中国画流派之一。明代中、晚期代表画派 。明中期画坛以"吴门画派"为首，晚期则推崇"松江画派" 。松江原属吴地，后人遂合称两派为"吴派"。在太湖流域一带风靡一时 。代表画家有董其昌、陈继儒、周天球、莫是龙、李日华、项圣谟、卞文瑜等，董、陈两人为此派中坚。
Since Jiajing, Wu School has become the most influential painting school, with many painters appearing. In Wanli and Chongzhen dynasties, the Wu school was divided into Songjiang (Dong Qichang), Huating (Gu Zhengyi, Mo Tinghan, etc.), Yunjian (Shen Shichong, Chen Jiru, etc.), and Su Song (Zhao Zuo, Jiang Lan, etc.). Wu Meicun once painted nine friendship songs for famous Wu painters in the late Ming Dynasty. "Nine Friends in Pictures" are Dong Qichang, Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Li Liufang, Yang Wenji, Cheng Jiazhao, Zhang Xuezeng, Bian Wenyu and Shao Mi. Since Wang Shimin and Wang Jian, the Loudong School has been separated from the Yunjian School. The main difference between these schools is that there are different preferences between the brush and ink of Dong Yuan, Juran, Huang Gongwang and Ni Zan's predecessors. Therefore, the use of brush and ink is different from each other, and they are different from each other. Specifically, he explains the emphasis on the formal factors such as brush and ink in that period.
During Xuande's (1426-1435) years, Shen Zhou, the founding master of Wumen School, was born in Suzhou. His successors were Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin and Qiu Ying. They inherited the fine traditions since Song and Yuan Dynasty, formed their own unique styles, created a new generation of styles, replaced academies and Zhejiang School and occupied the dominant position in the art circle for more than 150 years. Year. In the history of painting, Shen, Wen, Tang and Qiu were called the Four Schools of Wumen or the Four Schools of Ming Dynasty, and they were the representative painters of Wumen School. Although these four painters rose up in Suzhou at the same time, their styles are quite different and each has its own inheritance. Shen Zhou was influenced by Du Qiong and other predecessors because of his family background. He mainly inherited the paintings of literati in Yuan Dynasty. He was good at concise, vigorous and vigorous rough brush painting. Wen Zhengming learned from Shen Zhou and absorbed Zhao Mengfu and Wang Meng's painting methods. He was famous for his meticulous, quiet, elegant and fine brushwork. They mainly developed the literati painting tradition of the Yuan Dynasty, emphasizing the expression of brush and ink, emphasizing the emotional color and the quiet mood, and pursuing the plain, natural, tranquil and peaceful style, which laid the tone of the Wumen School. Tang Yin is a down-to-earth scholar, who is a student of Shen and Zhou Dynasty with Wen Zhengming, but also a student of Zhou Chen. His landscape paintings are mainly taught by Li Tang and Liu Songnian, and integrate literati painting techniques appropriately to form a strong and delicate brushwork, rich ink, precise and elegant style of art. Qiu Ying was born a craftsman and began to learn from Zhou Chen. After that, he carefully copied the historical sites, especially Liu Songnian and Zhao Boju. He was good at making delicate green landscapes and meticulous characters. Both Tang and Qiu started with courtyard style painting in the Southern Song Dynasty and pursued the famous artists in the Northern Song Dynasty. They attached great importance to the theme and structure, paid attention to the real scenery, accurate modeling, precise brush and ink, elegant style and elegant rhyme. Their art was both elegant and popular.
"There are two sects of Zen, the North and the South, which began in the Tang Dynasty, and the North and the South sect of painting, which was also in the Tang Dynasty. But they are not from the north and the south. In the Northern Zong Dynasty, Li Sixun's father and son (Sixun and Zhaodao) painted mountains and rivers, spreading to Zhao Wu, Boju and Boju of the Song Dynasty, and even to Ma (yuan) and Xia (xie) generations; in the Southern Zong Dynasty, Wang Mahao (Wei) began to use shade and changed the method of hooking, which was Zhang Bi, Jing (hao), Guan (Tong), Guo Zhongshu and Dong (Yuan). Four great masters: Ju (Ran), Mi Father and Son (Fu, Youren) and Yuan Dynasty. It is also like the prosperity of Mazu Yunmen and Linji's descendants after the Six Ancestors (Huineng), while the prosperity of Beizhong (Shenxiu) is slight. To be sure, the so-called "Yunfeng stone color, out of the sky, vertical and horizontal thinking, refer to the creator". Dongpo praised Wu Daozi and Wang Wei for their paintings, and also said,'I can't help it in Uygur. Know your words! " The main contents of the theory are as follows: 1. Landscape paintings have been divided into Nanzong and Beizhong since the Tang Dynasty. (2) The Southern Sect is higher than the Northern Sect. (3) The most fundamental problem in the history of the development of painting art is the inheritance and evolution of the factors of form (texture, lines, ink rendering, coloring, etc.).
