超现实主义

超现实主义是在法国开始的文学艺术流派,与达达主义产生于同一时期,并且对于视觉艺术的影响力深远。于1920年至1930年间盛行于欧洲文学及艺术界中。它的主要特征,是以所谓“超现实”、“超理智”的梦境、幻觉等作为艺术创作的源泉,认为只有这种超越现实的“无意识”世界才能摆脱一切束缚,最真实地显示客观事实的真面目。超现实主义给传统对艺术的看法有了巨大的影响。也常被称为超现实主义运动。或简称为超现实。

  • 中文名超现实主义
  • 外文名surrealism[英] surréalisme[法]
  • 性质文学艺术流派
  • 目的发现人类的潜意识心理
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生活中总是需要一些艺术元素的就像俄国艺评家Viktor Shklovsky说的“艺术之所以存在,是为了使人恢复对生活的感觉,使人去感受事物,使石头成为石头。”在这一季的新品中我们给大家带...
简介

超现实主义(surrealism),探究此派别的理论根据是受到弗洛依德的精神分析影响,致力于发现人类的潜意识心理。因此主张放弃逻辑、有序的经验记忆为基础的现实形象,而呈现人的深层心理中的形象世界,尝试将现实观念与本能、潜意识与梦的经验相融合。注:超现实主义不能与超级现实主义混为一谈,超级现实主义又称照相主义,是七十年代美国最为流行的一种资产阶级美术流派,和超现实主义不同。
产生背景
第一次世界大战后在法国兴起的在文艺及其他文化领域里对资本主义传统文化思想的反叛运动,其影响波及欧美其他国家。它的内容不仅限于文学,也涉及绘画、音乐等艺术领域。它提出了创作源泉、创作方法、创作目的等问题,以及关于资本主义社会制度和人们的生存条件等社会问题。超现实主义者自称他们进行的是一场“精神革命”。运动是由一群参加过第一次世界大战的法国青年发起的,他们目睹战争的荒谬与破坏,对以理性为核心的传统的理想、文化、道德产生怀疑。旧的信念失去了魅力,需要有一种新的理想来代替。超现实主义就是他们在探索道路上的尝试。
超现实主义为现代派文学开创了道路。超现实主义作为一个文学流派,实际存在的时间并不很长,作为一种文艺思潮,作为一种美学观点,其影响却十分深远。超现实主义者的宗旨是离开现实,返回原始,否认理性的作用,强调人们的下意识或无意识活动。法国的主观唯心主义哲学家柏格森的直觉主义与奥地利精神病理家弗洛伊德的"潜意识"学说奠定了超现实主义的哲学和理论基础。
超现实主义文艺思潮的出现,反映了第一次世界大战后欧洲资产阶级青年一代对现实的恐惧心理和狂乱不安的精神状态。参加超现实主义集团的作家有布洛东、苏波、查拉,画家阿尔普、马松等等。属于这一流派中的有些作家,如路易·阿拉贡、保罗·艾吕雅等,由于受到无产阶级革命运动的积极影响,后来转向进步的文艺阵线。第二次世界大战后,超现实主义在美国风行一时,出现了所谓"新超现实主义"流派,成为帝国主义御用的宣传工具。
超现实主义的文学作用甚多。1921年,布列顿和苏波合着的《磁场》,是超现实主义第一部实验性的作品,首次提出了无意识书写和自动的写作的问题。但典型的超现实主义作品则产生在1924年之后,如布洛东的小说《可溶解的鱼》1924)和《娜嘉》(1928)是超现实主义的代表作。阿拉贡在1926年发表的散文集《巴黎的农民》,艾吕雅的诗集《痛苦的都会》、《生活的内幕》均属超现实主义之作。
历史
达达派之后,法国产生了一个近代艺术史上影响力最大的画派——超现实派,此派从达达派发展而来,但事实上要对此两流派的时代作明确区分,则相当困难。因其演变过程并没有明确的在造型艺术上出现。不过,如果因此所把达达派精神与超现实派的本质视为同一,则是一大谬误。达达派虽成为超现实派诞生的温床,但超现实派多少还是承受了19世纪的浪漫主义及象征主义的遗产,另外还吸收了新的要素。如今我们谈超现实主义发生之年代,都是根据宣言文字的发表时间作区分,无法在艺术作品上对产生年代作正确说明。在理论上,超现实主义艺术运动的发起者是两位作家,布列顿和阿波利奈尔。超现实一词是诗人阿波利奈尔首用的,原是哲学上的术语,最初称为“超自然主义”,后来才用于绘画上。