It is never a fully unified and coordinated movement, there are great differences between the members of the political beliefs and philosophy. However, most of them are influenced by Kant's philosophy, Bergson's intuitionism and Freud's psychoanalysis. They emphasize that they are not traditional, they are dissatisfied with the current situation of society, and they are required to reform". In the creation, they are not satisfied with the objective things of the copy, essence and performance requirements of things; describe breakthroughs in human behavior and human environment and reveal the soul of man; asked not to stay on a temporary phenomenon and occasional narrative phenomena show the eternal quality. It has produced a number of influential writers and works in the fields of poetry, fiction and drama. The theme of his poems are mostly hate the hustle and bustle of the city, big city or expose the chaos, corruption and evil, full of sad mood or a scene of "common humanity" to promote. It is characterized by not paying attention to the details of the description, only the pursuit of strong performance of the subjective spirit and inner passion. Representative of Austria and Germany, Bain Trakl's etc.. The characters and stories in the novel are the abnormal deformation or distortion of the real life, to reveal the alienation of the industrial society and the serious spiritual crisis of the human being. Representatives of Austria, such as Kafka. The theatre of absurd contents, structure disorder, lack of logical connection between screenings, abrupt change of plot, there is no clear boundary between life and death, dream and reality. Use short, fast, loud, powerful, long and lengthy internal monologue to express the character's thoughts and feelings. At the same time, the use of a large number of light music, mask and to supplement the language effect. The representative of Sweden, Germany, the United States Strindberg talleur O'neal, Capek of Czech, British Duquesne, Christopher Isherwood and Ireland Okesi etc..This word is used to describe the expressionism in late nineteenth Century and early twentieth Century in Germany against Franz Marc "forest deer" operation the traditional drawing and painting style, it is the beginning of the twentieth Century to 30s prevalent in some countries in Europe and America literature and art schools. The most popular in Germany and Austria after World War i.. It first appeared in the fine arts, and later in music, literature, drama and film and other areas of major development.
The term expressionism was first held in 1901 in France Paris Matisse Exhibition on Julien August Herve a group of paintings used with general title, natural and Impressionist phase difference.
In 1911, Hillel in the "storm" magazine published an article, called the Berlin avant-garde writers first "Expressionism" is a word.
After 1914, the term expressionism gradually recognized by people and the.
In 1905 the German organization agency, in 1909 the establishment of the Green Bridge Club Community rise of expressionism knight. Their aesthetic goals and artistic pursuits are similar to those of the French, but they are characterized by a strong Nordic color and the German tradition. Expressionism influenced by industrial science and technology, the performance of object static beauty.
Play a key role in the process of counseling and Nietzsche through on ancient Chinese art criticism in the form of expressionism. In his "the birth of tragedy", Nietzsche's ancient art will be divided into two categories, Appollo's art is the reason, order, rules and elegant art; the Dionysian art is a vicious, chaos and madness of art. Appollo's art represents the rational ideal, and the Dionysian art comes from the subconscious. These two forms of art are the same as those of God, both of whom are sons of God, incompatible with each other and unable to distinguish. Nietzsche believes that any art works contain these two forms. The basic characteristics of expressionism is Dionysus: bright colors, distorted forms, painting skills, casual and lack of perspective, based on the plane feeling, and not based on reason.
In general, expressionism is any showing feelings of art. Of course, all the works of art show the artist's feelings, but some of the works in particular emphasize and express the artist's inner feelings. Especially in the period of social unrest such work is especially common in European history from the beginning of fifteenth Century such unrest often repeats: the reformation, the German peasant war, eight years war, leaving traces of all these upheavals and oppression in printing works. Although these works are generally not noticeable from the artistic point of view, they are always able to arouse strong feelings in their audience through the horrors they describe.Pioneer of expressionism: Strindberg (1849 - 1912) [Sweden] masterpiece "the ghost sonata" (1907) the nightmare, the ghost on the stage, let the dead, dead, living at the same time, the phantom. Known as the source of expressionism literature.