It is considered that the two schools of landscape painting, which have been distinguished from each other according to the style of brush and ink techniques since the Tang Dynasty, are inconsistent with the true situation in history. Wang Wei did not occupy such an important position in Tang Dynasty as to stand side by side with Li's father and son. Moreover, there are not such two schools of strict division in the method of using brushes in landscape paintings of past dynasties. Zhao Boju's brothers'green and Ma Xia's ink and wash can't be classified as one school, while Zhao Wu and Guo Xi are not suitable to be classified as the North School (according to Dong Qichang's criteria). If we combine Dong Qichang's several comments on the issue of the Northern and Southern Sects and compare them with those of his friend Chen Jiru, we can see that their series of names of painters of the two schools of the Northern and Southern Sects is full of loopholes. As for Shen, Tang and Wen in Ming Dynasty, their pen-writing methods are not so-called "the authentic biography of Nanzong". Other critics in Ming Dynasty have already pointed out their close relationship with the painters of Nansong Dynasty (that is, what Dong Qichang called "the Northern Zong").
The popularity of the "Southern and Northern Zonglun" has led to many misconceptions about the development of painting history.
Some people think that "Nanzong" developed in the Yangtze River basin and "Beizhong" developed in the Yellow River basin, which is the north and south of the region. Others think that "Nanzong" is higher than "Beizhong", which shows that the landscape painting art of the Yangtze River basin in the south is more developed than that of the Yellow River basin in the north. This is what Dong Qichang did not advocate and lacks foundation. The "Nanzong" painters mentioned in Dong Qichang's theory: Wang Wei, Jinghao, Guantong, Li Cheng, Guoxi and Mi Pu were not in the Yangtze River valley, while the "Beizhong" painters such as Zhao Feiju Brothers, Ma and Xia were all active in Hangzhou in the Southern Song Dynasty. Dong Qichang's "Southern and Southern Sects" and the geographical environment determinism are based on his ignorance of the historical facts of Chinese painting. Others believe that "Beizhong" is a fine brushwork, while "Nanzong" is a freehand brushwork of ink and wash, which is also the falsehood of Dong Qichang's statement.
Some people also think that the "Southern Sect" or the watery landscape painting is produced under the influence of Buddhist Zen thought, which lacks the basis of facts. Among the important landscape painters in ancient China, no one has ever found acceptance of Zen thought, except for a few monks who painted ink and wash paintings in the early years of Southern Song Dynasty. But these monks did not leave their names because of their great influence in the history of Chinese painting. They were valued because their works had been preserved in ancient temples in Japan and became valuable relics of paintings of the Song Dynasty. What advocates the connection between "Nanzong" and Zen is only that Dong Qichang's original text is misinterpreted in writing. Dong Qichang's original text only uses the North-South metaphor of Zen to describe the North-South of landscape painting. If there is a point, it means that the difference in style is difficult to describe in words, and is superficially similar to Zen's "unspeakable". It can be said that Dong Qichang intentionally mystifies the distinction of style and removes other people's difficulties by pretending to be mysterious. However, Dong Qichang can not be regarded as advocating that the difference between the "Southern and Northern Sects" is related to Zen's idealistic philosophy in terms of ideological content.
Dong Qichang believes that the most basic starting point of "Nanzong" over "Beizhong" is to oppose the styling ability of brush and ink techniques. Dong Qichang's actual purpose of fabricating history is to oppose the meticulous landscape figure painters of the Ming Dynasty and the landscape figure painters known as "Zhejiang School". Because their pen and ink technology department also maintained a considerable level of traditional modeling ability, for example, they can depict realistic characters. Dong Qichang himself and his writers of the same school, like the four great writers of the Yuan Dynasty, could not paint figures, but only "amorphous" mountains and trees. But Dong Qichang's objection is not from the aspect of shape, but from the aspect of style. They think that the pursuit of Meticulous Brushwork is "board", "restraint", "craftsmanship", "vulgarity" and "fire" in green and green coloring, and "brushwork" in Zhejiang School is "rough", "village" and "vertical and horizontal" in painting history.
Dong Qichang advocated the "charm of pen and ink" (the new interpretation of "vivid charm" in ancient times). In their own words, it is "empty and Xiaosan", "no cannibalism fireworks" (Chen Jiru language), and in their concurrent words, it is "beautiful and charming", so it is actually a kind of weak interest. His handwriting also shows the same style. Therefore, what he advocated in his paintings is not the technical and stylistic relevance of pen and ink in calligraphy and painting. But he advocates a special style.
