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吴门画派

 吴门画派,是中国明代中期的绘画派别,亦称"吴派"。因苏州为古吴都城,有吴门之谓,而其主要代表人物如沈周、文徵明、唐寅、仇英、张宏等名家,均属吴郡(今苏州)人,故名。

  • 国籍中国
  • 代表作品《落霞孤鹜图》《西山爽气图》
  • 地区吴郡(今苏州)
  • 代表人物 沈周、唐寅、文徵明、仇英、张宏
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日前,北京保利十周年秋季拍卖会经过5天共52个专场的拍卖,以29.5亿元的总成交额落槌,连续第16次在国内大型艺术品拍卖会中列成交额榜首。其中,齐白石《“叶隐闻...
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简介

 在吴门派崛起之前的明代初期,江南苏州、无锡地区已经有一批画家,如杜琼刘珏陈汝言、徐贲、陈暹等人,他们大都擅长诗文,有较高的文学修养。绘画上主要继承元代黄公望王蒙传统,创作以笔情墨趣为主的文人画。他们的艺术给吴门派的开宗人沈周以直接或间接影响,故可称为这一画派的前驱。由于当时受皇室赏识的宫廷院体绘画以及别具一格的浙派称雄画坛,杜琼等人的作品没有得到社会的广泛注意,他们的主要活动为文学创作,故未自成派系。吴派中后期经济空前繁荣,赏画成为人们生活的一部分,画家的地位进一步提高,带有浓厚生活气息的作品出现在画坛,形成新的面貌。代表人物有文嘉、仇珠、周之冕陈淳张宏等名家。风格迥异,精彩纷呈,为吴门画派注入了新的活力。

 

宣德(1426~1435)年间,苏州诞生了吴门派开宗大师沈周,继起者有文徵明唐寅仇英张宏,他们在艺术上较全面地继承了宋元以来的优秀传统,并形成各自的独特风格,开创一代新风,取代院体和浙派而占据画坛主位,历时150多年。画史将沈、文、唐、仇并称为吴门四家或明四家,为吴门派的代表画家。这4位画家虽同时崛起于苏州,但风格迥异,各有师承。沈周因家学渊源,并受杜琼等前辈熏陶,主要承元代文人画衣钵,以简练浑厚、苍劲雄健的粗笔画见长。文徵明从学沈周,并吸取赵孟頫、王蒙画法,以缜密工致、文静清秀古雅的细笔画著称。他们两人主要发展了元代文人画传统,注重笔墨表现,强调感情色彩和幽淡的意境,追求平淡自然、恬静平和的格调,其画风奠定了吴门派的基调。唐寅是位落魄文人,与文徵明同为沈周学生,但也从学于周臣;他的山水画主要师承李唐刘松年,并适当融汇文人画技法,形成笔法挺健细秀,墨色淋漓融和、风格谨严而清逸的艺术特色。仇英出身工匠,初学周臣,后悉心临摹历代名迹,尤着力于刘松年赵伯驹,善作精细鲜丽的青绿山水和工笔人物。唐、仇两人均从南宋院体绘画入手,并远追北宋名家,重视主题、结构,讲究真景实感,造型准确,笔墨谨严,风格柔韵雅秀,其艺术行利兼备,雅俗共赏。

山水画成就

 吴门派在山水画上成就突出,无论对元四家或南宋院体绘画,都有新的突破。在人物画和花卉画方面也各有建树,除仇英外,另外3人尤其注重诗、书、画的有机结合,使文人画的这一优良传统更臻完美、普遍,有力地影响了明代后期直至清初画坛。吴门派形成后,其派系世代相传,绵延不断,其中文徵明的学生和子孙即达30多人。在吴门派后期画家中,著名的有陈淳陆治钱谷、陆师道、周天球等人,其中不少人在某些领域有新的发展。如陈淳发展了水墨写意花卉画,周之冕创造了钩花点叶的小写意花鸟画法,陆治以工整妍丽的花鸟画著称于世。另外,谢时臣的粗笔山水,尤求的白描人物,周天球的水墨兰石,均别开生面。

 

吴门派绘画对明末清初重要画派的影响也很大,以董其昌为主的松江派,以及后来派生的苏松派、云间派等,都与吴门派有一脉相承的关系。

 

南宋以来长江下游的经济和文化不断发展,渐居全国先进地位。位于长江三角洲太湖流域一带的苏州地区农业和手工业繁荣,交通便利,商品经济活跃。由于长江入海口淤积,明代海外贸易的中心从扬州下移到太仓和松江一带,生产变化首先在这一地区萌发。江南科举之风炽盛,文人宦游返归故里,携回巨量金钱财货,促成了苏州地区的富庶和繁华。苏州地区文化艺术发展,出现了不少学术思想和文学艺术卓有成就人物。在炽盛文风的熏陶下,官僚文人大量贮藏法书名画、古玩器物和珍本书籍,营建私家园林,讲究饮食服饰器用。明代中期在苏州地区形成"吴门画派",标志文人画走向极盛的阶段。

简史

 "吴门画派"简称"吴派",一般认为始于沈周,成于文徵明,加上唐寅仇英,是为"吴门四家"或称"明四家"。明代中期以后"吴派"逐渐取代宫廷绘画和"浙派"的地位,在社会上、尤其是在文人士大夫当中受到重现。