Expressionism: representative novels and Franz Kafka (1883 - 1924) [Austria]. He is a person who has not been known to fame after death, and uses the symbolic, exaggerated and deformed artistic techniques to reveal the dilemma faced by modern society and the confusion of modern people". The plot is a purpose be a wild legend. Masterpiece: "Metamorphosis" (Die Verwandlung)
Expressionist drama: Eugene ONeil (1888 - 1953) [America], the main representative: "The Hairy Ape" (1917), "emperor Jones" (1920), has four times won the Pulitzer prize in 1936, "reflects the traditional concept of tragedy plays with charm, sincere and deep passion" and won the Nobel prize for literature. The founder of American contemporary drama.
Expressionist painting on behalf of Norway Monck representative "shouting" Kandinsky, the Russian representative series "autumn", "winter", "music", "impromptu", "2" composition etc.. Gross representative: "night", "trench warfare", "departure".
Expressionist music representative: Arnold Schonberg (Amold Schoenberg, 1874 - 1951), American Austria composer and music educator and music theorist, is one of the most famous modern music composer in twentieth Century, "the main representative of expressionism music. The main works are: the symphonic poem "bright night", "perre and Sander", "Aspen Meryl Symphony", "indoor opera" as well as the expectations of recitation, male chorus and Orchestra and wrote "a Warsaw survivor". In addition, several String Quartets and piano, many vocal works etc..
This movement is the rise in anti traditional thoughts and methods in the creation of it abandoned the long dominant in Europe in nineteenth Century before the "imitation theory" or "theory of reflection" aesthetics, and advocating "on the performance of aesthetics, that is to say, the creation process is no longer describe the objective world, but the subjective emotion the image expression of fantasy, the need for" inner". Although the creative ideas and methods of expressionism are different, but from subjective, self starting this premise is common. At the same time, the tendency of aesthetics, and then in Europe, Nietzsche's Bergson's philosophy of life and Freud's psychoanalysis has formed the intersection, aesthetic and artistic features of the novel strange, in particular, can be roughly summarized as follows:
A, strong passion. In addition to a small number of "art for art", advocating "the most expressionist creation as the expression of their personal opposition means, or as a breach of pouring feelings. Kafka said that the creation of the inner world is a huge push to the outside." Schoenberg is the most influential of the century expressionist composer also said: "a piece of art, only when he convey the author heart of the surging feelings to the audience when it can have the greatest effect, resulting in the audience to agitate the heart." Kandinsky, who is regarded as the founder of the theory of art in this century, is more general: art is the external expression of inner needs."  However, the artistic features of expressionism is briefly summarized and the image of this sentence, when pushing German literary critic Herman: "the call of soul.  this can be said to be the most basic features of expressionism. Shouting, both the performance of the "internal needs", but also their "action" performance. Expressionist writer Mar Sussman wrote: "we have to act, to play a role, to change the status quo, how to start? Only one thing! We can shout, to use our wretched, choking to death of people shouting, shouting over what is happening a terrible noise, let people shout, let God hear our voice.  but this is not a cry, but when a shrill A great calamity is at hand. give dying kicks. Werfe wrote in his colleague Karl Brant's writing in the preface: "your teachings? There was a loud, loud cry, the cry of a man who was chased by a man who was under pressure at the door of a house and thought he had a moment of security."  this metamorphosis for expressionist rather than shouting "internal needs", it is a kind of aesthetic pursuit, as is the "large and all inclusive to convey feelings and ideas to the reader, in order to obtain the shock effect. Early German expressionist poet Becher said: "the big mouth in nervously entranced in." This is a self portrait of expressionism. At that time, the "cry" as the title, the name of the poem, the name of the novel and the name of the painting is quite common (I think that Lu Xun put his first novel entitled "scream" are related to this trend). So, like a row of Becher some poem sentences and exclamation point in the end, it is not surprising, even some dramas such as Stella's thumb "power" are all amazing sentence dialogue, can also understand! No matter what kind of genre, the pursuit of strength, sense of movement and rhythm are common. In order to achieve a strong artistic effect, good practices of twisted lines, abnormal color, quick rhythm, cruel picture, contrast strong contrast, and so on, as Ed Schmidt said, the theorists of expressionism, expressionism in the pen, "feelings get unlimited expansion." B, reinventing the world image". Since the "imitation theory" has been abandoned, then the creation can not be written in the same way as before. Expressionist A Wolf Stein said: "the unification of art and life will no longer as in the past era as determined by nature art to achieve." Ed Schmidt famously said: "the world is here, it is no fun to reproduce it." What shall I do? His answer is: "it is necessary to create a new image of the world", he even believes that "re creation is the greatest task of art."  because the general expressionist believe that truth is subjective. According to another product that expressionism theorist Tucci, "art is not reality, but the spirit of". That is to say, the work of art is the product of the writer's subjective. The writer, according to his observation, experience, understanding and imagination of the outside world, can reconstruct a world which can be expressed as the essence of spirit. Kafka also said that his work "is just an image", even his