1924年,布列顿发表了第一篇超现实主义宣言,1928年发表了一篇重要论文《超现实主义与绘画》其思想的基础是在求取人间想像力的解放。布列顿对超现实主义的定义是:“超现实主义,名词。纯粹的精神的自动主义,企图运用这种自动主义,以口语或文字或其他的任何方式去表达真正的思想过程。它是思想的笔录,不受理性的任何控制,不依赖于任何美学或道德的偏见。”布列顿又说:“我相信,在表面上被认为矛盾的两个状态,将来是有办法解决的,那便是梦与现实的统一。那可以说是绝对现实的一种,也可以说是超现实的一种。”从这宣言中可以明了超现实主义是追求梦与现实的统一,并且是以人类为对象作为表现的范围。布列顿在文章中要求人们注意那些可能与文学超现实主义有联系的艺术家,其中有马蒂斯、德兰、勃拉克和毕加索。实际上这些画家并不符合布列顿对超现实主义所下的定义:纯粹的心理自动。但他所推崇的另一位画家基里柯则可能是最早的超现实主义画家。基里柯从1911年到1915年一直住在巴黎,他的画很受阿波利奈尔的赞赏,阿波利奈尔在1918年写的剧本《蒂里西亚的乳房》冠以“超现实主义戏剧”的副标题,最早使用了“超现实主义”这个术语,他对基里柯的看重显然是注意到了基里柯画中那种超验的精神与内心世界的表现。
给予超现实派最大的启示是奥地利维也纳大学精神病心理学教授佛洛伊德的精神分析学和下意识心理学的理论。从整体上说,超现实主义作为一个艺术运动,与弗洛伊德的精神分析学还是有非常密切的联系。超现实主义的精神与思想领袖布列顿有过学医的经历,他在读了弗洛伊德的着作后,立即领会到精神分析与达达派的无意识表白之间的关联。精神分析注重对梦想、幻想和幻觉的分析,并把白日梦作为一种可能的艺术创作方法加以诱导。依此而从事于下意识的梦幻的世界的研究,与自然主义相对立,不受理性支配而凭本能与想象,描绘超现实的题材,表现比现实世界更真实的,比现实世界的再现更具重大意义的,想像领域中的梦幻世界。
此派的画家们可举出阿尔普米罗、艾伦斯待、达利、马松、基里柯、克尔诺、坦基、格里特、夏卡尔等。他们以布列顿的“自动的活动、无意识的自动作用(Automatisme)和梦幻世界的采求”展开创作,部分也受哲学家柏格森(HBergson)的影响,在思想上企求打破心物二元的宇宙观,建立一元化的形而上学,因此他们任意表现梦与想象,很多奇异的变形与线条令人无法了解。他们的创作活动自由自在的安排在一种时空交错的世界中,毫不受空间与时间的束缚。但是,如果用布列顿的这种视觉形象来解释超现实主义绘画的话,还只说明了超现实主义绘画的一种主要风格,即以达利马格利特德尔沃为代表的风格。这种风格以精细的细部描绘为特征,通过可以识别的经过变形的形象和场面,来营造一种幻觉的和梦境的画面。它的来源是卢梭夏加尔、思索尔、基里柯及19世纪的浪漫主义艺术。它企图运用弗洛伊德所下的定义,创造一种不受意识和理性控制的形象。但是其作画的过程实际上与写实画法没什么区别的理性过程,因此这种风格又被称为自然主义的超现实主义和古典的超现实主义。另一支超现实主义的绘画则是以米罗、马宋等人为代表,他们追求作画过程的无意识性,以致在画面上出现纯粹受心理作用支配的意象,最终结果总是充满幻觉的和具有生命形态的抽象画面。因此,它又被称为有机的超现实主义或绝对的超现实主义,这一倾向与达达主义者和某些未来主义者所从事的偶然机遇和无意识行为的试验有关联。
自布列顿于1924年发展宣言后,1925年6月在巴黎举办了首次超现实主义画展,参加者包括毕加索阿尔普克利等人,他们显然都不是真正意义上的超现实主义画家,只有恩斯特在他的达达主义的拼贴中首次尝试了具有超现实主义倾向的作品。1926年超现实主义者组织了超现实主义画廊,1936年和1947年他们先后在伦敦和巴黎举办了重要的展览。曾一度风行欧洲的超现实主义热潮虽于30年代之后渐趋式微,但这一运动并末消失,并且在第二次世界大战后仍然具有一定影响。因为二次大战前很多此派画家从巴黎到美国,所以超现实派绘画从欧洲影响到新大陆。此外,其影响力扩及戏剧、舞台装饰、摄影、电影、建筑、雕刻等艺术领域。
超现实主义致力于探索人类经验的先验层面,力求突破合乎逻辑与真实的现实观,尝试将现实观念与本能、潜意识与梦的经验相揉合,以展现一种绝对的或超然的真实情景。超现实主义运动以其充满幻想色彩和异国情调的奇特风格,对20世纪美学产生了重要影响。

