野兽派

野兽主义(Fauvism)是自1898至1908年在法国盛行一时的一个现代绘画潮流。它虽然没有明确的理论和纲领,但却是一定数量的画家在一段时期里聚合起来积极活动的结果,因而也可以被视为一个画派。
野兽派画家热衷于运用鲜艳、浓重的色彩,往往用直接从颜料管中挤出的颜料,以直率、粗放的笔法,创造强烈的画面效果,充分显示出追求情感表达的表现主义倾向。

  • 中文名野兽派
  • 外文名Fauvism
  • 流行时间1898至1908年
  • 类别现代绘画
  • 来源1905年巴黎的秋季沙龙展览
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野兽派弗拉芒克代表作创个人记录

中国美术网 09-05 浏览

由对冲基金的大亨史蒂夫.科恩提供的野兽派画家弗拉芒克的一幅风景画昨日在纽约佳士得的夜场以2250万美元成交。这一成交价高出该画家之前成交记录(1080万美元)的...
概述

实际上,野兽派谈不上是个流派,因为它没有自己的理论体系和艺术纲领,将这些画家汇集在一起的力量是他们各自内心中寻求新的绘画语言的强烈欲望。所以,最终,我们看到的不是大卫安格尔普吕东这样的几近整一的模式体系,而是各见特色的艺术风格。野兽派一词的来源据认为是因为展览会上的一尊雕塑引起的。当艺术评论家路易.沃塞勒发现了一尊以15世纪意大利风格完成的儿童雕像时,惊呼:“好一个野兽群中的多纳太罗。”雕像本身不再是人们的话题,甚至亨利.卢梭参加展出的《饿狮》,也不是“野兽”这一词具有特殊意义的原因。真正令人吃惊的是这群“野兽”画家的作品里狂放的色彩、简练的线条以及夸张的变形。在这群“野兽”画家的作品中,人们看到的不是感情的文学性抒发,也不是对印象主义依依不舍的绘画表现,而是一种令人措手不及的形式冲击。
野兽派FAUVISM(1905-1910),“Fauvism”是来自法文的“Fauve”(野兽)这个字,怎么会如此称呼呢?野兽派这个名称是偶然产生的。1905年的巴黎秋季沙龙举行之际,有一群反抗学院派的青年画家,纷纷拿出个性强烈而自由奔放的作品参展。在这个展览中的一个特别展室里,展出了包括马蒂斯、弗拉曼克、德兰、曼贾恩、鲁奥莽、马尔凯、邓肯、怫利埃斯等青年画家的新倾向作品。批评家沃克塞尔(Vauxcelles),脚踏入这个展览室,对这群青年画家的激烈绘画甚为赞赏。刚好在此室的中央,陈列了雕刻家马尔凯所作的一件接近多纳太罗(意大利文艺复兴初期的雕刻家)风格的学院派青铜雕刻《小孩头像》。于是沃克塞尔指着这件雕像带讥讽的口吻说:“看!野兽里的多纳太罗。”因此,这句野兽(Fauves)的称呼,便被一般人用来称呼这群青年画家,对于他们那激越奔放的绘画称为“野兽派”的那个特别展览室,后来也被冠以 “野兽槛”的别名。这就是本世纪“野兽派”的发端。野兽派是二十世纪以后,最早形成的艺术运动之一。野兽派的画家受后印象主义影响,认为绘画要表达主观的感受,不作明暗表现,常大胆地应用平涂式的强烈原色和弯曲起伏的轮廓线,并将描绘的景物予以简化,画面颇富于装饰性。

特点

野兽派是对学院派的背叛,他们对感动力稀薄,表现不够深入的印象派画风持一种反抗的态度,继续着后印象主义凡高高更塞尚等人的探索,追求更为强烈的艺术表现。此派的画家们,他们吸收东方和非洲黑人雕刻艺术的表现手法,注重纯粹造型的表现,惯用红、青、绿、黄等醒目的强烈色彩作画。他们以这些原色的并列,加上大笔触,单纯化的线条作夸张抑扬的形态,以达到个性的表现,把内在真挚情感,极端放任的流露出来。以最小限度的描绘,达到表现最大限度的美感。他们的作品有明显的定意倾向。有人把野兽派看作是广义的表现主义运动的一部分。也有人认为,野兽派不是一个艺术运动,祗是马蒂斯等人艺术生涯中短暂的一个阶段,一个特别注意线和色彩表现力﹑不受任何程序束縳的阶段。马蒂斯后来回忆说:“对我来说,野兽时期是绘画工具的试验,我必须出一种富于表现力而意味深长的方式,将蓝﹑红﹑绿并列融汇。”

