以后,立体派兴起,首先被打败的就是新印象派。
 

主要特点

此派比印象派更进一步的运用科学化的描写法追求对外光的表现。运用色彩的分割理论,即分割法作画。从光学原理看,色光的混合,能增加光量,分割法是色光的混合,能增加光量,提高反射率与明度。画家们在画面上使用纯色,不在调色板上调混颜色,这样中间色是在观赏者(离画面有一定的距离)的眼中自然混合而产生的。
根据这个原理,他们将色调分割成七种原色——即太阳光的七色,作画时即纯用原色小点排列,利用人们眼睛自行把色彩混合,而把调色的工作直接诉诸视觉作用。例如:桃色是用白和红色调成的,但如果把白色和红色摆在一起,不使其混合,观者的眼睛在一定的距离看过去,仍有“桃色”的感觉。他们为了避免在调色盘上调色而造成色彩的混浊,因此尝试以原色小点直接点在画面上,保持色彩本身的纯度和明度,使画面色调鲜明而活泼。因为完全采用短笔触点描的技法,所以“点彩派”就成为新印象派的别名。
新印象派的另一特色是在构图上运用数理的构造,从色彩的细密分割、面全体布局,以至于整体与部分的关系、人物远近大小关连,均依固定比例分割、这亦即他们在绘画上大胆导入希腊有名的“黄金分割比例”。从形态关系上追求韵律的统一,纯然以造型手段表现出一种梦幻的诗的氛围。

代表人物

新印象派的理论主要包括:①色彩的分割理论,及分割法。②主张色彩、线的表现性与情感的特质相结合。新印象主义既是印象主义的某些技法和科学实践相结合的产物,同时也是印象派(凭直觉、凭经验的写实主义)向古典主义(重法则、重理论、重秩序)的转化。 代表人物有乔治·修拉保罗·西涅克卡米尔·毕沙罗、M. 吕斯、H.-E.克罗斯等。新印象派开始活动是1880年左右及以后。1886年5 月法国巴黎举办了第八届印象派展览,此次展览最受瞩目的是修拉西涅克修拉展出了他的一幅毕生杰作《大碗岛的星期日下午》,获得极高评价。同年十二月美术批评家亚塞奴·亚历山大在一家杂志《艾维奴曼》首用“新印象派”一词,称呼以修拉为首领的集团。这就是新印象派名称的来由。把他开创的理论加以发扬的画家是保罗·西涅克(Paul Signac,1863--1935)。修拉死后,西涅克成为新印象派的首领。他运用长方形笔触描绘巴黎城市风光和乡间景色,特别是许多水上风光。虽然仍然使用纯色,但画面较为活泼,与修拉的古典气派不尽相同。西涅克还把他和修拉的理论写成专著《从德拉克罗瓦到新印象主义》,总结了从法国浪漫主义到印象主义再到新印象主义的实践和理论。

历史评价

新印象派在近代美术史上,只是试验性的存在了一个短时期,在十九世纪末期它兴起的当时,并没有产生重大的影响,但它对现代绘画却带来了不少影响。例如,“欧普美术”(OP Art)在色彩的表现上就是受新印象派的启示。
属于新印象派的画家,在创作时不仅应用光线的分析和视觉的生理特征,以达到最高纯度和新鲜的色调,造成明亮辉映的画面。而且,在画面上更进一步表现明朗的秩序观念。
新印象派把西方绘画史上的点彩法和分割法的因素加以发扬、光大,自成完备的体系,在历史上的功绩是不可抹煞的。新印象派的画给人以严谨的秩序感,自有一番情趣和境界。但是,新印象主义作为一种造型体系有明显的缺陷,它离开客观自然,陷入主观化和概念化。这一派别的早期作品由于发掘了自然美,把这种美感通过一定的秩序和法则表现出来能使人醉心。但一旦脱离自然,沉湎于僵化的法则,作品就成了近似没有感情的图解。