 

沈周(公元1427-1509年)出身富于收藏的士大夫世家。年轻时沈周便接受家庭亲友前辈的教育熏陶,培养出了深厚的文学艺术才能。沈周一生不仕,曾游历太湖流域各地。他具有多方面的艺术修养,诗文书画都有很高造诣。沈周画法主要取法元人黄公望吴镇等人,上溯董源巨然及北宋诸家。早年多作盈尺小景,具有沉酣深厚的意趣,亦作细笔或青绿山水。作品大多反映画家对大自然真切而生动的感受,反映出画家开阔的胸襟、丰富的想象力。沈周以80岁高龄去世,在漫长的艺术生涯中创作了大量作品,影响巨大,成为"吴派"的开创人物。

 

《庐山高图》是沈周41岁时为老师陈宽祝寿之作。陈宽祖籍江西,沈周用庐山象征老师的崇高人格,实际是画家思想境界的体现。画家采用王蒙的笔法,以高度的想象与技巧,集中表现出了这一雄伟瑰丽的名山形象。近景的坡头上有一人迎瀑布而立,比例极小,却引人注目。画上题诗气势豪宕,思潮驰骋,感情奔放,把老师的人品学识与宏伟的自然景象结合,具有感人的艺术效果。题诗充分表现画家追求的理想境界。

 

《夜坐图》表现出画家在失眠的夜晚感受、思考问题的情景。山间临溪瓦屋数间,疏树数株,一人当庭对烛端坐胡床上,夜色依稀可见,令观者产生种种遐想与回忆。画上有长篇题记《夜坐记》,文章与图画情景相映,抒发作者情怀。

 

沈周的画作描绘江南一带佳景胜迹的卷、轴、册页占有相当的比重。如他为老师杜琼画的《东原图卷》,为他的朋友吴宽画的《东庄图》册,为他的亲家徐有贞画的《桂花书屋图》轴等,都是苏州当地的景色,真实、质朴,抒发出细腻的情感。

 

《三桧图》是沈周的传世名作,画江苏常熟虞山致道现里的三株古桧。桧树原有七株,传为南朝宋梁年间所植,明代仅余三株,经历千余年的风霜寒暑刀兵雷火,老态龙钟仍保持旺盛的生命活力。沈周画三株老干虬枝各具姿态,题诗歌咏将它们作为坚忍不拔、永恒不衰的生命来描绘和礼赞。沈周为写意花鸟画的发展也作出了贡献,花鸟蔬果大幅和小册画作不少保存至今。

 

文徵明(公元1470-1559年)是苏州地区文坛画界继沈周而起的领袖人物。他出身官宦之家,富有文学才能和书法才能,是明代的书法大家之一。早年文徵明曾多次参加科举考试,未被录取,不再求仕进,致力诗文书画艺术创作。54岁时他被荐进京,感官场的黑暗和仕途险恶,后以足疾为由上疏求退,返回苏州,专力于诗文书画。文徵明一生过着平静优裕的

 

风雅名士生活,主要精力从事艺术活动,作品表现文雅幽静的审美情趣。文徵明比沈周的年寿更长,作品数量多,流传广。他晚年名望极高,家人子弟、门生私淑众多,大多也以诗画得名于当时。文徵明绘画师承沈周,但对他的绘画艺术影响最深却是元代画家,尤其是赵孟頫的艺术。他的小青绿山水、室宇人物和墨笔古木竹石,明显从赵孟頫画法变化发展而来,萧疏幽

 

淡的情调,层层叠叠而不重纵深关系的布局,山顶平台,浓密的叶苔小点,棱角清楚的矾头等具有特色的画法,与黄公望王蒙倪瓒的绘画有着一定的继承关系。文徵明的绘画创作以山水为主,画法有工细与粗率两种,工细的作品为多,其中又有着色与不着色之分,题材内容大体可分为临仿前人或描绘具体环境景物等。山水画《江南春》为画家78岁作,是一件极成功的作品。画面近景为数株清瘦乔木,刚刚吐出新芽,中景洲头已是桃红柳绿,淡淡远山,辽阔平静的湖面,表现出江南水乡春色明媚秀美的风光。构图平稳,造型疏秀,用笔设色轻淡柔和,显示出文徵明绘画艺术特有的风格和情调。画的是江南春景,更展现人的感情,表现的自然景色便是当时江南文人士大夫的生活环境。

 

《春深高树图》等作品表现文人墨客的风雅生活,体现出画家的精神面貌和生活理想,有着鲜明的个人风格特色。笔致工细带有拙味,色调柔和而含冷涩,山石倚斜,林木繁细,作品追求宁静典雅而朴拙的情趣,画家在常见的平淡景物和文人的日常生活中发掘动人的含蓄内在的美。《真赏斋图》存有两卷,为画家80岁和88岁所作。绘画均以工笔设色来描绘好友、居住无锡的著名收藏家华夏的书斋,图卷前景院落布置玲珑剔透的湖石,四周是参天的松桧,主人和来访的朋友正在书斋鉴赏书画古物,卷末画竹林茂密,湖水小桥,环境幽雅宜人,卷后有《真赏斋铭》为画家晚年楷书精品。

 

