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吴派

 中国画流派之一。明代中、晚期代表画派 。明中期画坛以"吴门画派"为首,晚期则推崇"松江画派" 。松江原属吴地,后人遂合称两派为"吴派"。在太湖流域一带风靡一时 。代表画家有董其昌、陈继儒、周天球、莫是龙、李日华、项圣谟、卞文瑜等,董、陈两人为此派中坚。

  • 国籍中国
  • 代表作品《婉娈草堂图》
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《石渠宝笈》:项圣谟手卷真迹亮相北京春拍

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概述

 吴派自嘉靖以后成为最有势力的画派,出现很多画家。而至万历、崇祯年间吴派又复区别为松江(董其昌)、华亭(顾正谊、莫廷韩等)、云间(沈士充陈继儒等)、苏松(赵左、蒋霭等)各派,吴梅村曾为明末吴派的名画家作画中九友歌。“画中九友”为董其昌王时敏、王鑑、李流芳杨文骢程嘉燧、张学曾、卞文瑜邵弥。而自王时敏、王鑑以后,由云间派中又分出娄东派。这些分支的画派主要的区别是在董源巨然黄公望倪瓒诸前代画师的笔墨之间各有所偏好,因而在笔墨的运用上各人有所不同,互相区别为不同的派别,具体他说明了那一时期对于笔墨等形式因素的重视。

历史沿革

 宣德(1426~1435)年间,苏州诞生了吴门派开宗大师沈周,继起者有文徵明唐寅仇英,他们在艺术上较全面地继承了宋元以来的优秀传统,并形成各自的独特风格,开创一代新风,取代院体和浙派而占据画坛主位,历时150多年。画史将沈、文、唐、仇并称为吴门四家或明四家,为吴门派的代表画家。这4位画家虽同时崛起于苏州,但风格迥异,各有师承。沈周因家学渊源,并受杜琼等前辈熏陶,主要承元代文人画衣钵,以简练浑厚、苍劲雄健的粗笔画见长。文徵明从学沈周,并吸取赵孟頫、王蒙画法,以缜密工致、文静清秀古雅的细笔画著称。他们两人主要发展了元代文人画传统,注重笔墨表现,强调感情色彩和幽淡的意境,追求平淡自然、恬静平和的格调,其画风奠定了吴门派的基调。唐寅是位落魄文人,与文徵明同为沈周学生,但也从学于周臣;他的山水画主要师承李唐刘松年,并适当融汇文人画技法,形成笔法挺健细秀,墨色淋漓融和、风格谨严而清逸的艺术特色。仇英出身工匠,初学周臣,后悉心临摹历代名迹,尤着力于刘松年赵伯驹,善作精细鲜丽的青绿山水和工笔人物。唐、仇两人均从南宋院体绘画入手,并远追北宋名家,重视主题、结构,讲究真景实感,造型准确,笔墨谨严,风格柔韵雅秀,其艺术行利兼备,雅俗共赏。

南北宗论

 董其昌

“禅家有南北二宗,唐时始分;画之南北宗,亦唐时分也。但其人非南北耳。北宗则李思训父子(思训、昭道)着色山水,流传而为宋之赵斡、(赵)伯驹、(赵)伯骕,以至马(远)、夏(珪)辈;南宗则王摩诘(维)始用渲淡,一变钩斫之法,其传为张璪、荆(浩)、关(同)、郭忠恕、董(源)、巨(然)、米家父子(芾、友仁)以至元之四大家。亦如六祖(慧能)之后有马祖云门、临济儿孙之盛,而北宗(神秀)微矣。要之,摩诘所谓‘云峰石色,迥出天机,笔思纵横,参乎造化’者。东坡赞吴道子王维画壁,亦云:‘吾于维也无间然。’知言哉!”“南北宗论”其内容主要是:①山水画自唐代以来就分为南宗和北宗。②南宗高于北宗。③绘画艺术发展史上最根本的问题是形式的因素(皴法、线纹、水墨渲染,着色等)的承继与演变。

 

认为山水画自唐代以来就按照笔墨技法的风格已经自行区别为对立的两派是不符合历史上的真实的情况的。王维在唐代并没有能够居于那样重要的地位以至于与李氏父子并立。而且历代山水画在用笔的方法上也不是有这样严格划分的两派。赵伯驹兄弟的青绿和马夏的水墨也不能井为一派,而赵斡、郭熙更不宜于(按照董其昌的标准)划归北派。如果把董其昌几次谈到南北宗问题的议论合并在一起看,并与他的好友陈继儒的相类似的意见相比较,可以看出他们排列的南北宗的两派画家人名的系列是漏洞百出的。至于明代的沈、唐、文等人的用笔方法也不是所谓的“南宗正传”,明代其他的评论家早已指出他们和南宋画家(即董其昌所说的“北宗”)的密切关系。