发展历程

达达主义的准备时期
(1919-1924)
达达主义:一战期间出现的现代派文艺流派,也叫早期超现实主义。领袖是法国诗人斯特里唐·查拉。
最初是从绘画领域开始的,1913年,杜尚把一个自行车座倒置在一张凳子上。被奉为达达的先驱。1919年,杜尚在达·芬奇名画《蒙娜丽莎》的印刷品上为蒙娜丽莎添加了小胡子并重新命名,于是《L.H.O.O.Q》诞生了。
1916年,许多知识分子不愿进入“血腥的屠宰场”而避居瑞士,一位德国作家鲍尔在苏黎世组织了一个“伏尔泰小酒店”俱乐部。2月8日,罗马尼亚人查拉将一把裁纸刀插进一本德法辞典,然后在刀尖所指的那页上随意用“达达”作为流派的称号,Dada,儿语,意思是“马”。用它作为文艺活动的旗号,并无任何意义,又恰恰反映了他们对世界的看法:一切都具有偶然和不可知性,也就是毫无理由、毫无意义。
查拉的宣言给达达的定义“自由:达达、达达、达达,令人抽搐的痛苦的号叫,一切对立物、矛盾、怪诞和不合逻辑的事物的交织,这便是生命”。“让每个人叫喊吧:有一件催毁性的、否定性的伟大工作要完成。清除吧,扫荡吧。”--虚无主义、无政府主义。达达的精神--破坏一切,否定一切,甚至包括达达自身。
法国:布勒东、苏波、阿拉贡号称“三剑客”,1919年3月在巴黎办了一份名为《文学》的杂志,取名文学是种反讽,其宗旨是反对一切文学传统。同年开始接触达达主义。1920年,查拉来巴黎组建了法国的达达主义集团,三人全部加入。在1922年宣布“抛弃达达”。
《第一次宣言》时期
(1924-1929)
1924年布勒东发表第一篇《超现实主义宣言》。以布勒东为首,阿拉贡、艾吕雅、苏波等形成声势浩大的潮流,与达达不同,他们有理论、有奋斗目标、有比较成功的作品。
同年在巴黎格勒奈尔街15号,建立了常设机构“超现实主义研究办公室”,提出以生活本身为原料,欢迎一切追求创新、和现实生活不和谐的人。
同年还创办了机关报《超现实主义革命》杂志,在上流社会眼中是“世界上最无耻的一份杂志”。出版了十年。
传单、小册子,《一具死尸》,讽刺刚去世的法朗士:“随法朗士而去的,是人的一些奴性。让我们把埋藏诡诈、传统主义、爱国主义、机会主义、怀疑主义、现实主义和懦弱的那一天作为节日来欢庆吧。”
逐渐转向法国共产党,比如阿拉贡,内部分裂。
鼎盛时期
(1929-1941)
1929年12月,布勒东《第二次超现实主义宣言》,“纯化超现实主义”。阿拉贡事件,1930年阿拉贡参加苏联举行的第二届国际革命作家代表大会,结果没有捍卫超现实主义路线,导致与布勒东的决裂。
参加西班牙内战。
组织十几个国际超现实主义展览会。
大量作品问世。
被二战打断。
战后时期
(1946-1969)
1947年,布勒东召集巴黎举行的国际超现实主义博览会,重振旗鼓。
拓展为世界现象,延伸到各个领域。
1966年,布勒东去世,让·许斯特接替,1969年宣布解散。
 

