立体派

立体派是西方现代艺术史上的一个运动和流派。又译为立方主义,1908年始于法国。这个名称的出现含有偶然性。1908年,G·布拉克在卡恩韦勒画廊展出作品,评论家L·活塞列斯在《吉尔·布拉斯》杂志上评论说:”布拉克先生将每件事物都还原了……成为立方体”,这种画风因此得名。立体主义的主将是P·毕加索和布拉克。毕加索的油画《弹曼多林的少女》(1910),被认为是包含了立体主义因素的作品。

  • 中文名立体派
  • 外文名Cubism
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立体派插画,太美了

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这组利用渐变来制造立体感的插画是今年比较流行的风格之一,渐变插画色彩过度柔和颜色丰富是APP设计中常用的手法。...
简介

立体派: Cubism
西方现代艺术史上的一个运动和流派。又译为立方主义,1908年始于法国。这个名称的出现含有偶然性。1908年,G.布拉克在卡恩韦勒画廊展出作品,马蒂斯批评勃拉克的画是在描绘立方体.评论家L.活塞列斯在《吉尔.布拉斯》杂志上引用此话评论说:”布拉克先生将每件事物都还原了……成为立方体”,这种画风因此得名。
立体主义的主将是P.毕加索布拉克毕加索的油画《弹曼多林的少女》(1910),
被认为是包含了立体主义因素的作品。
立体主义绘画方法的产生,经历了一个酝酿过程。20世纪初巴黎画坛异常活跃。继后印象主义、象征主义之后,年轻的艺术家们普遍关注的是如何革新形式,来表现在迅猛变革的工业社会里人们的内在情绪和心理。
新的流派在法国、德国、意大利和俄国相继出现。在法国,继野兽主义崛起后,另一群文艺家常在蒙马尔特的”流动洗衣房”聚会。参加的有毕加索布拉克、M.洛朗森、G.阿波利奈尔、A.萨尔蒙、M.雷纳尔、J.格里斯、F.莱热等。
支持他们的有画商D.-H.卡恩韦勒,他在1907年在巴黎开办了画廊,这便是被人们称作的立体主义社团。参予立体主义活动的还有R.德洛内、A.格莱兹。
1910年,以J.维荣为中心,建立起新的立体派社团,因经常在法国皮托活动,被称作皮托集团。荷兰画家P.蒙德里安、墨西哥的里维拉也与皮托集团有联系。他们赋予分析的立体主义以秩序和规则,从而促进了立体主义朝着更为抽象和主观的方向发展。
从1912年开始,毕加索等又进行综合的立体主义的试验。在分析的立体主义破碎而又剔透的结构中,还保留着强烈的光线和某种空间感。画家们将不同状态及不同视点所观察到的对象,集中地表现于单一的平面上,造成一个总体经验的效果。
综合的立体主义不再从解剖、分析一定的对象着手,而是利用多种不同素材的组合去创造一个新的母题,并且采用实物拼贴的手法,试图使艺术家接近生活中平凡的真实。
作为艺术运动的立体主义早在1914年便失去活力。 立体主义是富有理念的艺术流派。它主要追求一种几何形体的美,追求形式的排列组合所产生的美感。它否定了从一个视点观察事物和表现事物的传统方法,把三度空间的画面归结成平面的、两度空间的画面。
不从一个视点看事物,把从不同的视点所观察和理解的,形诸于画面,从而表现出时间的持续性。这样做,显然不主要依靠视觉经验和感性认识,而主要依靠理性、观念和思维。
影响立体派的两大因素:一是塞尚后期绘画的抽象视觉分析,"自然界的物象皆可由球形,圆锥形,圆筒形等表现出来";另一个则是毕加索在非洲民族面具上发现的,反自然主义式的表现手法.从毕加索的《亚威农姑娘》就可以看到这两种观念的结合.