以《古木寒泉图》、《溪桥策杖图》、《寒原宿莽图》等作品为代表的粗笔水墨山水显示文徵明绘画的另一种风格。《古木寒泉图》是画家80岁时作品,窄长的立幅画出矗立的松柏,映衬后面山涧直泻而下的飞瀑,在下方汇成流泉,意境清幽,气势雄放而不失雅静,属于不多见的"粗文"一体。对比常见的文徵明细笔山水,此图予人以面目一新之感。文徵明的人物画颇具特色,《湘君湘夫人图》是他46岁时所作。画家以高古的笔墨和造型塑造屈原《九歌》中两位女神的形象,游丝般的线描高简流畅,人物用朱色傅染,顾盼呼应和缓缓行进的动态,溢露出真挚细腻的感情色彩,显示画家对于迥出时流高雅格调的追求。文徵明画花卉以兰竹为主,"以风意画兰。以雨意画竹",所作墨兰潇洒飘逸,世人名之曰"文兰"。

 

唐寅(公元1470一1523年)出生苏州城内的酒肆商人家庭。天资聪颖,少年时便有才名。30岁以前读书求知,热衷功名仕进。他参加南京应天府乡试,高中第一名解元,赴京考试时却被卷入"科场行贿案",蒙受牵连遭到革黜。遭受到这一打击唐寅仕途无望,乃游历名山大川,之后回到苏州从事诗文书画创作,依靠卖画度日,生活作风更加放荡不羁。他在图章中自题"南京解元"、"江南第一风流才子",流露出对功名利禄的鄙薄和对封建礼教的嘲弄。唐寅的性格行为与文徵明不同,坎坷的遭遇使他的诗文书画流露出傲岸不平之气。他还试图从佛学寻求痛苦心情的解脱。

 

唐寅擅长画山水人物,写意花鸟绘画也有独到之处,全面的绘画功力为许多吴门画家所不及。《山路松声图》、《落霞孤鹜图》、《春山伴侣图》、《西洲话旧图》、《古木幽篁图》等作品具有唐寅个人的风格特色。人物画除表现文人雅士外,大量以仕女为题材,一些表现歌伎生活的作品占有相当比重。《李端端乞诗图》和《陶谷赠词图》描绘文人墨客与歌伎间有违名教礼法的风流韵事,大胆向封建礼教挑战。唐寅的人物画有白描、设色,也有精致的工笔重彩。《孟蜀宫伎图》是唐寅仕女画代表之作。《秋风纨扇图》用水墨画秋风中一女子执纨扇面露悲戚之情,题诗:"秋来纨扇合收藏,何事佳人重感伤。请把世情详细看,大都谁不逐炎凉",对社会下层妇女寄予深刻的同情,讽刺世态炎凉的社会风气,思想内涵超过前人作品借纨扇隐喻妇女遭受遗弃的"宫怨"图画。

 

唐寅作写意花鸟画取材较文徵明广阔,现存的《枯槎图》、《临水芙蓉图》、《梅花图》、《雨竹图》、《罂粟花图》(扇面)等作品,以水墨提炼形象。画家为中国花鸟画的发展作出了贡献。

 

仇英(公元1502-1552年)出身低甚微,尝执事丹青",有说他曾做过漆工。他结识文人士大夫名流,受到文人画的熏陶,画风注入了雅致的文人气息。明代江南地区书画鉴藏风气极盛,装池、修补、鉴定及副本的摹绘日益考究,仇英便是临摹古画的高手。他所临摹的仕女画"发翠毫金,丝丹缕素,精丽艳逸,无惭古人"。仇英摹绘不少古代作品,留下许多尺幅巨大、艺术精美的副本。

 

仇英是一位精力出众、勤奋惊人的画家。他的年寿并不长,作品的数量却很大,其中有不少是繁复而工致的长轴大卷,如:《兰亭修 图》、《蛮夷职贡图》、《 阳琵琶图》、《金谷园图》等,均是须经年累月方可完工的钜制,这些作品却像是在精力充沛、思想专注的情况下一气呵成,无一处有懈滞之感。他的《剑阁图》描绘四川险峻的栈道,山石用青绿,人物施重彩,山峦高耸,栈道迂回,白雪皑皑,表现出"蜀道难"的艰困情景。画雪景一般用水墨拓出,此幅则用重彩赋色,雪意充足,当为仇英的精心之作。《秋原猎骑图》可以看出仇英画鞍马人物的才能,画中游牧民族和马匹造型生动准确,作风严谨而毫无板滞之感。人物画中有的近乎唐寅的水墨一体,如《蕉阴结夏图》、《羲之书扇图》等,笔墨流畅,风韵雅逸,与绘画题材特定的内容相适应,显示出画家多方面的才华。

 

仇英的人物画,形象生动优美,具有明显的时代特色,体现了那一时代的审美理想,虽不及唐宋绘画那样丰满健硕,充满活力,但也没有后世的那种松弛贫乏、弱不胜风的病态。唐寅将南宋院体山水人物画从内容到笔墨都融入文人意趣,仇英则把工笔重彩和青绿山水画加以雅化,精美严整之中透射出古雅之美。他们的绘画具有高超造型能力和严谨的画风的职业画家"作家"习气和反映士大夫艺术趣味的"士气"兼备,反映出中国社会进入明清时代文化艺术雅俗的变化。通过唐寅和仇英等画家不断的艺术实践和大胆的艺术创造,使文人画创作适应时代的变化,走上"雅俗共赏"、"文质相兼"的发展道路。