During the development of Ming and Qing paintings (especially landscape paintings), many different schools were formed consciously in a fixed subject area. These schools are based on different systems and styles of ink and brush. They regard the historical process of painting as the change and evolution of only formal factors (texture, lines, ink shading, coloring, etc.). They ignore or deny the argument that art reflects real life. They do not regard art as a form of understanding of real life. They also use this idea to practice in many ways. Thoughts have had a serious impact on the development of painting in the past hundred years.
Dong Qichang (1555 - 1636), Xuanzai, Sibai and Siweng, also known as Xiangguang Gushi, was born in Huating, Songjiang (now Songjiang, Shanghai). Ming Dynasty calligrapher and painter.
In his early years, he worked as a school teacher at Feng Dashen's residence in Ximen, Pinghu City. He was fond of Zen Cao Dong Sect and was friendly with Lu Zhaofang, Sikou, Xindai Town. Longqing five years (1571) 17 years old to participate in the Songjiang government examination, because the Songjiang Zhifu Zhengji think Dong writing is too bad, only the second, from then on angry Linchi, learn from Lu Shusheng, Mo Ruzhong, and so on, benefited a lot. Wanli seven years (1579) to participate in the Nanjing Rural Examination, Wang Xizhi's "Official Slave Tie" Tang copy, amazed.
In 17th year of Wanli (1589), the first scholar in Second Class A was awarded the honorary scholars of Hanlin College to study in Hanlin College. Tian Yijun, the left attendant of the Ministry of Rites, died of illness. He was mourned in Tian's hometown of Fujian. In the spring of 1592, he was awarded the editing of Hanlin College. In the 22nd year of Wanli (1594), Zhu Changluo, the eldest son of the emperor, gave lectures in the cabinet and served as a lecturer. In the 26th year of Wanli (1598), he was deputy envoy of Huguangzhan. Wanli thirty-two years (1604), as deputy envoy of Huguang University. In the first year of Taichang (1620), Ming Guangzong took office and worked for Shaoqing and the head of the state. In the second year of Tianqi (1622), he took part in Taichang True Records. In the fifth year of Tianqi (1625), the official went to Nanjing Rite Department to publish the book. Six years after Tianqi (1626) resigned. In 1631, Chongzhen served as the official of the Ministry of Rites in Shangshu and Zhan Dynasty. He had a close relationship with Ruan Darong, the Rong Party. Chongzhen died of illness in August in the ninth year (1636). Ji Wenmin, later known as Dong Wenmin. His works include Rong Tai Collection, Rong Tai Bie Collection and Painting Chan Room Essays.
Painting is good at landscapes, learning from Dong Yuan, Ni Zan and others, like pure ink. Yan Zhenqing's "Duo Pagoda Tie" was first studied in calligraphy, then he changed to Yu Shinan, and then traced back to Wei and Jin Dynasty. He imitated Zhongxi and Wang Xizhi, and referred to Li Yong and Liu Gongquan with the characteristics of "plain innocence". His landscape paintings such as Guanshan Snow Map, Autumn Xing Eight Scenery Books, River Trunk Three Trees Map, Mountain Cloud Map and Mountain Residence Map are the peak works of the Ming Dynasty. The most handed down calligraphy works are running scripts. The representative works are the small script "Moon Fu", which has great influence on later generations after Zhu Zhishan and Wen Zhengming. Emperor Kangxi loved Dong Qichang's calligraphy very much. During his lifetime, Dong's handwriting was very abundant and Dong's authentic works were searched all over. Only Dong Qichang used to ask for paintings before his death, and Dong Qichang often asked others to write for him.
Dong Qichang was appointed Vice Envoy of Huguang University in the winter of 1604 in Wanli thirty-two years. He regards "no texts tomorrow" as an examination question and takes pleasure in fooling students. In September of 1615, Luying, the maid of Lu Zhaofang's family, was raped by Dong Qichang and succeeded in hiding in Bailongtan's Pearl Pavilion. Green Ying fled back to Sikou in the gap, and his Chang instigated his descendants to lead more than 100 slaves to Lujiazhuang, robbing Green Ying. The local government dared not handle the case. Fan Chang, a student of Huating County, compiled his evil deeds in Biography of Black and White. There are bibliographies of "Bai Gongzi attacked Lujiazhuang at night and Hei Xiuci angrily denounced Longmen Li" (Lu Xiuci's skin color is darker, Dong Qichang's nickname is white). Qian Er, a storyteller, talked and sang everywhere. As a result, Fan Chang was beaten up and died violently every day. Dong's bullying Fan's family members finally aroused public indignation.
On March 15, 194, Ming Wanli broke out the case of "copying Dong officials by the people". Children and women competed to disseminate the ballad "If you want Chai Miqiang, kill Dong Qichang first". Local villagers and complainers from Shanghai, Qingpu, Jinshan and other places burned more than 200 paintings of Dong Jia's Dong Diao Liang and Zhu Lanqu sills to ashes. Dong Qichang collected valuable books of ancient and modern times. The collection of paintings and seal carvings was burned to the flames.