人物作品

文学
超现实主义文学宣称在现实世界之外,还有一个所谓“彼岸'世界,即无意识或潜意识的世界,后一世界比前一世界更真实。强调诗人听从潜意识的召唤,写梦境,幻境,事物的巧合,提倡自动写作法,把梦幻和一刹那的潜意识记录下来,达到“纯精神的自动反应”。作品追求神奇,奇特的艺术效果,充满出人意料的形象比喻,有些作品想象丰富新颖,但大多晦涩难懂,语言缺乏逻辑性,规范性。
超现实主义否定现实主义和传统的小说,敌视一切道德传统,认为它是平庸、仇恨的根源,而小说之所以成为文学的宠儿,是因为它适应了读者要求合乎逻辑地反映生活的追求。它要打破这一切,追求“纯精神的自动反应,力图通过这种反应,以口头的、书面的或其他任何形式表达思维的实际功能。它不受理智的任何监督,不考虑任何美学上或道德方面的后果,将这思维记录下来”。超现实主义者在咖啡馆、电影院等公共场所寻找、搜集人的思维的原始状态,并在此基础上进行创作,其代表作是布勒东1928年发表的小说《娜嘉》。20 年代末以后,运动内部发生分裂。1930年布勒东发表《超现实主义第二宣言》,重申了运动的原则:反抗的绝对性、不顺从的彻底性和对规章制度的破坏性。此后运动处于低潮,几乎只剩下勃勒东一个人还在坚持,在第二次世界大战期间流亡美国时,他这种宣传也没有停止过。1946年勃勒东回法国后,继续办杂志,举办作品展览会,发表广播讲话,又掀起过超现实主义运动的浪潮,影响波及欧美许多国家,但其声势已远不及20年代。
超现实主义存在的时间较长,这个流派颇有吸引力和生命力,不少的现代派都受其理论影响并加以发展。
电影
超现实主义电影(surrealist film) 把文学上的超现实主义的创作方法运用于电影创作的电影流派。承袭了这一创作主张的倡导者安德烈-布菜东的原则,强调无理性行为的真实性、梦境的重要意义、不协调的形象对列的情绪力量和对个人快感的执着追求。一度成为二十年代法国先锋派电影的主要倾向,后来又成为美国实验电影和地下电影的重要一翼。在供商业发行的故事片领域,超现实主义不构成独立的流派,它的影响只见于影片的个别镜头或段落。阿杜-基洛的《电影中的超现实主义》是进行这种研究的典型论著。
二十年代,法国先锋派电影人士发现电影的照相本性和蒙太奇对列技巧使它成为超现实主义最理想的表现手段。这一观点始终流行在反传统的影片制作者中间,并被不断付诸实践。 超现实主义电影公然反对叙事体。
通常认为,杜拉克的《贝壳和僧侣》是第一部超现实主义影片,但更受到重视的则是路易斯.布努艾尔的《一条安达鲁狗》和《黄金时代》,前者是一个精神困顿的流浪汉的一连串梦境而后者则是对性欲和爱情的一次弗洛伊德主义的分析。性欲和高潮,暴力和渎神,以及怪异幽默,是超现实主义电影用来与传统电影形式抗衡的题材。影片真正的目的是希望用自由的电影形式,来激发观众潜在心底最深处的冲动。布努艾尔曾宣称《一条安达鲁狗》是“向谋杀热情地呼唤”。西方的电影研究家们一致认为,超现实主义的影响在布努埃尔转而拍摄故事片后仍不时在他的作品中隐现·在实验电影和地下电影中,超现实主义倾向的代表人物是美国玛耶-德连和肯尼斯-安格尔·在故事片领域里,西方电影研究家倾向于把对变态心理、潜在的性冲动、无理性行为等的描写归结为超现实主义在故事片中的表现。因此,象希区柯克的一系列影片:《爱德华大夫》(1945年)、《眩晕》 (1958年)、《西北偏北》(1959年)、《精神变态者》(1962年)和《群鸟》 (1963年),马克斯三兄弟的狂乱喜剧片,以及塞缪尔-富勒、约瑟夫-冯.斯登堡等人的一些影片,都成了阐明超现实主义在故事片中的影响的典型例证。
色彩
如果说现实主义处理色彩是在真实的基础上力求发挥色彩的表意作用的话,那么,超现实主义色彩处理则十分强调主观色彩的运用,只求色彩的表意功能,不再考虑色彩处理的 真实性,超现实主义起源于西方现代派电影。被称为西方现代派电影创始人的意大利著名导演安东尼奥尼在他拍摄的影片《红色沙漠》中,红色、黄色和蓝色是重要的表意色彩,他把工厂的厂房刷成红色和黄色,把树也刷成红色。红色和黄色在西方象征着动荡和恐惧,这里的红色和黄色构成的环境,暗喻现代工业文明正在摧毁着人类。烟囱冒出的黄色烟雾暗示有毒。女主人公朱莉亚娜居住的房间涂上蓝色,暗示精神病患者---朱莉亚娜看到的世界是冷寞无情的,她无法和外界和家人沟通,她的精神世界已经完全崩溃。绿色是象征生命的色彩,在影片中很少看到绿色,暗示被现代工业污染的现代世界一切生命都受利危胁,甚至不能存活。这部影片的色彩处理是超现实主义的,色彩不再是自然景色的真实再现,而是依照作者的主观意愿把色彩作为独立的表意手段。
服装
马丁(Richard Martin)在《时装与超现实主义》一书中对时装与超现实主义联姻的过程有着恰如其份的描述。在1983、1984年间,超现实主义时装获得了全面复兴;1985年,由拉格菲尔德完成了“蛋糕帽”和“安乐棱帽”。今天,超现实主义时装的款式和图案比比皆是。 研究发现,超现实主义画家们最关注的是人体和它的局部。时装也是表现人体,只不过时装遮盖人体多一点而已。作为遮盖人体艺术的时装,设计师们寻找各种方法再现人体的美。圣洛朗推出的金黄胸铠圆满地表达了人体的惊人效果。其实,从心理学角度来看,对女性胸的装饰结果,恰恰强调了装饰里面隐藏的东西。当然,通过某种暗示也能表现人体。1984年卡特巴杰在风衣上绣着一句极富挑逗性的法文:“我没穿裤子”。在超现实主义设计师的眼光里,这也许是给时装下的最确切的定义。虽然,按常理来说未免有点过分。然而,它确实道出了超现实主义时装的内涵。必须承认的是,富有超现实主义意味的时装,色情成份到处可见。我们还发现,超现实主义设计师在相饰上很下功夫。原因是,作为脖子上的戏台--帽子,极易成为人们的视觉中心。
时装与超现实主义艺术虽有相通之处,但其本身有异于超现实主义艺术。时装的超现实性样式的出现主要是作为图解艺术的时装迎合了时装商业。因为通过广告、报刊、美术和摄影,使得超现实主义精神广为流传。其中,设计师和时装评论家的力促也起了关键的作用。
摄影
超现实主义摄影产生于20世纪30年代,受超现实主义文艺思潮和超现实主义绘画影响颇深。超现实主义在今天看来已经成为历史,尤其在中国,超现实主义摄影还没有产生便已经死亡,即使可以出现,也不过是“仿超现实主义摄影”或“ 伪超现实主义摄影”,尽管如此,作为摄影史中的一个重要组成部分,还是有必要去了解它的。
超现实主义摄影作品是很难用文字来诠释的,因为这类作品不是现实经验的记录,要用大家的共同经验去对超现实主义摄影作品作一番评论是一件很吃力的事,也只能从它的句法及主张中去对超现实主义摄影作一可能是牵强附会的理解。
超现实主义摄影既然不以记录现实为己任,那么其作品中的实物自然也不能是它们原本在客观世界中的原意,每一物体都是作为一种视觉图像符号而出现的,超现实主义摄影家用这些符号作词汇来造“影像句子”,而且这种“影像句子”很难能翻译成“语言句子”,这种句子中也往往会蕴含一种情绪、一缕诗情、一些感性和些许的政治意味,这些隐含的意味也正是超现实主义作品的艺术魅力所在。
超现实主义源于达达主义其箴识:改变世界、消除战争和疾病,让自由、原始的爱以及内心的自发萌动和梦境来诠释永恒,事实上,超现实主义早在1966年伴随安德尔·布雷登的逝世而消逝,之后“超现实主义”一再被滥用和误用,被冠以“新超现实主义”和“新立体主义”之名,实在有些可怕。