 

张宏(公元1577年-1668年后)字君度,号鹤涧,明代著名画家,江苏苏州人。善画山水,重写生,笔力峭拔、墨色湿润、层峦叠嶂、秋壑深邃、有元人古意;他画石面连皴带染为其特色(《明画录》记载)。曾师事石田翁,并超越之。又能画写意人物,形神俱佳,散聚得宜,是明末吴门画坛的中坚人物。张宏既是一位出色的文人画家,同时又具备职业画家的高超画技与敬业精神,作画一丝不苟,非精品而不出。为后人所敬仰,吴中学者尊崇之。他的绘画继承了吴门画派的风格和特色,在写生的基础上搞创作,师自然造化,悟出了绘画的真谛,在画中体现出超凡脱俗的精神境界,使原本呆板的山水画活了起来。他的画作整个画面看起来深远高逸,山石坚硬敲击有声,流水清澈涓涓而下,为书画注入了灵性,使人身临其境,恍若隔世。

 

张宏的代表作有《阊关舟阻图》

《杂技游戏图》《浮岚暖翠图》《句曲松风图》《西山爽气图》《栖霞山图》《石屑山图》《越中十景》《村径柴门图》《止园》《华子冈图、《兰亭雅集图》《琳宫晴雪图》《寒山萧寺图》《牧牛图》《桐萌高士图》《击缶图》《延陵挂剑图》等。他的作品大部分都被珍藏在国内外各大博物馆中。所绘"布袋罗汉像",颇富写意,天然入格。台北故宫博物院将《布袋罗汉图》设计在了邮票上,以故宫博物院推荐的宋、明四位画家张宏、晁补之、王问梁楷所绘的四幅人物古画为题材,印制邮票一组。《西山爽气图》被教委编入高二地理限选新教材,当做古代文人画的范例。《杂技游戏图》反映了明朝社会风貌,被称为明代的清明上河图。《击缶图》乃古代缶的历史原型,有珍贵的史料价值。

 

"吴门画派"是一个既有文人画家,又有职业画家的群体,它的出现,既振兴了文人画,又规范了"浙派"末流技法粗陋之习,推动了明代绘画深入发展。

English Introduction

 brief introduction

In the early Ming Dynasty before the rise of Wumen School, there were already a group of painters in Suzhou and Wuxi of Jiangnan, such as Du Qiong, Liu Juan, Chen Ruyan, Xu Bi and Chen Sheng. Most of them were good at poetry and had a high literary accomplishment. Painting mainly inherited the traditions of Huang Gongwang and Wang Meng in Yuan Dynasty, and created literati paintings with brush and ink as the main interest. Their art directly or indirectly influenced Shen Zhou, the founder of Wumen School, so they can be called the forerunner of this school. Du Qiong's works were not widely noticed by the society because of the Royal appreciation of court style painting and the unique Zhejiang School's dominant painting circle. Their main activities were literary creation, so they did not form their own factions. In the middle and late period of Wu School, the economy was unprecedented prosperity. Appreciation of paintings became a part of people's life. The status of painters was further improved. Works with a strong flavor of life appeared in the painting circle, forming a new look. The representatives are Wenjia, Qiuzhu, Zhou Zhimian, Chen Chun and Zhanghong. Different styles and splendid colors have injected new vitality into the Wumen School of Painting.

During Xuande's (1426-1435) years, Shen Zhou, the founding master of Wumen School, was born in Suzhou. His successors were Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin, Qiu Ying and Zhang Hong. They inherited the fine traditions since Song and Yuan Dynasty in a more comprehensive way and formed their own unique styles. They created a new generation of styles, replaced the academy and Zhejiang School and occupied the leading position in the art circle for 150 years. Many years. In the history of painting, Shen, Wen, Tang and Qiu were called the Four Schools of Wumen or the Four Schools of Ming Dynasty, and they were the representative painters of Wumen School. Although these four painters rose up in Suzhou at the same time, their styles are quite different and each has its own inheritance. Shen Zhou was influenced by Du Qiong and other predecessors because of his family background. He mainly inherited the paintings of literati in Yuan Dynasty. He was good at concise, vigorous and vigorous rough brush painting. Wen Zhengming learned from Shen Zhou and absorbed Zhao Mengfu and Wang Meng's painting methods. He was famous for his meticulous, quiet, elegant and fine brushwork. They mainly developed the literati painting tradition of the Yuan Dynasty, emphasizing the expression of brush and ink, emphasizing the emotional color and the quiet mood, and pursuing the plain, natural, tranquil and peaceful style, which laid the tone of the Wumen School. Tang Yin is a down-to-earth scholar, who is a student of Shen and Zhou Dynasty with Wen Zhengming, but also a student of Zhou Chen. His landscape paintings are mainly taught by Li Tang and Liu Songnian, and integrate literati painting techniques appropriately to form a strong and delicate brushwork, rich ink, precise and elegant style of art. Qiu Ying was born a craftsman and began to learn from Zhou Chen. After that, he carefully copied the historical sites, especially Liu Songnian and Zhao Boju. He was good at making delicate green landscapes and meticulous characters. Both Tang and Qiu started with courtyard style painting in the Southern Song Dynasty and pursued the famous artists in the Northern Song Dynasty. They attached great importance to the theme and structure, paid attention to the real scenery, accurate modeling, precise brush and ink, elegant style and elegant rhyme. Their art was both elegant and popular.