My own hieroglyphs". Therefore, for the Expressionists, creation means his emotions or passions into the illusion, the illusion is the author of "external manifestation" intrinsic need, or is the external projection writer inner experience. Kaiser believes that this image of the image of the reconstructed world must become the basis of the work. It was not until after the two world war that it was pursued by many Western writers. For example, the famous Swiss writer Dylan, Matt, said that the theatrical performance is "showing a world image". But the idea of such a thing is not an easy job to do the image of Dylan, Matt, he must be "broken", let the material "fermentation", brewing, to turn it into another form of things, a "non image image".
C. Abstract summary. This is the philosophy widely infiltrated literary results, this phenomenon began in the symbolism movement, Expressionism to continue to carry forward, more conscious, more extensive pursuit. This is also a kind of reversal of the naturalistic movement to the trivial description. Thomas Man pointed out: 1914 to 1923 "world history turning to unprecedented power to contemporary people is acutely aware of the need to know the times," this process eliminates the boundaries between science and art, the fresh blood input abstract thinking, make clear image was to create a soul. A special type of work, this kind of works...... A novel of reason."  is a philosophical novel, poetry and drama is no exception, especially the latter. In the late 20s to the early 30s, almost all the works of German drama school, the common features of the philosophy is to strengthen. "They wrote the script because they felt a deep spiritual need," said lou...... To be more exact, it is a writer of philosophical significance. Unfortunately, I am such a writer."  Bly Hitt said more simply: "drama became a philosopher thing...... That is to say, the drama is philosophical, containing the meaning of education." [the] so the German Marx's literary critic Hans Kaufman pointed out: "the art outside the field of a large amount of material into the ideological content of literature, artists need science. If you don't consider the introduction of scientific thought writers sought to field of art, and to seek ways and means appropriate, so on some major achievements and innovation in 20s literature factors, also cannot understand."A bit of good. You see, expressionist emphasized "the spirit" refers to the universality and regularity of things. Uditz is very representative of this sentence, he said, to write "is not a falling stone, but the law of gravity." Tucci product is another kind of expression: "not personal, but common to all things." Expressionist common pursuit of a so-called "lasting art", its main symbol is the philosophical character of works. Revel in the expressionist period of German novelist Flach once said: "to warn people with a view to overcome and observe" instead of moving, to observe things through meditation, "to the field of philosophy".  because only philosophy can grasp the law of things, so as to make art lasting. But if the works about naked philosophy might control (in fact in philosophy there is often a large section in some works in). So the symbol, metaphor, allegory and the means of expression is widely used, in which Kafka, German, Bloch, Musial, Sergey welver and other writers who are It is often seen.. Here to quote the description of the phenomenon of a series of the Soviet Academy of Sciences "German modern literature history": "from many writers, we can see that they strive to minimize the reality phenomenon from the specific and distinctive image observation to make abstract judgment and summary. As a result, often make the plot with philosophical allegorical nature, and characters as the embodiment of certain political and cultural history of the thought idea, has second life. The philosophical content of the plot is often obtained through the comparison with the traditional events in the past and the literature through a certain historical event. The direct content becomes a model of a more general content of the metaphor. The implication, allegory, duality, symbolic style has become an important factor in the composition of the realistic method."  (here is the 20s "realism", apparently, it has been very different from traditional realism. They are actually after grafting and expressionism variants, some simply expressionist works, because many expressionist writer and realist). The symbolic and metaphorical works, because the objects of metaphor are not determined, thus obtaining double or polysemy meaning, its generality than the general narrative works to be big.