 

English Introductio

Surrealism (surrealism), to explore the theoretical basis of this faction is the impact of Floyd's psychoanalysis, committed to the discovery of human subconscious mind. Therefore, we should give up the realistic image based on the logical and ordered experience and memory, and present the image world of human's deep psychology. Note: Surrealism can not be confused with super realism, surrealism, also known as the doctrine of photography, is one of the most popular bourgeois art schools in the United States in 70s.
Generating background
After the first World War in France and the rise of the field of literature and art in the field of traditional culture of the traditional culture of the rebel movement, the impact of other countries in Europe and the United states. Its content is not limited to literature, but also involves painting, music and other arts. It puts forward the problems such as the source of creation, the method of creation, the purpose of creation, and the social problems of the capitalist social system and people's living conditions. The Surrealist claims to be a "spiritual revolution."". The movement was initiated by a group of French youths who participated in the first World War. They saw the absurdity and destruction of the war, and had doubts about the ideals, culture and morality of the core of reason. The old faith lost its charm and needed a new ideal to replace it. Surrealism is their attempt to explore the road.
Super realism paved the way for modern literature. Surrealism as a literary genre, the actual existence of the time is not very long, as a literary trend of thought, as an aesthetic point of view, its impact is far-reaching. The purpose of the Surrealist is to leave the reality, return to the original, deny the role of reason, emphasize people's subconscious or unconscious activities. The French philosopher Bergson's intuitionism of subjective idealism and the spirit of Austria pathologist Freud "subconscious" theory lay a philosophical and theoretical basis of surrealism.
Super realism literary thought, reflects the first World War in Europe after the bourgeois young generation of realistic fear and restless and wild spirit. In the Surrealist group, East Su Bo, writer's Chala, painter Arp, Masson and so on. Some of the writers, such as Louis Aragon and Paul Aruja, who were later turned to the progressive literary front, were influenced by the proletarian revolutionary movement. After the Second World War, the super realism in the United States come into fashion, the emergence of the so-called "new surrealism" genre, an imperialist's propaganda tool.
The literary function of surrealism. In 1921, Britten and co-author of the "magnetic field" Su Bo, surrealism first experimental work, first proposed the unconscious writing and automatic writing problems. But the typical surrealist works produced after 1924, such as the East's novel "dissolved") and "1924 fish" (1928) nadje is representative of surrealism as. In 1926, Eluard published a collection of essays, "the peasants of Paris", the book of poetry, "the city of pain" and "the inside story of life", all of which belong to the works of surrealism in the works of Aragon.
History