Achievements in Landscape Painting

Wumen School has made outstanding achievements in landscape painting, and has made new breakthroughs in Yuan Four School or Southern Song Academy Style Painting. In addition to Qiu Ying, the other three people paid special attention to the organic combination of poetry, calligraphy and painting, which made the fine tradition of literati painting more perfect and universal, and strongly influenced the painting circle from late Ming Dynasty to early Qing Dynasty. Since the formation of Wumen School, its factions have been handed down from generation to generation, among which more than 30 students and descendants have been identified in Chinese. Among the late Wumen painters, Chen Chun, Lu Zhi, Qianggu, Lu Shidao and Zhou Tianyu were well-known. Many of them had new developments in some fields. For example, Chen Chun developed ink-and-wash freehand flower painting, Zhou Zhimian created the freehand flower-and-bird painting with hooked flowers and dotted leaves, and Lu Zhi is famous for his neat and beautiful flower-and-bird painting in the world. In addition, Xie Shichen's rough brush landscapes, especially the white portrait characters, Zhou Tianju's ink and blue stones, are different from each other.

The influence of Wumen School on the important schools of painting in the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty is also great. The Songjiang School, mainly composed of Dong Qichang, and the Susong School and Yunjian School, which were derived later, are closely related to the Wumen School.

Since the Southern Song Dynasty, the economy and culture of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River have been developing continuously and gradually occupying an advanced position in the whole country. Agriculture and handicraft industry are flourishing, transportation is convenient and commodity economy is active in Suzhou area, which is located in Taihu Basin of Yangtze River Delta. Due to the siltation of the Yangtze River estuary, the center of overseas trade in the Ming Dynasty moved from Yangzhou to Taicang and Songjiang, where production changes first sprouted. The prosperity of the imperial examinations in the south of the Yangtze River was so strong that literati returned home and brought back huge amounts of money and goods, which contributed to the prosperity and prosperity of Suzhou. With the development of culture and art in Suzhou, many outstanding figures in academic thought and literature and art have emerged. Influenced by the fiery literary style, the bureaucratic literati stored a large number of calligraphy, paintings, antiques and rare books, built private gardens, and paid attention to the use of food and clothing appliances. In the mid-Ming Dynasty, "Wumen Painting School" was formed in Suzhou, which marked the period when literati paintings were going to flourish.

"Wumen Painting School" is short for "Wu School". It is generally believed that it began in Shen and Zhou Dynasty and became Wen Zhengming, and that Tang Yin and Qiu Ying are the "Four Schools of Wumen" or "Four Schools of Ming Dynasty". After the mid-Ming Dynasty, "Wu School" gradually replaced the status of court painting and "Zhejiang School" and was reappeared in society, especially among literati and doctors.

Shen Zhou (1427-1509 A.D.) was born of a rich family of scholar-bureaucrats. When he was young, Shen Zhou received the education of his family, relatives and friends, and cultivated profound literary and artistic talents. Shen Zhou, who was not an official, has traveled all over the Taihu Lake Basin. He has many artistic accomplishments, poetry, writing and painting have high attainments. Shen Zhou's painting method mainly takes Huang Gongwang, Wuzhen and other people of the French Yuan Dynasty, tracing back to Dong Yuan, Juran and various schools of the Northern Song Dynasty. In the early years, Yingchi Xiaojing was mostly made, which had deep and deep interest, and also made fine brushwork or green landscapes. Most of the works reflect the painter's real and vivid feelings of nature, reflecting the painter's broad mind and rich imagination. Shen Zhou died at the age of 80. During his long artistic career, he created a large number of works, which had great influence and became the pioneer of Wu School.

"Lushan Gaotu" was written by Chen Kuan, a 41-year-old teacher of Shen Zhou. Chen Kuan's ancestral home is Jiangxi. Shen Zhou symbolizes the noble personality of the teacher with Lushan Mountain, which is actually the embodiment of the artist's ideological realm. With Wang Meng's brushwork and high imagination and skill, the painter concentrated on the magnificent image of the famous mountain. There is a man standing at the top of a close-range slope facing the waterfall. The proportion is very small, but it is noticeable. The poetry inscribed on the painting is bold and vigorous, and the trend of thought is galloping. It combines the teacher's personality and knowledge with the magnificent natural scenery, which has touching artistic effect. Poetry inscription fully expresses the ideal realm pursued by painters.

The Night Sitting Picture shows the painter's feeling and thinking in the insomnia night. Linxi Wawu in the mountains, sparse trees, a person sitting on the bed with candles in court, the night is dimly visible, so that viewers have all kinds of reverie and memories. There is a long inscription on the painting "Night Meditation". The article reflects the scene of the picture and expresses the feelings of the attacker.