As Thomas Man said in his "Magic Mountain" in the figures: "what everyone of them are more than at first glance, because they are the angels and the representative, embodies a certain spiritual field."  you see "changes" written in the Tuole new growth path is broad, people give up the typical character shape, and replaced with some ideas or feelings, often with identity code symbols instead of names, such as drivers, principals, cooks and so on. Time and place are uncertain: Time - today, place - the world. So and so on.
D, irrational thinking.
Non rational thinking is the second half of nineteenth Century began to rise in the west of a philosophy, it is the history of mankind, especially the capitalist system since the establishment of the rational principle (including ethics, morality, law, religion, etc.) suspicion and denial. This influence of philosophy on literary and artistic creation is not small, it is mainly made up of Nietzsche's strong will of the spirit of Freud's philosophy of life, confluence of philosophy and Bergson and Nietzsche's philosophical novel "Thus Spoke Zarathustra" a book originally portrayed the irrational personality. There are several kinds of non rational expression in literature:
The intuition. Advocates of this theory is Bergson, he believes in the rational concept under the cover of reality is not real, must pass the intuitive way to lift to the layer of mulch, which can reveal the truth of things. Because intuition is the manifestation of the "impulse of life", one can find his body at that moment, the "basic self", and push the irrational "parasitic self" under the control of reason". Therefore, he believed that the creation is to capture the accidental process that is covered by the inevitability of the moment, I reach the realm of harmony, is to ease the transient consciousness and spirit, inner life and special feelings and unspeakable things of the integrated point. So Kafka said: the creation means to open their own unlimited, to achieve the soul naked, physical and mental state of muddy. His short story masterpiece "the verdict", "country doctor" is the "selfless" state of the product, especially the former, that is "a night in the dark night, is from" one "to the next morning, resulting in over five months, in view of the school, only to understand the relationship between the characters.  therefore, expressionist emphasis is the feelings of the moment, imagine the experience, rather than logical reasoning or analysis. Fischer has a novel called "a flash in my mind," and it is a typical example of the thought and activity of a building worker who fell from a scaffold.The stream of consciousness. This can be said to be the product of combined Bergson's intuition of Freud with the theory of "subconscious theory", it is used as a means of artistic expression, is expressionist consciously introduced literary creation. But in theory, clearly put forward the concept of the American philosopher and psychologist William James, he believed in the "Pluralistic Universe" in one book, the logic can make him from the "theory of real nature of reality, because real life even if it is not composed entirely of non rational, at least by no reason. He pointed out that "there is a flow of decentralized, linking, reality. Those of us who are finite are those who walk in such a reality, "and this kind of reality cannot be measured by logic". James's view is widely accepted in the western literary and art circles, first of all for his brother, Henry James. Coincidentally, claimed in life "beneath the surface" and "found there is a continuous stream of" the doctrine of Bergson for his brother-in-law Proust, and he and Joyce of Ireland, Britain, the United States Faulkner Woolf and Austria Boluohe into this century, the most important sense of the master stream.