野兽主义

野兽主义(Fauvism)是自1898至1908年在法国盛行一时的一个现代绘画潮流。它虽然没有明确的理论和纲领,但却是一定数量的画家在一段时期里聚合起来积极活动的结果,因而也可以被视为一个画派。野兽派画家热衷于运用鲜艳、浓重的色彩,往往用直接从颜料管中挤出的颜料,以直率、粗放的笔法,创造强烈的画面效果,充分显示出追求情感表达的表现主义倾向。野兽主义得名于1905年巴黎的秋季沙龙展览,当时,以马蒂斯为首的一批前卫艺术家展于同一层厅的作品,引起轩然大波。有人形象地将这些画称作“一罐颜料掼在公众的面前”。而那位后来创出“立体主义”名称的《吉尔·布拉斯》杂志的记者路易·沃塞尔,则突发灵感地想到了这一恰也合适的名称。他在那个被刺目的色彩弄得喧嚷不已的展厅中央,发现马尔凯(Albert Marquet)所作的一件具有文艺复兴风格的小型铜像,不由得惊叫起来:“多那太罗被关在了野兽笼中!”(多那太罗是意大利文艺复兴时期杰出雕塑家)。不久,这一俏皮话便在《吉尔·布拉斯》杂志登出,而“野兽主义”的名称也很快被广泛地认同。翌年当“笼子”里的“野兽”倾巢而出,举行一个接一个惊人的展览时,野兽主义则已是影响巨增,势头高涨了。这一初含讽刺意味的名称,后来也逐渐失去了它的贬义。野兽主义继续着后印象主义文森特·梵高﹑P·高更﹑P·塞尚等人的探索,追求更为主观和强烈的艺术表现。对西方绘画的发展,产生了重要的影响。他们吸收了东方和非洲艺术的表现手法,在绘画中注意创造一种有别于西方古典绘画的疏﹑简的意境,有明显的写意倾向。

English Introductio

In fact, not to mention Fauvism is a genre, because it has no theoretical system and program of art itself, these artists together force is a strong desire to seek a new painting language in their heart. So, finally, we do not see David, Angell, prudhon such a pattern almost the whole system, but each see art style. The origin of the word "wild" is thought to be caused by a sculpture at the exhibition. When the art critic Louis. Vaucelles found a statue in fifteenth Century Italian style statues of children, exclaimed: "a beast in Donate Lo." The statue itself is no longer a topic of conversation, and even Henry, Rousseau to participate in the exhibition of the hungry lion, nor is the "beast" this word has a special significance of the reasons. The real surprise is that the "beast" artist in the wild colors, simple lines and exaggerated deformation. In this group the "beast" the painter's works, express the people see is not the feelings of the literature, painting is not on impressionism but a reluctant to part, is the form of the impact be taken by surprise.
FAUVISM (1905-1910), "Fauvism" is from the French "Fauve" (Beast) the word, how can it be called? The name of the wild animal was accidental. In the autumn of 1905 in Paris, a group of young artists, who were against the Academy, came up with their own strong and free works. A special room in this exhibition in the exhibition works including Matisse, Framme J, the new tendency of Teresa, Manchester, Shandong Aomang Jain, Marche, Duncan, Li and other young artists was esther. Critic Walker (Vauxcelles), foot into the exhibition room, the young artists who are very intense appreciation of painting. Just in the center of the room, display as a sculptor Marche near Donatello (Italy early Renaissance sculptor) style school bronze sculpture "child head". Walker and Searl pointed to the statue with a sarcastic tone said: "see! Donate Lo in the wild." Therefore, the beast (Fauves) call, is generally used to refer to this group of young artists, for their intense unrestrained drawing is called "Fauvism" the special exhibition room, later known as the "beast threshold" alias. This is the beginning of this century, "wild animals". One of the earliest forms of art since the twentieth Century. The painter is Postimpressionism Fauvism, that painting to express the subjective feelings, no shading performance, contour often bold strong color coated with flat and curved, and depicts the scenery will be simplified, the picture is full of decorative.Fauvism was on academic betrayal, they moved to thin performance in-depth of impressionist style hold a defiant attitude, continue to explore the post Impressionist Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cezanne and others, the pursuit of more intense artistic performance. This faction of the artists, they absorb the eastern and African black carving art expression techniques, pay attention to the performance of pure form, red, green, green, yellow and other eye-catching strong color painting. They tied with these primary colors, plus large strokes, simple lines as exaggerated iambic patterns, to achieve individual performance, the intrinsic true feelings, extreme indulgence revealed. To minimize the description, to maximize the performance of beauty. There is a clear tendency of their works. Someone took Fauvism as a part of the expressionist movement. Some people think that is not a Fauvist art movement, is only a temporary stage Matisse's artistic career, a special attention line and color performance, without any restraint stage program. Matisse later recalled: "for me, the test period is beast painting tools, I have an expressive and meaningful way, the blue, red and green tied together."Fauvism is a popular trend of modern painting in France from 1898 to 1908. Although it is not clear the theory and program, but a number of artists in the period of the aggregation of active results, so it can be considered as a group. Fauvism is keen on the use of bright and strong color, often with paint straight from the tube out of the paint, in a straightforward and extensive style, create a strong picture effect, fully shows that the pursuit of emotional expression of expressionism. Fauvism gets its name from the 1905 Paris autumn Salon Exhibition, at that time, Matisse led to a number of avant-garde artists exhibition hall in the same layer of work, caused a great disturbance. It was the image of these paintings called "a tin of paint thrown in front of the public". While the later hit "Cubism" name "Jill Blas" magazine reporter Louis Vosseler, was inspired to think of this is exactly the right name. He was in the glare of the color make noise at the central hall of the Marche (Albert Marquet), found that small bronze statue made a Renaissance style, cried: "Donate Lo was confined in a cage in the beast!" (Donatello in Renaissance Italy outstanding sculptors). Soon, this jest in "Jill Blas" magazine published, "name of Fauvism" will soon be widely recognized. When the "cage" in the "beast" qingchaoerchu, held a stunning exhibition, Fauvism is of huge increase, rising momentum. At the beginning of this with ironic name, later gradually lost its derogatory. Fauvism continued his exploration of Post Impressionism Vincent VanGhon, Gauguin, P P Cezanne and others, the pursuit of a more subjective and strong artistic performance. On the development of Western painting, have an important impact. They absorbed the Oriental and African art expression, in the painting to pay attention to create a different from the western classical painting sparse, simple mood, there is a clear tendency of freehand brushwork.

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