Shen Zhou's paintings account for a considerable proportion of volumes, axes and pages describing scenic spots in the south of the Yangtze River. For example, the "Dongyuan Picture Volume" painted by Du Qiong, the "Dongzhuang Picture" by his friend Wu Kuan, and the "Osmanthus Bookstore Picture" axis painted by Xu Youzhen, are the local scenery of Suzhou, real and simple, expressing exquisite feelings.

"Three Birch Pictures" is a masterpiece handed down from Shen and Zhou Dynasties. It paints three ancient birches in Yushan, Changshu, Jiangsu Province. The original seven birch trees were planted in the Southern Dynasty, Song and Liang Dynasties. There were only three in the Ming Dynasty. After more than a thousand years of wind, frost, cold, heat, knife and thunder, the old Longzhong still maintained its vigorous vitality. Shen Zhou painted three old stem branches with different postures. The Poems Inscribed them as perseverance and eternal life to describe and praise. Shen Zhou also contributed to the development of freehand flower-and-bird paintings. Many large-scale flower-and-bird, vegetable and fruit paintings and pamphlets have been preserved up to now.

Wen Zhengming (1470-1559 A.D.) was a leading figure in literary and painting circles in Suzhou, following Shen Zhou. He was born in an official family, rich in literary and calligraphic skills, and was one of the great calligraphers of the Ming Dynasty. In his early years, Wen Zhengming participated in the imperial examination many times, failed to be admitted, no longer pursued official career, and devoted himself to the creation of poetry, literature and painting. When he was 54 years old, he was recommended to Beijing, where his sensory field was dark and his official career was dangerous. After that, he went back to Suzhou with foot diseases as his priority, and concentrated on poetry, calligraphy and painting. Wen Zhengming lived a quiet and elegant life as a famous scholar. He mainly engaged in artistic activities. His works showed elegant and quiet aesthetic taste. Wen Zhengming has a longer life than Shen Zhou. His works are numerous and widely spread. In his later years, he had a very high reputation. His family, children and students were very private. Most of them were also named for poetry and painting. Wen Zhengming's painter inherited Shen Zhou's paintings, but it was the painters of Yuan Dynasty, especially Zhao Mengfu's. His small green landscapes, room characters and ancient wooden and bamboo stones with ink brushes have obviously evolved from Zhao Mengfu's paintings. His paintings are characterized by Xiao's sparse and delicate mood, layers of overlapping but not overlapping the deep relationship, hilltop platforms, dense moss dots, clear edges and corners, and with Huang Gongwang, Wang Meng, Ni Zan's paintings. Painting has a certain inheritance relationship. Wen Zhengming's paintings are mostly landscape paintings. There are two kinds of meticulous paintings, meticulous paintings and rough paintings. There are many meticulous paintings, including colored and non-colored ones. The subject matter can be divided into imitating predecessors or describing specific environmental scenery. Landscape painting Jiangnan Spring, a 78-year-old painter, is a very successful work. Close-range images of several lean trees, just spit out new buds, Zhongjingzhou head is already peach, willow green, light distant mountains, vast and calm lake surface, showing the beautiful spring scenery of Jiangnan Waterfront. The composition is smooth, the shape is sparse, and the color is light and soft with the pen, which shows the unique style and sentiment of Wen Zhengming's painting art. The spring scenery in the south of the Yangtze River shows people's feelings. The natural scenery is the living environment of literati and doctors in the south of the Yangtze River at that time.

"Spring Deep and High Tree Pictures" and other works show the elegant life of literati and Mohists, reflect the painter's spiritual outlook and life ideal, and have distinct personal style characteristics. Painting is delicate with humble flavor, soft and cold tone, hills and rocks lean, trees are numerous and delicate, works pursue quiet, elegant and simple interest, painters in the common plain scenery and literati's daily life to explore the intrinsic beauty of moving people. There are two volumes of Zhenwanzhai Tu, which was written by painters aged 80 and 88. Paintings are painted with Meticulous Brushwork to depict the study of Huaxia, a well-known collector living in Wuxi. The foreground courtyard of the picture scroll is decorated with exquisite Lake stones, surrounded by towering pine and birch trees. The masters and visiting friends are appreciating ancient paintings and calligraphy in the study. At the end of the scroll, the bamboo forest is dense, the lake water bridge, the environment is elegant and pleasant. Appreciating Zhai Ming is an exquisite regular script of the painter in his later years.

Another style of Wen Zhengming's paintings is shown in rough ink and landscape, which is represented by Gumu Hanquan Picture, Xiqiao Cewang Picture and Hanyuan Sumang Picture. "Ancient Wood Cold Spring Picture" is the work of the painter when he was 80 years old. Narrow and long vertical pictures depict standing pines and cypresses, reflecting the falling waterfalls of the mountain streams behind, forming a flowing spring below, with a quiet mood, bold but elegant momentum, which belongs to the rare "rough text" as a whole. Comparing with the common literary symbols and detailed landscapes, this picture gives people a fresh look. Wen Zhengming's figure paintings are quite distinctive. The painting of Mrs. Xiangjun and Mrs. Hunan was made when he was 46 years old. The painter creates the images of the two goddesses in Quyuan's Nine Songs with ancient brush and ink and sculpt. The silky lines are elegant and smooth. The characters are painted with vermilion, looking forward to the echoes and slowly moving trends, showing the sincere and delicate emotional color, showing the painter's pursuit of elegant style. Wen Zhengming paints mainly orchids and bamboos, and paints orchids with style. "Painting bamboo with rain" is a beautiful and elegant ink orchid, which is called "Wenlan" by the world.