The characteristics of the stream of consciousness writing is not according to the provisions of the laws of logic, not contain the concept of space-time, get rid of causality to consider, and in accordance with the concept of "psychological time", "radioactive" and "free association", or on the integrity, flashback, intuitive moment in detail into the emblem like emotion description etc. stories and ideas, jumping, changeable, and not to follow the plot to connect via cable. Joyce "Ulysses" Bloch, "Virgil's death" is considered to be a stream of consciousness novel classic, but the stream of consciousness in Kafka de Werfe, Brin, et al. The writing is only a partial phenomenon. Freud's theory had attracted their attention, but a little.
The dream. Dream as a means of artistic expression since ancient times, but that is mostly used in the rational range. Dream of the non rational aesthetic value in Expressionism as a modern aesthetic principle put forward. Nietzsche's aesthetic works written in 1871 "the birth of tragedy", the origin of art into the "Apollonian and Dionysian" two element system. "Apollonianism" is under the jurisdiction of the "illusion", "dream of a beautiful world". Nietzsche said the dream is the premise of all art, "is also a poem (refers to literary creation -- cited) is an important part of", "the poet (refers to the writer -- cited) the secret of inspiration". Soon, the meaning of the dream in Freud where there is a psychological argument: the dream is an activity of the human subconscious. The two thinkers' views to expressionism creation and aesthetics with great influence. Since then, the dream experience not only as a general paragraph or episode in the form of works, but also became the theme of the entire work or material. It is the earliest response of Strindberg, in 1902 he wrote the dream for the content of the "fantasy drama", open the door for the creative ideas. In the expressionism climax, this technique is quite commonly used. Many of Kafka's novels are related to dreams. There are many records of dreams in his diary. After the rise of surrealism, the irrational creation of the proposition has been further emphasized, has become the main aesthetic principles of the school.
The absurd. Absurdity is a kind of world view of existentialism philosophy, and it is also a kind of aesthetic view of modernism literature. As an aesthetic concept, it is originated from the modern tragic aesthetics, and has the aesthetic effect of tragedy and comedy. In the creation, absurdity is used as a means of irony. As a kind of artistic tendency, which is the forerunner of expressionism, which is very prominent in Kafka. In his writing is often the details of the real support of the main event of the absurd, the key is to destroy some of the skills of the chain of life logic, so that the central event becomes absolutely impossible. Such as "Metamorphosis", in addition to become an insect this ring, there are other ways of the world which is the real life? Novelist Doblin's writing is also a lot of absurd events, such as fantasy novel "mountain, sea and giant" is an absurd work. As for the local means it is more common.The paradox. Philosophy is called "paradox" and "anti physics theory", called the "paradox", one thing contradictory in logic or cancel each other, such as "construction damage". This also belongs to the category of tragic aesthetics, creation as one kind of non rational means of artistic expression, such as the use of properly, with a strong tragicomic aesthetic effect, this way of thinking is everywhere in Kafka, not only reflected in his life behavior, but also in his works. In his short story "a hunger artist", the protagonist to hunger for performing means, endless pursuit of art, wanted to reach the highest realm of art ", this conflict: his art is high, means that he paid the greater the loss of flesh. Therefore, when his art reached the highest level, that is, when his body was completely destroyed, it was an insurmountable contradiction between spirit and flesh, spirit and material. Musial is also fond of this means, his novel masterpiece "no personality" is to carry out this way of thinking masterpiece.