风格

虽然作为立体主义分支的黄金分割社于1920、1925年继续举行展览,但作为艺术运动的立体主义早在1914年便失去活力。立体主义是富有理念的艺术流派。它主要追求一种几何形体的美,追求形式的排列组合所产生的美感。
它否定了从一个视点观察事物和表现事物的传统方法,把三度空间的画面归结成平面的、两度空间的画面。明暗、光线、空气、氛围表现的趣味让位于由直线、曲线所构成的轮廓、块面堆积与交错的趣味和情调。不从一个视点看事物,把从不同的视点所观察和理解的,形诸于画面,从而表现出时间的持续性。这样做,显然不主要依靠视觉经验和感性认识,而主要依靠理性、观念和思维。

它是富有理念的艺术流派,主要目的是追求一种几何形体的美,在形式的排列组合所产生的美感。 它否定了从一个视点观察事物和表现事物的传统方法,把三度空间的画面归结成平面。因为把不同视点所观察和理解的形诉诸于画面,从而表现出时间的持续性。
以直线、曲线所构成的轮廓、块面堆积与交错的趣味、情调,代替传统的明暗、光线、空气、气围表现的趣味。这些技巧显然不是依靠视觉经验和感性认识,而主要视依靠理性、观念和思维。

代表画家

伯罗·毕加索
伯罗·毕加索 (1881-1973)从十九世纪末从事艺术活动,一直持续到二十世纪七十年代最具有影响力的现代派画家。 一生画法和风格迭变。早期画近似表现派的主题;后注目重原始艺术简化形象。1915-1920年,画风一度转入写实。1930年又明显的倾向于超现实主义。晚期制作了大量的雕塑和陶器等,亦有杰出的成就。他的作品对现代西方艺术流派有很大的影响。
乔治·布拉克
乔治·布拉克(Georges Braque,1882—1963),法国画家,立体主义代表。1882年5月13日生于塞纳河畔的阿让特伊,他的父亲是位房地产经纪人。1963年8月31日卒于巴黎。他的影响实际上并不比毕加索小。他与毕加索同为立体主义运动的创始者,并且,“立体主义”这一名称还是由他的作品而来。另外,立体主义运动中有多项创新也皆是由他作出,例如,将字母及数字引入绘画、采用拼贴的手段,等等。
布拉克的作品多数为静物画和风景画,画风简洁单纯,严谨而统一。“他比所有其他的立体派画家更多地带来不可缩减的具体和一针见血的分析,带来少有的和谐色彩和他的任何同伴都无能为力的典雅流畅的线条。
1907年,他与毕加索相识,深为其作品《亚维农的少女》所倾倒,两人遂成为至交,共同筹划起立体主义运动。布拉克和毕加索在分析立体主义时期所作的作品,风格非常接近,以致于摆在一起难辨孰人所为。
这在艺术史上是极其少见的现象。两人不仅画法相同,而且所选题材也十分相似。他们都偏爱画乐器。布拉克在画中对于物象的分解,要比毕加索更加极端。他多数是在静物画中进行这种分析形体的实验。这也许是因为静物画对他说来较少约束之故。

