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未来派

未来派(Futurism),是由意大利诗人菲利波·托马索·马里奈缔(Filippo Tomasso Marinetti)作为一个运动而提出和组织的。他在1909年整个一年中,向全世界发表了一个宣言,这个宣言以浮夸的文辞宣告过去艺术(过去派)的终点和未来艺术(未来派)的诞生。

  • 中文名未来主义画派
  • 外文名Futurism
  • 别名未来派
  • 年代1909年意大利马利奈蒂倡始
  • 出处费加罗报
发展过程

波丘尼写了一篇“未来派画家的宣言”,于1910年2月11日发表,并于3月3日向都灵的查雷拉戏院的广大观众公开宣布。同年4月11日发表未来派“绘画技巧宣言”。随后又接二连三的出现一些论证和宣言。1912年,这个集团于巴黎举办了他们的作品展览会(随后移至伦敦和柏林展出),1914年,波丘尼出版了一本书,将他们的观点做最后一次说明——形式上和事实上都是最后一次,因为同年爆发的世界大战,使这个集团解散了。波丘尼,这个运动的推动者,在1916年逐渐恢复伤势时却意外的被杀害了。因此这个集团没有再组织起来。塞弗里尼有一段时期转向了立体派,卡腊受到了契里科(Chirico)的形而上学的绘画的影响,巴拉终于又回到了学院派的现实主义,鲁索洛本来就是未来派音乐的作曲家(以“骚捞主义”(Bruitism)的音乐见称),显然对绘画没有兴趣。
末来派的成立
末来派画家表现的是「速度」和「进行」 ,现代生活的「动荡」的感觉。此运动是由诗人马利涅蒂 ( Marinetti, 1876-1944 )和画家巴拉 ( Balla, 1871-1958 )所领导的。 在绘画上,他们的形象是重复的,重叠的、模仿影片的方式,以表现运动中的概念。 其重要的代表人物还有赛弗里尼 ( Severini, 1883-1966 )和波爵奥尼 ( Boccioni,1882-1916) 。
 

主张

他们的主张是表现运动.按照他们的想法, 象德拉克罗瓦画的马看起来不管怎么象猛烈奔跑, 它也不过是在某一瞬间快速拍摄的照片.为了直接表现运动, 就必须表现运动着的物体的几个形状.另外, 只画人物不能成为肖像;人既有回忆, 对未来也充满希望, 因此, 如果在一个画面里不把这些都描绘进去, 就不能成为肖像.他们这样想, 而且在艺术中加以实行.人们往往把立体派和未来派认为是相类似的东西, 实际上二者完全不同.立体派总是以静止的姿态, 分解物体的形状.虽然没有余暇来谈未来派的错误见解, 不过不能不注意这一点, 即未来派仅仅几年就消亡了;

意义

未来派画家们所追求的是隐喻式的主题和不同视象的同时并存。要做到这点是通过描绘运动中物体的多元重叠来实现的;尤其是强调物体与环境融为一体,表现对象被解体和移位,局部的分散与组合不爱逻辑的制约并相互独立。为了使观者成为画面的中心,绘画必须是创作者的记忆和所见的综合性体现。未来主义艺术的贡献也并不在于艺术风格和语言的创新上,它的重要性是激进的主张和无政府主义的口号所具有的感染力和煸动性,在20世纪初的西方社会中对现代主义精神的形成产生的极大影响。
 

English Introductio

Boccioni wrote a "Futurist Manifesto", published in February 11, 1910, and the majority of the audience in March 3 to the Turin Charala theater announced. In April 11th of the same year, the school issued a manifesto for painting skills". Then one after another appeared some demonstration and declaration. In 1912, the group held their exhibition in Paris (later moved to London and Berlin on display), 1914, Boccioni published a book, they will view the last - form and in fact is the last time, because the same year the outbreak of World War II, the group disbanded. Boccioni, promoters of this movement, in 1916 gradually recovering from injury but unexpected was killed. So the group is not organized. Safri Ni has a period to Cubism, La card by Chirico (Chirico) effect of Metaphysical Painting, and finally returned to the school of realism, Shandong is Solow future music composer (to "bother" (Bruitism) music for apparently not interested in). Painting.
At the end of the establishment of Futurism
At the end of the artist is the performance of the "speed source" and "of" modern life "turmoil" feeling. The movement was led by poet Marley Neti (Marinetti, 1876-1944) and painter (Balla, 1871-1958). In painting, their image is repeated, overlapping, imitating the way the film, in order to express the concept of movement. The important representative is Sai Frisoni (Severini, 1883-1966) and wave (Boccioni, 1882-1916), hybrid. They advocate performance movement. According to their ideas, like Delacroix painted horse looks like no matter how heavy it is running, but also in a moment of rapid photographs. In order to direct the performance of motion, several shape must show moving objects. In addition, only painting cannot be a portrait of people; both of memories, the future is full of hope, therefore, if in a picture not all painted in, can not become a portrait. They do, and to be implemented in art. People tend to cubism and futurism considered similar things, in fact the two completely different stereo. Always send a static posture, decomposition of the object shape. Although there is no time to talk about the wrong opinions futuristic, but not pay attention to this point, the Futurist died only a few years;
The future of the artists is the pursuit of the metaphorical theme and the coexistence of different vision. To do this is through multiple description of moving object overlap to realize; especially emphasizes the object and the environment together, the performance object is disintegrated and displacement, local decentralized control and combination of love and independent logic. In order to make the viewer the center of the painting, the painting must be the comprehensive embodiment of the memory and the vision of the creator. The contribution of futuristic art lies not in the innovation of artistic style and language, its importance is radical and anarchist slogan is infectious and inflammatory, at the beginning of twentieth Century in the western society on the formation of the modern spirit of the great shadow of the ring.

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