Tang Yin (1470-1523 A.D.) was born into a family of wine shop merchants in Suzhou. Genius is wise, and when you are a teenager, you have a reputation for talent. Before the age of 30, he studied for knowledge and was keen on making contributions to fame and official career. He took the Tianfu Township Examination in Nanjing, the first senior high school student Xie Yuan, but was involved in the "court bribery case" when he went to Beijing. He was implicated and deposed. Having suffered such a blow, Tang Yin's career was hopeless. He traveled to famous mountains and rivers, then returned to Suzhou to engage in poetry, literature and painting creation. He lived by selling paintings, and his style of life became more unrestrained. In the stamp, he titled "Nanjing Jieyuan" and "the first talented person in the south of the Yangtze River", showing his contempt for fame, wealth and wealth, and his mockery of feudal ethics. Tang Yin's personality and behavior are different from those of Wen Zhengming. His frustrations make his poems, documents and paintings show a sense of pride and injustice. He also tried to seek the relief of painful mood from Buddhism.

Tang Yin is good at painting landscape figures, freehand flower and bird painting also has its own unique, comprehensive painting skills for many Wumen painters are not as good as. Tang Yin's works, such as Sound Map of Pine Mountain Road, Solitary Owl Map of Luoxia, Partner Map of Spring Mountain, Old Map of Xizhou Dialect and Old Map of Ancient Wood, have his own style and characteristics. In addition to the performance of literati and refined scholars, a large number of portraits are about women, and some works about the life of geisha occupy a considerable proportion. Li Duan Duan Qi Poetry Picture and Taogu Gift Ci Picture depict the affair between literati and poets and geisha that violates the name of the religious rites and laws, and dare to challenge the feudal ethics. Tang Yin's figure paintings include white sketch, colour design and exquisite meticulous brushwork. Mengshu Palace Geisha Picture is a representative work of Tang Yin's paintings of ladies. "Autumn Wind Fan Picture" painted with ink in the autumn wind, a woman's persistent fan showed sad feelings, inscribed: "Autumn Fan Collection, what is the beauty of serious sadness. Please look at the world in detail, most of them do not pursue the "cold" situation. They place deep sympathy on the women at the lower levels of society, satirize the social atmosphere of the cold world, and have more ideological connotations than the previous works which used fans to metaphorize the "palace grievances" pictures of women abandoned.

Tang Yin's freehand flower-and-bird paintings are based on a broader range of materials than the literary symbols. Existing works, such as "Drained Figs", "Linshui Furong Pictures", "Plum Blossom Pictures", "Rain Bamboo Pictures", "Poppy Flower Pictures" (Fan Face), refine their images with ink. The painter has contributed to the development of Chinese flower and bird painting.

Qiu Ying (1502-1552 AD) was born in a very low background and tasted Danqing, the dean. Some people said that he had worked as a painter. He got acquainted with literati, doctors and celebrities, and was edified by literati paintings. His painting style injected elegant literati flavor. In Ming Dynasty, there was a great atmosphere of painting and calligraphy collection in Jiangnan area. The painting of pool decoration, patching, identification and copy was becoming more and more sophisticated. Qiu Ying was a master of copying ancient paintings. He copied the painting of ladies "Haicuihaoqin, silkworm element, gorgeous and elegant, without shame of the ancients". Qiu Ying imitated many ancient works, leaving behind many large and artistically exquisite copies.

Qiu Ying is a painter with outstanding energy and amazing diligence. His life is not very long, but the number of his works is very large. Many of them are complex and elaborate long-axis volumes, such as "Lanting Xiu Tu", "Manyi Dugong Tu", "Yangpipa Tu" and "Golden Valley Garden Tu". They all need years to complete a huge system, but these works seem to be energetic and concentrative. Under the circumstances, there is no sense of slack. His "Jian Ge Tu" depicts the steep trestle road in Sichuan. The rocks are blue and green, the characters are colorful, the mountains are high, the trestle road is circuitous, and the snow is shining. It shows the difficult situation of "Shu Dao". Snow scenery is usually painted with ink. This painting is colored with heavy colors and full of snow. It should be the work of Qiu Ying. Qiu Ying's ability to draw pommel horse characters can be seen in Qiuyuan Hunting and Riding Picture. The nomadic people and horses in Qiu Ying's painting are vivid and accurate in shape, rigorous in style and without any sense of rigidity. Some of the figure paintings are almost Tang Yin's ink-wash integration, such as "Jiaoyin Jiexia Tu" and "Xizhi Book Fan Tu", which are fluent in brush and ink, elegant and elegant in style, and suitable for the specific content of the painting subject matter, showing the painter's versatile talent.