Dada, France has a modern art in the history of the most influential school of surrealism, Dadaism and from this school, but in fact this time makes a clear distinction between the two schools, it is difficult. Because of its evolution process and no clear in the plastic arts. However, if the nature of the dada spirit and surrealism as the same, it is a fallacy. Although the dada became a hotbed of surrealism was born, but many still bear the Surrealist romanticism and symbolism of the nineteenth Century legacy, in addition to absorb new elements. Today, we talk about the era of surrealism, are based on the publication of the declaration of time to distinguish between the works of art can not be produced on the correct description of the age. In theory, the initiator of surrealist art movement is the two writers, Britten and apoilinaire. The word "surrealism" was first used by the poet Apollinaire, a philosophical term originally called "supernatural," which was later used in painting. In 1924, Britten published the first surrealist manifesto, published in 1928, the foundation of an important thesis of "super realism painting" and its thought is to seek the liberation of human imagination. Bleton's definition of surrealism is "surrealism". The doctrine of pure spirit, which attempts to apply this doctrine to express the true thought process in spoken language or in any other way. It is the record of thought, not controlled by reason, and does not depend on any aesthetic or moral prejudice." Bleton added: "I believe that the two states, which are thought to be contradictory on the surface, will be solved in the future. It can be said to be an absolute reality, it can be said to be a kind of surreal." It can be seen from this statement that surrealism is the unity of the pursuit of dreams and reality, and is the scope of the human as the object of expression. Bleton in the article asking people to pay attention to those artists possible relationship and literary surrealism, including Matisse, Teresa, Black and Picasso. In fact, the painter does not accord with the definition of the Britten Surrealism: automatic pure psychology. But Kirico, another painter he admired, was probably the first surrealist painter. Kirico from 1911 to 1915 has been living in Paris, his paintings are appreciated by Apollinaire Apollinaire in 1918, wrote the script "Thierry West" breast dubbed "super realism drama" subtitle, the earliest use of "surrealism" this term, he valued for Kirico is obviously aware of the spirit and heart Kirico painted the kind of transcendent performance.
The greatest revelation to surrealism is the theory of psychoanalysis and the theory of subconscious psychology by Professor Freud, a professor of psychiatry at University of Vienna in Austria. On the whole, surrealism, as an art movement, is closely related to Freud's psychoanalysis. The spirit and thought leader Britten surrealism had medical experience, he read the work of Freud, immediately to the association between psychoanalysis and the unconscious expression of dada. Psychoanalysis focuses on the analysis of dreams, fantasies, and hallucinations, and induces daydreaming as a possible method of artistic creation. According to this research and engaged in a conscious dream world, as opposed to naturalism, not subject to the disposal of instinct and imagination, depicting surreal themes, performance is more real than the real world, more significant than the representation of the real world, the realm of imagination in the dream world.
The painter who cited Arp, Irons, Daly, Miro, Masson, Kirico, Chagall, Magritte, tanki krno, etc.. They Yibuliedun "automatic, unconscious automatic function (Automatisme) and fantasy world of mining for" creation, also by the philosopher Bergson (HBergson) effect in thought for two yuan to break the heart of the universe, the establishment of a unified metaphysics, so they show any dream and imagination a lot of strange, people can not understand the deformation and line. Their creative activities are arranged freely in a world of time and space, and they are not bound by space and time. However, if you use this visual image by explaining the surrealism drawing, but also one of the main style of surrealism painting, namely Daly, Margaret, as the representative of the style of deerwo. This style is characterized by fine detail, creating an illusion and a dream picture through the image and scene that can be identified. It is the source of art Rousseau, Chagall, Seoul, thinking and the nineteenth Century romantic chirico. It attempts to use the definition of Freud to create an image that is not controlled by consciousness and reason.However, the process of painting is actually a rational process which is not the same as that of realistic painting. Therefore, this kind of style is also called naturalism surrealism and classical surrealism. Another surrealist painting is by Milo, Ma song et al as the representative, unconscious of their pursuit of painting process, resulting in pure mental dominance images on the screen, the end result is always full of illusion and a life form abstraction. Therefore, it is also known as organic surrealism or absolute surrealism, chance this tendency and dada and some futurists in connection with the unconscious behavior test.
Since Britten developed in 1924 after the declaration was held in Paris in June 1925 for the first time the surrealist art exhibition, the participants included Picasso, Appleton and Klee et al., they are obviously not the true sense of the surrealist painter, only Ernst with surrealism in his dada collage in the first attempt of the works. In 1926 the Surrealist organized the Surrealist gallery. In 1936 and in the year of 1947, they held important exhibitions in London and Paris. Once the popularity of Europe, although the upsurge of surrealism in 30s after the decline, but the movement and disappeared, and in the second world war still has a certain impact. Because of the great number of painters from Paris to the United States before the two World War, the surrealist painting from Europe to the new world. In addition, its influence to the field of drama, stage decoration, photography, film, architecture, sculpture and other art.
Surrealism is devoted to the exploration of human experience prior level, and strive to break through the realistic logic and realistic view, try to be practical ideas and instinct, the unconscious and dream experiences together, to show a real scene absolute or transcendent. The Surrealist movement, which is full of fantasy and exotic style, has an important influence on the aesthetics of the twentieth Century.