影响

立体主义在反传统的口号下有浓厚的形式主义倾向。但它在艺术形式上的探索,又给现代工艺美术、装饰美术、建筑美术等注重形式美的实用艺术领域以不小的推动作用。
立体派通过创造一个独立与自然的设计概念,开始一个新的艺术传统和观察方法,结束了400年之久的文艺复兴时期绘画艺术传统。
这个运动的起源是西班牙画家毕加索(Pablo picasso,1881—1973)示来自非洲雕塑的t程式化几何形,和后印象派(Post-lmpressionism)画家赛尚(Paul Cezanne 1839—1906)他主意到画家应该“用圆柱和球体及圆锥处理自然,”这幅画是处理空间表达人的感情的新探素。把人像抽象成为几何形的面,且打破了人像的古典标准。
透视的空间幻觉让位于两向平面的摸糊一移动。人们同时从多个视点看那坐着的人像。毕加索在后几年里与他的亲密合作者勃洛克(Georges Braque 1881—1963)把立体派发展成为艺术运动,用创造无限可能性的造形,代替描绘外貌。人们称他们1910—1912年前后的作品为分析的立体派。
在这个时期,艺术家常常从不同视点分析题材的各个面,且用这些感性认识去构成一个有节奏的几何面组成的画。真正的立体成为造形的视觉语言,用来创造一幅有高度结构的艺术作品。分析的立体派有着激发兴趣的魅力,画面结构的感官的和理性的确吸引力,与解释题材的挑战之间往往有冲突,因而引起未解决的紧张感,这就产生激发兴趣的魅力。
毕加索勃洛克在1912年把纸拼贴元素采用到他们的作品中。拼贴画允许独立于主题的自由构图,且表现绘画的现实是两向的物体。拼贴元素的质感可以表现物体。例如毕加索把印有椅子腾条图案的油布贴在一幅画中,代表一把椅子。为了意义上的联系,他们经常把字形和报纸上的词结合作为视觉造形。
在1913年,立体派发展到所谓综合立体主义(Synifhefic Cubism)立体派画家们根据过去的观察,创造了符号造形,而不是表现题材的造形。描绘一个物体的本质和它的外部面貌。
格里斯(Juan Gris 1887—1927)是综合立体主义发展中的一位主要画家。例如1912年毕加索肖像组合自然构图和画面空间的独立结构设计。首先,他计划了精确的构图结构,用黄金分割比例和模数的构图网格,然后他“把主题放在”这个设计方案上。格里斯对几何形艺术和设计的发展深有影响;他的绘画有点基于感性的艺术,和由各几何形面相互关系实现的艺术之间的“中途停息所”。
毕加索和格里斯周围的艺术家中加入立体派运动的利格(Fernand Leger1881—1955)。也使立体派从创造者起初的冲击中移离。大约从1910年起,利格远比其他立体派画家更认真地对待赛尚关于圆柱、球和圆锥的著名格言,象“裸女们在森林中”的主题被转成一大片多采的炉子烟熏,散乱在画面中。利格可能会发展到纯色彩和造形关系的艺术,但他在法国工人阶级公民中的四年军事服役,以及他在战争期间发展的加强视觉,使他转向更可辨认,更可接近和更群众化的风格。
他更接近象他在“城市”这幅画中的视觉感受。他把色彩、形状招贴和城市环境建筑的感受—信息的一瞥和片断一集和到由许多鲜明色彩的平面组成的构图中。在这幅绘画中的字形,和利格为沈达勒(Blaise Cendrar)的书“世界末日”(La Fin du Monde)。。。。。的视觉传达作品,指向几何字形的道路。他的近乎象形文的程式化人像和物体,是图面现代主义(Pictorial Modernism)的主要启示,而图画现代主义在20年代成为复兴的招贴艺术的主要推进力量。利格的平涂色彩面、城市主题和他的轮廓明确的机器造形,帮助确定第一次大战后现代设计的情调。