English is introduced

One of the founders of Neo Impressionist Paul Sinek in his book "from E Delacroix to new impressionism" (1899) for the new definition of Impressionism said: "they are since 1886 the development of divisionism technology, the use of hybrid segmentation of color and color of light, in order to express their intentions." "Segmentation technology, is based on the optical principle of pure color with small blocks, arranged adjacent to each other near the canvas, than on the drawing board to obtain better brightness color mixing. So also known as pointillism Neo impressionism.
The aim is to change the light and color (shadow) over a period of time.
The appearance of Neo Impressionism is closely related to the rapid development of science. The theory and experimental results of Optics and color science have strongly promoted the development of the concept and technology of plastic arts, including painting. Neo Impressionist painters have absorbed the theory of the effects of color contrast and the blending of colors and colors, recognizing that pure color is more artistic than a mixture of colors by visual blending. In addition, the concept and application of the Swiss scholar D Sutter's book "Aesthetics" (1865), emphasizing the role of Science in the painting, advocated the use of the test results and the establishment of scientific laws, promote the generation of Neo impressionism.
Advocates of Neo Impressionism is George Shola (Georges Seurat, 1859--1891). Study on color science with his works, trying to feel to rise to rational analysis, a form of science. His painting is large, although the amount is not much, but it has an important position, because these elaborate representations of the geometry and form structural elements of concern, has indicated in twentieth Century Abstract artists. Seurat is representative of "big bowl island Sunday afternoon" (1884--1885), in the picture, many people rarely overlap, the painter used a precise and scientific method between structured characters of spatial distance. The stable structure of painting gives people the impression of classical art. The contrast between red and green, yellow and purple, blue and orange. Seurat is very talented, but died young.
Soon, after twentieth Century, the rise of Cubism, the first to be defeated is the new impressionism.
This is more than the Impressionist further using the description method of scientific pursuit of external optical performance. The use of color segmentation theory, that is, the division of painting. From the optical principle, color mixing, can increase the amount of light, the color segmentation method is mixed, can increase the amount of light, improve the reflectance and brightness. Artists use a solid color on the picture, mixed color in the palette upward, so that the middle color is in the viewer (some distance away from the eyes of the natural picture) produced by mixing.
According to this principle, they will be divided into seven kinds of color tone, seven color sunlight, painting is pure color dot arrangement, using people's eyes and put themselves into the color mixing, color visual effect directly. For example: peach is a white and red tone, but if the white and red together, do not mix it, the viewer's eyes at a certain distance in the past, there is still a "peach" feeling. In order to avoid their color in the color palette caused by color opacity, so try to direct the primary dots on the screen, keeping the purity and lightness of color itself, so that the screen bright and lively. Because using short pen contact tracings techniques, so "pointillism" has become the new Impressionist alias.
Another feature of Neo impressionism by use of mathematical structure in the composition, from the color of the fine segmentation, layout, so that the whole and the part of the relationship between the characters and size related, according to a fixed proportion, this is their segmentation in painting into the famous "bold Greek golden ratio". The pursuit of the unity of rhythm from the form of the relationship, but purely by means of modeling to show a dream of poetry atmosphere.The theory of Neo impressionism mainly includes: Theory of color segmentation and segmentation. It advocates the combination of color and line performance and emotional characteristics. The new product is some of the techniques and Impressionism impressionism scientific practice, but also the Impressionist (by intuition and experience to classical realism) (heavy, heavy law theory, the transformation of order). Representatives are George Shola, Paul Sinek, Kamil Pissarro, M., H.-E., Marius, etc.. Neo impressionism began around 1880 and beyond. In May 1886 the French Paris held the eighth Impressionist exhibition, the exhibition is the most watched Seurat and Sinek Seurat exhibited his life masterpiece "a big bowl island Sunday afternoon", get a high evaluation. In December of the same year, art critic Jaseno Alexander in a magazine "Avi Manu Man" the first "new impressionism", as the leader of the group to call seurat. This is the new name for the impressionist. The painter who pioneered his theory was Paul Sinek (Paul Signac, 1863--1935). Seurat died, to become the new leader of the Impressionists signac. He uses rectangular strokes to depict the city and countryside of Paris, especially many of the water scenery. Although still use a solid color, but the picture is more lively, not the same with Seurat's classical style. Sinek and his theory of written monograph "Seurat from Delacroix to the new" summarized from Impressionism, French romanticism to Impressionism to the theory and practice of Neo impressionism.
Neo Impressionism in modern art history, but the pilot in a short period of time, its rise in late nineteenth Century at the time, and did not have a significant impact, but it has brought a lot of influence of modern painting. For example, "OPPLE Art" (OP) in the performance of the color is subject to the revelation of Neo impressionism.
Belong to the new impressionist painter, not only the application of light in the creation of the visual analysis and physiological characteristics, in order to reach the highest purity and fresh colors, bright shine picture cause. Moreover, on the screen to further clarify the concept of order.
The factors of Neo Impressionism in the history of Western painting color method and segmentation method to carry forward, Everbright, since a complete system, in the history of the merit is undeniable. The new impressionist painting gives people a strict sense of order, has its own taste and realm. However, new impressionism as a kind of modeling system has obvious defects, it leaves the objective nature, into subjective and conceptualization. The early works of this faction due to explore the natural beauty, the beauty of this through a certain order and law of the people obsessed with. But once out of nature, indulge in the rigid rules, work becomes an approximate diagram without feelings.

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