Qiu Ying's figure paintings are vivid and graceful, with distinct characteristics of the times, reflecting the aesthetic ideal of that era. Although they are not as full and vigorous as the paintings of Tang and Song Dynasties, they do not have the morbidity of laxity, poverty and weakness of later generations. Tang Yin integrated the landscape figure painting of the Southern Song Dynasty into the literati's interest from content to brush and ink, while Qiu Ying refined the Meticulous Brushwork and the green landscape painting, which reflected the beauty of ancient elegance. Their paintings have superb plastic ability and rigorous style of professional painters, "writers" habits and reflect the literati artistic taste of "morale" both, reflecting the Chinese society into the Ming and Qing Dynasties, cultural and artistic changes in elegance and vulgarity. Through Tang Yin and Qiu Ying's constant artistic practice and bold artistic creation, literati painting adapted to the changes of the times and embarked on the development path of "appreciation of both refined and popular" and "combination of literary and qualitative".

Zhang Hong (1577 - 1668 AD) was a famous painter of Ming Dynasty, born in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. He is good at painting landscapes, rewriting life, with steep brushwork, moist ink, mountains and mountains, deep autumn valleys and ancient meanings of the Yuan Dynasty. His stone paintings are characterized by continuous dyeing (recorded in Ming Painting Records). Zeng Shitianweng was a teacher and surpassed him. He was also able to draw freehand figures, good in shape and spirit, and gathered appropriately. He was a key figure in Wumen painting circle in the late Ming Dynasty. Zhang Hong is not only an excellent literati painter, but also a professional painter with superb painting skills and dedication, meticulous painting, not excellent. It is respected by later generations and respected by Wu middle school scholars. His paintings inherited the style and characteristics of Wumen School of Painting. On the basis of sketching, he created works and learned the true meaning of painting. In his paintings, he embodied an extraordinary and refined spiritual realm, which made the original rigid landscape painting alive. The whole picture of his paintings looks profound and elegant. The mountains and rocks are hard and sound. The water is clear and trickle down. It injects spirituality into the painting and calligraphy and makes people feel like they are separated from the world.

Zhang Hong's representative work is "Yan Guan Zhou Zhu Tu"

"Acrobatic Game Map", "Floating Landscape Warm Green Map", "Juqu Pine Wind Map", "Xishan Shuangqi Map", "Qixia Mountain Map", "Shishashan Map", "Yuezhong Ten Views", "Village Trail Chai Men Map", "Zhiyuan", "Huazigang Map", "Lanting Atlas", "Lingong Qingxue Map", "Cold Mountain Xiaosi Map", "Moutou Map", "Tongmeng Gaoshitu" and "Shooting Hou" Tu, Yanling Hanging Sword Tu, etc. Most of his works are kept in museums at home and abroad. The "Brocade Arhat" painted is quite impressive and naturally qualified. Taipei Palace Museum has designed the Bloom Bag Arhat Picture on stamps. It prints a set of stamps based on four ancient figures painted by Zhang Hong, Chao Buzhi, Wang Wen and Liang Kai, four painters recommended by the Palace Museum in Song and Ming Dynasties. Xishan Shuangqi Tu was compiled into the new textbook of geography limited selection in Senior Two by the Educational Committee, which served as an example of ancient literati painting. "Acrobatic Game Map" reflects the social style of the Ming Dynasty, known as the Qingming River Map of the Ming Dynasty. As a historical prototype of ancient Qi Tu, it has precious historical value.

"Wumen Painting School" is a group of both literati painters and professional painters. Its emergence not only revitalized literati painting, but also standardized the rude habit of the "Zhejiang School" last-class techniques, which promoted the further development of painting in the Ming Dynasty.

 

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海阳四家
文艺复兴北欧
黄山画派
矫饰主义
京津画派
浪漫主义
新古典主义
松江画派
虞山画派
长安画派
金陵八家
金陵画派
北方山水画派
文艺复兴盛期
浙江画派
吴门画派
常州画派
清初四高僧
娄东画派(清四王)
洛可可美术
六朝四家
象征主义
画中十哲
画中九友
南宋四家
超现实主义
湖州竹派
吴派
印象主义
扬州八怪
文艺复兴初期
南方山水画派
新艺术派
后印象主义
海上画派
王元友
张犇
耿金龙
吴为
周令钊
乔治.彭茨Georg Pencz
窦风展
金巍
唐跃
吴观岱
裴国正
刘典章
赵楠
聂干因
王赫赫
冯建吴
张观
姜东
刘西林
朱伦翰
白清龙
王隽珠
曾茜
超现实主义
张明坦
唐濛濛
阎振铎
裴咏梅
江中潮
臧家伟
牛珺辉
欧阳巨波
张胜
许以冠
吴黎明
方坤
王柱德
刘建民
彼得罗·达·科尔托纳Pietro Da Cortona
王德龙
章燕紫
张如学
王维宝
董必武
姜元珠
应洪声
周铁利
袁寅章
陆机
潘缨
柳维和
索铁生
方方
李波
郑瑰玺
陈磊
郑小河
萧俊贤
杨克山
丁晓东
王心刚
李良玉
耿燕芳
温心坦
管玉
魏明
何叔水
杨志辉
王茂彬
乍启典
苏巴洪?艾查
朱家强
白瑞
孙全义
夏湘平
卢俊才
薛永年
高云升
科内利斯.德谦Cornelis de Heem
崔豫章
方国政
温海峰
马丁·约翰逊.海德Martin Johnson Heade
余省
陈琳
刘振起
余右凡
戴广文
梁跃
钞子伟
朱磊
舒均欢
王者琦
叶其鸣
王学浩
胡美雪
季源业
熊祖超
潘鹤
冯水龙