These so-called irrational and illogical expressions are derived from the writers who have strong reason and logical thinking ability. So never think those absurd, absurd or partial use of means of work is ridiculous nonsense, on the contrary, they tend to inspire people from another perspective to observe and think about things. So in a sense, the surface of the irrational coat, which may have more rational factors. Of course, irrational works are often written in a state of "intuition". But "three frozen heart, cold day", "intuition" -- inspiration form the emergent, a distorted sense of freshness is suppressed for a long time. So, in the period of expressionism although some writers of these means the operation is not very skilled, use is not very appropriate, even too freely, but after decades of precipitation, to the second half of this century, they are proved to be effective means of expression and is universally accepted and mastered by the writers, for this, we as long as the review of American black humor novels, Latin American magic realism and other contemporary works of first-rate novelist as America's Sol Bellow, Oates, Canati of Austria (British), Moravia of the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland, Italy burr flirsch, Japan Kawabata Yasunari will get a deep impression.The grotesque is a kind of visual effect, originally appeared in the works of art more, after the rise of expressionism is widely used in literary creation, often by destroying the object appearance or sense of harmony made a funny and ironic artistic effect: or change the normal logic, so perverse or beautiful and ugly; the noble and humble, and so on to control, to create a strong contrast; or things extremely exaggerated, so strange and unbearable, etc.. Kafka's "Metamorphosis" we are familiar with, the protagonist turned into a worm, is a strange story. Two short stories "he later wrote the Hunger Artist" and "singer Josephine or national hero" mouse is grotesque image (after a topic is weird). AlMe Josephine in order to sound in the buzz of the rats in high over all, make "to sing" exhaust all the skills "that this delicate guy, following chest shaking especially badly, it can not help but to worry about her, as if she were to exhaust all the skills to sing, as if she had any direct benefit to all singing they give up, as if she had been drained, only good spirits in protecting her, so when she paid the entire body and mind immersed in singing, as if a cold wind blowing will make her like a life death." Under Werfe's pen, often appear extreme emotional tension, confusion, inner collapse, despair dominate all characters, and adapt to the fast pace of tension, style, high rate, dynamic. Wedekind wrote some very strong feelings of women, and full of sensual dominance, strange like demons. Deblin's works often appear grotesque scenes, his fantasy novel "mountain, sea, giant" is typical, crushed, broken limbs was arranged in a crisscross pattern in long together, the eyes of the hole into the mouth, the mandible and the maxilla grow a leg. There, in nature, living and dead, organic and inorganic...... Who can not tell.
Some basically is realism writers often used grotesque, such as Remarque's "black Obelisk" plot, eerie and no center, observe things from the perspective of abnormal special characters are some sketch comics, apparently the author intends to make the novel all become curved projection. In the famous writer Tukur J Ki, the grotesque often became his means of ridicule and expose the capitalists.
The grotesque is important means of "alienation", Dylan Matt is very respected this means that it is a kind of "extreme style". As a result, its aesthetic character has been recognized more and more. The famous American aesthetics, the artist, is a kind of "re creation", because it "deviates from the possibility of nature, not from the possibility of internal." That's why, if you don't have enough wit and a sense of humor, you're going to have to do it.
F, the pursuit of magic. This is mainly manifested in the story, followed by details. Since denied the authenticity of the rational world, it is only in the contrary to common sense, to find the real routine, cut the causal logic clue of the expressionism and mysticism, involving the margin. Ed Schmidt said: "the experience of what inspires depictions blind does not interest us, but in the blind state display depth, real and wonderful spirit makes us always full of new and interesting insights".  Thomas forest hill, sea, "giant" is typical. The plot of the novel hypothesis in 2700 - 3000 years of future fantasy background, then human with great progress of science and technology has great ability to conquer nature, can even make the polar ice to melt, but caused a total of revenge of nature, so terrible scene accident occurred: countless ancient creatures buried in the iceberg the remains of the beginning of the revival of up, saw the creature to piles of odd shape along the way to eat everything....... Magic is more common in the works of Kafka: an elderly bachelor, suddenly two table tennis in the lonely him and kept jumping ("an elderly Bachelor"); out of the village to village doctors in emergency of a snowy night. His horse fell, anxiously suddenly rushed out from the pigsty to two tall and strong. ("country doctor"); a green dragon to visit his family, climb the belly are worn, can clip in the frame, do not squeeze into the head of a Johnson did not show its power, but only the kind-hearted gentle voice of the dragon "visit"; an unidentified "surveyor" suddenly appeared in the castle under the jurisdiction of the village, the villagers' eyes, what we see is the hero's mysterious ways; by the hero's eyes, we see a strange and eccentric world ("Castle").......In nineteenth Century the art features and expressionism of the early romantic literature especially German Romantic literature is the same. For example, in Germany the late Romantic novelist E.T.A. Hoffman's novel "Moore", Tom's view of life in the "Sheila P Von brothers" novella and short "pot of gold" and other works in that mysterious strange events can be seen everywhere, in the other two German romantic writer Kleist, some works in Nimes. A similar phenomenon. Back up, but also in the eighteenth Century American writer Richardson and other people in the Gothic novel to find sources.