English Introductio

Dada preparation period
(1919-1924)
Dada: a war during the period of modern literature and art school, also called early surrealism. Strita Chala, French poet.
Originally started in the field of painting, in 1913, Duchamp put a bicycle seat upside down on a stool. Is regarded as the pioneer of dada. In 1919, Duchamp in print Da Finch's "Monalisa" on the Monalisa add a moustache and re named "L.H.O.O.Q" was born, so.
In 1916, a group of intellectuals who did not want to enter the "bloody slaughterhouse" and left Switzerland, a German writer, Bauer, organized a "little hotel" in Zurich. In February 8th, the Romanian check will pull a knife inserted into a bend of, and then referred to in the tip of the page that use "dada" as a genre of the title, Dada, language, meaning "horse". The use of it as the banner of literary and artistic activities, there is no meaning, but also reflects their view of the world: everything has the occasional and unknowable, that is no reason, no meaning.
Chala declaration to the definition of freedom: "dada dada, dada, dada, a convulsive pain howl, all opposites, interwoven contradictions, bizarre and illogical things, this is life". "Let everyone shout: there's a great, destructive, great work to be done. It's clear, mopping up." - nihilism and anarchism. Dada spirit - destroy everything, denying everything, even their own people.
France: Breton, Aragon, Su Bo is known as "the Three Musketeers", in March 1919 to do a "literary magazine" in Paris, the name is a kind of literary irony, its purpose is to oppose all literary tradition. The same year contact dada. 1920, check to pull Paris formed a French dada group, all three people join. In 1922 announced the "abandoned dada".
The first declaration of the period
(1924-1929)
In 1924, Breton published the first "surrealist Manifesto". Headed by Breton, Aragon, Eluard and Su Bo formed the trend of dada and great in strength and impetus, they have different theories, goals, the more successful works.
In the same year, Paris's No. 15 Nair street, established a permanent establishment "surreal Research Office", put forward to the life itself as raw materials, welcome all the pursuit of innovation, and real life harmony.
In the same year, he also founded the newspaper "surrealist revolution" magazine, in the eyes of the upper class is "the world's most shameless magazine". Published for ten years.
Leaflets, brochures, "dead", ironically just died: "with France and France, some people's servility. Let's bury deceit, tradition, patriotism, opportunism, doubt that day and realism and cowardice as a festival to celebrate."
Gradually turned to the French Communist Party, such as Aragon, the internal split.
Peak period
(1929-1941)
In December 1929, Breton "the second surrealist Manifesto", "purification surrealism". Aragon, Aragon in 1930 in the Soviet Union at the second International Congress of the revolutionary writers, not to defend surrealism and lead to Breton's break line.
To participate in the Spanish Civil war.
More than a dozen international surrealist exhibition.
A large number of works come out.
Interrupted by World War ii.
postwar period
(1946-1969)
In 1947, Breton called the Paris international surrealist Fair held at the rally.
Expand into the world phenomenon, extend to various fields.
In 1966, Breton died, replaced by Jean Hust, announced the dissolution in 1969.

literature
Beyond the real world, there is a so-called "the other side" of the world, that is, the unconscious or subconscious world. Listen to the call of the poet emphasizes the subconscious, writing dreams, fantasy, what a coincidence, advocate automatic writing, the dream and the moment of subconscious record, achieve "automatic reaction of pure spirit". The pursuit of magic works, strange artistic effects, full of unexpected image metaphor, some works of imagination, rich and novel, but most obscure, the language is lack of logic, normative.
Super realism denies the realism and traditional novels, all hostile moral tradition, that it is the root of mediocrity, hatred, and novels have become the darling of the literature, because it is adapted to the requirements of the readers reflect the logical pursuit of life. It is to break all of this, the pursuit of "pure spirit of the automatic response, trying to respond to this, in oral, written or any other form of the actual function of thinking. It is not subject to any supervision of the mind, and does not take into account any aesthetic or moral consequences, which will be recorded". The Surrealists in cafes, cinemas and other public places to find, collect people's thinking of the original state, and on the basis of creation, its representative is Breton in 1928 he published the novel "fine". After the end of the 20s, the movement split. In 1930, Breton published the second Manifesto of surrealism, reaffirming the principles of movement: the absoluteness of resistance, the thoroughness of disobedience and the destruction of rules and regulations. Then the movement is at a low ebb, almost only one person Bole still persist in exile in the United States during the Second World War, he has not stopped the propaganda. In 1946 Breton had back in France, continue to do the magazine, organized exhibition, broadcast, and set off the Surrealist movement, affecting many countries in Europe, but the momentum is far less than in 20s.
Surrealism existence time is longer, the genre is quite attractive and vitality, many modern theory under its influence and development.
Film
Film (surrealist) to the literary creation of the Surrealist approach used in the film creation of the genre. From this creation advocate Andre serving East principle, emphasize the irrational behavior of the authenticity of the dream and the significance, not coordinated image of the column of personal emotional strength and the pursuit of pleasure. It was the main trend of the French avant-garde film in 20s, and later became an important wing of American experimental films and underground films. In the field of film for commercial release, surrealism does not constitute an independent genre, its impact is only seen in the film's individual lens or paragraph. Adu's in the movie "kilo surrealism" is a typical work in this study.
In 20s, the French avant-garde film who found the movie camera and montage of nature column technique make it become the ideal means of surrealism. This view has always been popular among the anti traditional filmmakers, and has been put into practice. Surrealist films defy narrative.
Generally, the "Dulake" is the first monk shells and surrealist film, but more attention is Lewis. Bunuel's "an Andalusian dog" and "golden age", the former is a series of dreams of a spirit of hardship tramps, while the latter is the analysis of sexual desire and love one Freud doctrine. Sexual violence and profanity, and climax, and weird humor, is a surrealist film used to compete with the traditional form of movie themes. The real purpose of the film is to use the free form of the film, to stimulate the audience's deepest potential heart impulse. Bunuel once declared that "an Andalusian dog" is called "enthusiastically to the murder". The movie western researchers agree that the influence of surrealism in Bunuel turned to the story still in his works in the looming experimental film and underground film, representative of surrealism in the United States - deljan Maya and Kenneth Angell in the film field, Film Studies in the West tend to take on abnormal psychology, the potential sexual impulse, irrational behavior description attributed to the surreal story in the performance. Therefore, a series of films like Hitchcock: "doctor Edward" (1945), "vertigo" (1958), "north by Northwest" (1959), "psychopath" (1962) and "birds" (1963), frantic comedy three brothers Marx, Samuel and Fuller, Joseph von. Some films Sternberg et al, has become a typical example to elucidate the influence of surrealism in the story.
color