English Introductio

Three dimensional School: Cubism
A movement and genre in the history of western modern art. In 1908, it began in france. The occurrence of this name contains the. In 1908, G. Braque exhibited in Kahn weller Gallery, Matisse criticized Black's painting is depicted in the cube. Critic L. Gil. Blass Arguelles in "piston" magazine quoted this commented: "Mr. Braque will restore everything...... A cube ", hence the name of this style.
The Lord is cubist P. Picasso and Braque. Picasso's painting "playing the mandolin girls" (1910),
The factors were considered to contain works of cubism.
Cubism method has experienced a process of brewing. At the beginning of twentieth Century, Paris painting is very active. Following the Impressionism, symbolism, young artists pay more attention to innovation, to show people in the rapid changes in the industrial society in the inner emotional and psychological.
New schools have emerged in France, Germany, Italy and russia. In France, following the rise of Fauvism, another group of literature in the "flow of homemade monmarte laundry" party. In Picasso, Braque, M., G., A. salmonis apoilinaire Laurencin, M. J., F. Griess, reynaldo Leger etc..
They have the support dealer D.-H. Kahn Weller in 1907, he opened a gallery in Paris, which is known as cubism community. Participate in the activities of R., as well as cubism delaune gleizes A..
In 1910, J. vinyon as the center, set up a new Cubist community, often known as pitot in France, pitot group. Holland, Mexico artist P. Rivera and Mondrian pitot group contact. They gave the analysis of Cubism by order and rules, so as to promote the Cubism toward a more abstract and subjective direction.
From the beginning of 1912, Picasso and other comprehensive test of cubism. In the analysis of the structure and clear broken Cubism, still retains a strong light and a sense of space. The artist observes the objects observed in different states and different viewpoints, and is focused on a single plane.
Comprehensive analysis of anatomy, from cubism is no longer a certain object to proceed, but the use of a variety of different material combinations to create a new motif, and the use of physical collage artists trying to make close to the life of ordinary real.
As the art movement of cubism in early 1914 will lose vitality. The concept of art is full of cubism. It mainly pursues the beauty of a geometric shape, the pursuit of the form of the combination of the aesthetic. It negates the traditional way of observing things and expressing things from one perspective, and the three dimensional space is reduced to a flat, two-dimensional space.
Do not look at things from a point of view, from a different point of view to observe and understand the shape of the screen, so as to show the continuity of time. In this way, we do not rely mainly on visual experience and perceptual knowledge, but mainly rely on reason, ideas and thinking.
The two major factors: one is the analysis of Cubism abstract visual Cezanne painting, "the nature of the objects can be composed of spherical, conical, cylindrical representation"; the other is Picasso found in the African National mask, anti naturalism style. From Picasso's "Yawei farm girl" you can see the combination of these two concepts.Although as a branch of the golden agency cubism in 1920 and 1925 continue to hold exhibitions, but as the Cubism art movement in early 1914 will lose vitality. The concept of art is full of cubism. It mainly pursues the beauty of a geometric shape, the pursuit of the form of the combination of the aesthetic.
It negates the traditional way of observing things and expressing things from one perspective, and the three dimensional space is reduced to a flat, two-dimensional space. The taste of light and shade, light, air and atmosphere is made up of the shape and the surface of the line, the surface of the block and the accumulation of the fun and mood. Do not look at things from a point of view, from a different point of view to observe and understand the shape of the screen, so as to show the continuity of time. In this way, we do not rely mainly on visual experience and perceptual knowledge, but mainly rely on reason, ideas and thinking.
It is a kind of art school with rich ideas, the main purpose is to pursue the beauty of a geometric form, the aesthetic feeling of the arrangement and combination of the form. It negates the traditional way of looking at things from one point of view and expressing things, and the three dimensional space into a plane. Because of the different views of the observation and understanding of the shape of the appeal to the screen, thus showing the continuity of time.
With the straight line, the contour of the curve, the surface of the block and the accumulation of interest and sentiment, to replace the traditional light and shade, light, air, gas surrounded by the fun. Obviously, these skills are not dependent on the visual experience and perceptual knowledge, but mainly depend on reason, idea and thinking.Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) engaged in artistic activities from the end of nineteenth Century, until the most influential modernist painter in 1970s. Life style and style. The early painting is similar to the theme of expressionism; the latter pays more attention to the simplification of primitive art. 1915-1920, once transferred to the realistic style. In 1930, there was a clear tendency toward surrealism. A large number of sculptures and pottery were produced in the late period. His works have a great influence on the modern western art schools.
Georges Braque
George Burak (Georges Braque, 1882 - 1963), French painter, representative of cubism. Senna was born on May 13, 1882 in Riverside Argenteuil, his father is a real estate broker. August 31, 1963 in Paris. His influence is no less than that of Picasso. He is the founder, and Picasso with cubism and the name "Cubism" or by his works and. In addition, the cubist movement has a number of innovations are made by him, for example, the letters and numbers into the painting, by means of collage, etc..
Most of the works of Braque still life painting and landscape painting, style simple, rigorous and unified. "He is analysis of all other Cubist artists can not be reduced to more specific and incisive, brings rare color harmony and any of his companions are incapable of action elegant smooth lines.
In 1907, he met with Picasso, overwhelmed by the deep works of "Ya Weinong girls", two people became friends, common planning from cubism. Braque and Picasso in the analysis of the Cubism period works, style is very close, so as to put together the enemy is for the people.
This is a rare phenomenon in the history of art. Two people not only the same painting, but also very similar to the selected topics. They all prefer to draw a musical instrument. Braque in the picture for image decomposition, more extreme than Picasso. He is the most shape analysis in the still life experiment. Perhaps this is because the painting to say it to him less constraint.