G, "polyphonic symphony". Expressionism, mixed and thought as it team confusion, in the works of art which are not single, single means of style, it is the pursuit of a comprehensive aesthetic effect, known as the "multi voice symphony". The same work, often using the same dream, stream of consciousness, symbolism, absurdity and other techniques. As the creative ideas, I'm afraid when push forward the earliest time of Strindberg, in his "dream" in the drama in the preface so there is a paragraph:
The author imitates the dream in the form of logic, but actually fragmented. No, everything is possible and credible, spatial boundaries do not exist; no imagination in a realistic background, design new image retouching: a memory, experience, free fantasy, absurd and improvised a hodgepodge.
This kind of writing, expressionism drama than novels, Cather's "from early morning to midnight", "change" of the Ptolemy etc. are good examples. But this example in Kafka's novels is almost impossible, the representative is Thomas Lin and Leonhard Frank's works, their works are in the narrative when suddenly into fantasy, fantastic picture and so on often intense tone. After the climax of the past expressionism of their works, still retains the characteristics, such as Frank in the early 20s novel "a gang of robbers" and Doblin in the late 20s masterpiece "Berlin Alexander square" are obvious examples. These works as "polyphonic sound caused by multi image, multi implication connotation, it was expressed in the life of the dark and deep.
H. montage structure. In order to reject the traditional expressionistic writing skills are "used" of all new methods, including art methods of other categories also copy it correct, as long as it considers useful words. At that time, the film industry is on the rise, the film montage techniques make many expressionist to attract, they soon adopted in practice, and as a structural principle of work. In 1919 Doblin wrote a book "get rid of shadow", published such a view: the theme of the novel should not depend on the arrangement of the plot as the foundation, he thought has its own independent significance of each part of long narrative works and individual scenes, because human life is always full of contradictions, and this contradiction every minute has its significance. Therefore, the characteristics of the novel is that it can be divided, separated, they can exist independently of each other; it should be like earthworms, cut into dozens of segments, each segment can still be independent activities." Doblin believed his novel "Berlin square" and the United States -- Alexander Dos Passos's "Manhattan" (1925) can be regarded as the montage structure model. In the "Berlin", not through the center of the events in the plot, no beginning, no end, in depicting the era atmosphere, interspersed with documentary style events, humor, sarcasm, but the author exit event. However, because the atmosphere of the times is unified, so the various parts of the organism can still constitute life. "Manhattan" wrote a number of different occupation but are frustrated and bourgeois characters, they are not related, but in some cases occasionally meet, none of them throughout the hero. The novel can be said to be "one pot hash". But on the whole, it reflects the life of all kinds of people who are excluded by capitalism. In 30s Dos Passos published the "American Trilogy" is still in the experimental method, and with the development of the author tried "newsreel" and "biography" and "photography" of the three block into the book, each block contains many small "blocks", namely the fragments of life specifically, they constitute the modern capitalist society, changing the kind of resplendent with variegated coloration "Kaleidoscope" panorama style.