If the realistic color is to play the role of ideographic processing on the basis of real color words, then, using the super realism processing emphasizes the subjective color, but the color of the ideographic function, no longer consider true color processing, surrealism originated from western modern movies. Known as the founder of modern western film Italy famous director Antonioni in his film "red desert", red, yellow and blue are the important expressive color, he put the factory building painted red and yellow, the tree also painted red. Red and yellow in the West symbolizes the turmoil and fear, here the red and yellow of the environment, metaphor of modern industrial civilization is destroying mankind. The yellow smoke from the chimney is poisonous. The heroine Giuliana living room painted blue, suggesting that mental illness - Giuliana see the world is cold and heartless, she cannot outside and family communication, her spiritual world has collapsed. Green is a symbol of the color of life, rarely seen in the film green, suggesting that the modern industrial pollution of the modern world, all life is threatened, and even can not survive. Color of this film is surreal, color is no longer true reproduction of natural scenery, but according to the author's subjective wishes to color as an independent means of expression.
clothing
Martin (Richard Martin) process of marriage of fashion and surrealism in "fashion and surrealism" a book with appropriate description. In 1983, 1984 years, surreal fashion won the Renaissance; by 1985, Lagerfeld completed the "cake cap" and "an edge cap". Today, the fashion and style of surrealism. The study found that the Surrealist painters were most concerned about the human body and its parts. Fashion is also the performance of the human body, but only a little more than the human body mask. As a cover for the art of human body fashion, designers are looking for ways to reproduce the beauty of the human body. The golden breastplate round launched Montreal express Laurent amazing effects of human. In fact, from a psychological point of view, the results of the decoration of the female chest, just stressed the decoration inside the hidden things. Of course, the human body can be expressed by some kind of suggestion. In 1984 Carter Baji with a highly provocative coat in French: "I didn't wear pants". In the eyes of surrealist designers, this may be the most accurate definition of fashion. Although, according to common sense is a bit too much. It does, however, suggest the connotation of surrealism. It must be admitted that, in the fashion of surrealism, pornography is everywhere. We have also found that surrealist designers work very hard on the decoration. The reason is that as the neck stage - hat, extremely easy to become the center of people's vision.
Although there are similarities between fashion and surrealism, they are different from surrealism art. The emergence of the surreal style of fashion mainly caters to fashion business as a graphic art. Because through advertising, newspapers, art and photography, the super realism spirit spread. Among them, urged designers and fashion critics also played a key role.
Photography
The surreal photography was produced in 1930s, which was deeply influenced by surrealism literature and art thought and surrealism painting. Surrealism today has become history, especially in China, surrealism photography has not produced is dead, even if can appear, but is also the "imitation of surrealism photography" or "pseudo surrealism photography", however, as an important part in the history of photography, or it is necessary to understand.
Surreal photography is very difficult to explain in words, because this kind of work is not real experience records, with common experience of everyone's going to make a comment on the surreal photography is a very difficult thing, only from the syntax and the claim of it in a may be far fetched the understanding of surrealism photography.
Surrealism photography since not to record the real mission, so it works in real nature is not their original intention in the objective world, every body appears as a visual image of the symbol, surrealist photographer these symbols to make the image vocabulary and the sentence "." it is difficult to image the sentence "can be translated into" language sentences ", this sentence often contains a mood, a wisp of poetry, some perceptual and some political meaning, the implied meaning is surreal art charm.
Super realism from Dadaism the pro knowledge: to change the world and eliminate war and disease, let freedom, original love and spontaneous sprout and dream interpretation of eternity, in fact, surrealism in early 1966 with Andel Braden's death and dies, after "surreal" repeatedly abused and misuse, known as the "new super realism" and "Cubism", some really terrible.

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