English Introductio

There is a strong tendency of formalism of cubism in the anti traditional slogan. However, its exploration in the form of art, but also to the modern arts and crafts, decorative arts, architectural art and other forms of practical arts focus on the form of a small role in promoting.
Cubism through the creation of an independent and natural design concept, to start a new art tradition and observation methods, the end of the 400 year old Renaissance painting tradition.
The origin of this motion is the Spanish painter Picasso (Pablo Picasso, 1881 - 1973) shows from African sculpture t stylized geometric shape, and post impressionist painter Sishan (Post-lmpressionism) (Paul Cezanne 1839 - 1906) he noticed the painter should "use cylinder and sphere and cone with nature," this painting is a new exploration of treatment the expression of one's feelings in space. The portrait is abstracted into a geometric surface, and breaks the classical standard of portrait.
The perspective of the illusion of space allows the two plane to move a paste. At the same time, people look at the sitting figure from multiple perspectives. Picasso and his close cooperation in the next few years (1881 - 1963 Georges block Braque) to become the Cubist art movement, with the creation of infinite possibilities form, instead of depicting the appearance. People call them 1910 to 1912 before and after the work of three-dimensional analysis.
During this period, artists often analyze various aspects of the subject from different perspectives, and use these perceptual knowledge to form a picture composed of a rhythmic geometry. The three-dimensional form of visual language become real, to create a highly artistic structure. Analysis of the Cubist has a compelling charm, the picture structure and rational sense really attractive, and are often in conflict between the challenge and interpretation of the theme, which caused tensions unresolved, which has the charm to stimulate interest.
In 1912, Picasso Blok put the collage elements into their works. Collage allows independent theme free composition, and the expression of the painting is two objects to reality. Collage elements can represent objects. For example, Picasso put the chair with a tarpaulin attached to the Teng pattern in a picture, on behalf of a chair. In the sense of touch, they often take shape and newspapers as a combination of visual words.
In 1913, to the development of the so-called Synthetic Cubism Cubism (Synifhefic Cubism) Cubist Painters based on past observations, creating a symbolic form, rather than the performance of the theme of the form. Describe the nature of an object and its external appearance.
Griess (Juan Gris, 1887 - 1927) is one of the main painters in the development of synthetic cubism. For example, in 1912, Picasso portrait combination of natural composition and screen space of the independent structure design. First of all, he planned the precise composition of the structure, with the golden scale and the modulus of the composition of the grid, and then he "put the theme on" the design. Griess has a profound influence on the development of the geometric art and design; his paintings are based on the perceptual art, and the art of "midway"".
Join the cubist movement around Picasso and Griess of the artists in the League (Fernand Leger1881 1955). It also allows the Cubism to move away from the creator's initial shock. From about 1910, ljig than other Cubist artists more seriously about the famous motto, cylinder, ball and cone Cezanne, like "naked in the forest" theme was turned into a large colorful stove smoke, scattered in the picture. Ljig may develop to the pure color and shape the relationship between art, but his citizens in the French working class in four years of military service, and he developed during the war to strengthen the vision, to his more recognizable, more accessible and more popular style.
He is closer to his visual perception of the city. He put the color, shape and poster city environment of the building feel the glimpse of a piece of information and to set a plane composed of many brilliant colors in the picture. In the painting of the font, and - Shen Dale (Blaise Cendrar) of the book "the end of the world" (La Fin Du Monde)..... The visual communication works, pointing to the geometric shape of the road. Stylized portraits and objects near his pictograph, is drawing Modernism (Pictorial Modernism) the main enlightenment, and pictorial modernism in 20s to become the main driving force for the revival of the poster art. - the plane color surface, the theme of city and his clear outline of machine form, to help determine the modern design of the first World War after the mood.

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