Chen Jiru (1558-1639), the word secondary alcohol, named Meigong, Elk Gong. Huating (now Songjiang, Shanghai) people. Literators and painters of the Ming Dynasty. Since childhood, Xu Tiao, a scholar of Tongjun University, has been very respectful. When he was 29 years old, he took Confucian clothes and burned them. He lived in seclusion in the south of Kunshan Mountain. He built Dongshe Mountain and wrote by Dumen. Huang Daozhou mentioned to Emperor Chongzhen that his ambition is elegant and knowledgeable, so it is better to follow Confucianism.
Good at painting and calligraphy, "good at writing ink plum blossom, that is, its creation, can not be overwhelmed by future generations." "Painting mountains and rivers involves brushwork and grass, old and elegant, not falling into Wuxia painter's tranquil and vulgar magic realm." Calligraphers like Su Shi and Mi Fu, Fan Su Shi's handwriting posts and short-cut posts, will try their best to collect them and copy them by hand, saying that the evening Xiangtang posts. Tongjun Dong Qichang is equally famous, Dong Qichangyun: "The eyebrow Prince has a hill in his chest, although grass splashes ink, but a kind of old spirit falls into Wuxia painter's tranquil magic realm." His works include The Story of the Small Window, The Complete Works of Mei Gong and The Essays of the Evening Chamber. History of the Ming Dynasty is a biography.
Li Rihua (1565-1635) was born in Wuxian County, Jiangsu Province. Ming Dynasty opera and Sanqu writers.
Born in 1565, Jiajing, Emperor Shizong of Ming Dynasty, when he was a child, he was intelligent. His father "dictated to the University" and was able to recite it. Wanli has been taking the local exam for three years (1579). He was indulgent in writing. At that time, Hao Jing, the chief examiner, appreciated his talent and was admitted to the 25th place. He said, "That's such a good talent in the world." In the twentieth year of Wanli (1592), thirty-two Jinshi were appointed as Jiujiang Tui Officer and Xihuazhi County. Official to Taifu Shaoqing. After returning to seclusion, he amused himself by writing and collecting. "History of the Ming Dynasty. Biography of Wen Yuan" said, "calm and easy, and things are not in harmony."
Jingjian Collection, known as "Boya gentleman". Proficient in painting, painting the axis of Suqian Water Overflow Picture, and also known as The Story of the Southern West Chamber, Lu Cai said: "Li Rihua took Shifu's words and turned them into Nanqu, but the delicate meaning of the wording was almost lost." . Qian Qianyi's preface to Tian Zhi Tang Ji, Yu Li Cong Tan, Imagination of Calligraphy and Painting, Purple Peach Hybrid, Weishui Xuan Diary, Notes of Six Inkstone Studio, Mr. Meixu's Fair Record and Tian Zhi Tang's Poetry Talks, says, "The Artist, the Spirit of Heaven and Earth Yingshu and the Spirit of Man" They become adults by habit. Close to the mountains and rivers, far from the city; close to the mourning and singing of ancient trees with different stones, far from the dust; close to the famous calligraphy and paintings of Zhong Dingyi ware, and far away from the fashion. Therefore, people who are elegant and have good antiquities tend to have different articles in the world, and their habits make them so. Later generations called Li Rihua "more than two", many works, nicknames. Chongzhen died in eight years (1635).
The influence of Wumen School on the important schools of painting in the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty is also great. The Songjiang School, mainly composed of Dong Qichang, and the Susong School and Yunjian School, which were derived later, are closely related to the Wumen School.
Since the Southern Song Dynasty, the economy and culture of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River have been developing continuously and gradually occupying an advanced position in the whole country. Agriculture and handicraft industry are flourishing, transportation is convenient and commodity economy is active in Suzhou area, which is located in Taihu Basin of Yangtze River Delta. Due to the siltation of the Yangtze River estuary, the center of overseas trade in the Ming Dynasty moved from Yangzhou to Taicang and Songjiang, where production changes first sprouted. The prosperity of the imperial examinations in the south of the Yangtze River was so strong that literati returned home and brought back huge amounts of money and goods, which contributed to the prosperity and prosperity of Suzhou. With the development of culture and art in Suzhou, many outstanding figures in academic thought and literature and art have emerged. Influenced by the fiery literary style, the bureaucratic literati stored a large number of calligraphy, paintings, antiques and rare books, built private gardens, and paid attention to the use of food and clothing appliances. In the mid-Ming Dynasty, "Wumen Painting School" was formed in Suzhou, which marked the period when literati paintings were going to flourish.