 

“南北宗论”的流行造成很多对于绘画史发展的错误观念。

 

有人认为“南北宗”的“南宗”发达于长江流域,”北宗”发达于黄河流域,是地域上的南北;也有人认为“南宗”既高于“北宗”就说明南方长江流域的山水画艺术比北方黄河流域更发达。这是董其昌所没有主张过的,也是缺乏根据的。在董其昌的理论中所提到的“南宗”画家:王维、荆浩、关同、李成郭熙、米莆都不是长江流域的,而赵怕驹兄弟、马、夏等“北宗”画家都反而是活动于南宋的杭州。由董其昌所说的“南北宗”而引伸出的地理环境决定论是出于对中国绘画史实的无知。也有人认为“北宗”是工笔青绿,“南宗’”是水墨写意,这也是董其昌说法的以讹传讹。

 

也有人认为山水画的“南宗”或水墨渲淡的山水画是在佛教禅宗思想影响下产生的,这是缺少事实的根据的。在中国古代重要的山水画家中,不曾发现有任何人在思想上接受了禅宗的思想,只除了南宋未年有少数和尚曾画过水墨画。但这些和尚并不是因为在中国绘画史上有过重大影响而留下了名字的,他们之所以被重视是因为他们的作品曾保留在日本的古寺中,成为宋代绘画作品的可贵的遗存。主张“南宗”和禅宗的思想内容上的联系的不外是在文字上错误地解释了董其昌的原文,董其昌原文只是借禅宗的南北比喻山水画的南北。如果有所指,则是指风格的区别是难以用文字描述的,而与禅宗的“不可言说”有表面上的类似。这可以说是董其昌有意把风格的区别神秘化,以故作玄虚的方法来排除旁人的疑难,但不能认为董其昌就是在主张“南北宗”的区别是在思想内容上与禅宗的唯心论哲学相联系的。

 

董其昌认为“南宗”高于“北宗”最基本的出发点是反对笔墨技法的造型能力。董其昌捏造历史的实际目的是反对明代的工笔山水人物画家和被称为“浙派”的山水人物画家。因为他们的笔墨技法部还保持了具有相当水平的传统的造型能力,例如他们都能描绘有真实感的人物形象。而董其昌个人及其同流派的作家都和元四大家一样,不能画人物,而只能画“无定形”的山和树。但董其昌的反对不是从造型方面提出的,而是从风格上提出的。他们认为工笔画法的追求物象是“板”、“拘”、“匠气”,青绿着色是“俗”、“火气”,浙派的笔墨是“粗野”、“村气”、“画史纵横气”。

 

董其昌所提倡的“笔墨神韵”(古代的“气韵生动”的新解释),用他们自己的话,是“虚和萧散”、“不食人间烟火”(陈继儒语),用他们同时人的话,是“清丽媚人”,所以,实际上是一种柔弱的趣味。他的书法也表现了相同的风格。所以,他在绘画中所主张的还不是书法和绘画的用笔用墨在技术上和风格表现上的关联性。但他更提倡一种特殊的风格。

 

明清绘画(特别是山水画)发展过程中,在固定的题材范围内不断的有意识的形成许多不同的流派,这些流派相互之间是以笔墨表现形式的不同体系和不同风格作为区别的标准的。它们把绘画的历史过程当作了只是形式的因素(皴法、线纹、水墨渲淡、着色等)的变化与演变,忽略或否认艺术反映现实生活的论点,不是把艺术当作对于生活真实的一种认识形式,而且用这样的思想从事多方面的实践,这种思想对数百年来绘画发展产生了严重影响。

代表人物

 董其昌

董其昌(1555年—1636年),字玄宰,号思白、思翁,别号香光居士,松江华亭(今上海松江)人。明书画家。

 

早年在平湖城西门冯大参家坐馆当过塾师,爱好参禅曹洞宗,与新埭镇泖口陆兆芳友好。隆庆五年(1571年)十七岁参加松江府会考,因松江知府衷贞吉认为董写字太差,只得第二名,从此发愤临池,从学于陆树声、莫如忠等,得益不少。万历七年(1579年)参加南京乡试,见王羲之《官奴帖》唐摹本,惊叹不已。

 

万历十七年(1589年)第二甲第一名进士,授翰林院庶吉士,入翰林院学习,礼部左侍郎田一俊病故,护丧到田氏的家乡福建,万历二十年(1592年)春,获授翰林院编修。万历二十二年(1594年),皇长子朱常洛出阁讲学,充任讲官。万历二十六年(1598年),任湖广按察司副使。万历三十二年(1604年),出任湖广提学副使。泰昌元年(1620年),明光宗即位,为太常寺少卿、掌国子司业事。天启二年(1622年),参修《泰昌实录》。天启五年(1625年)官至南京礼部尚书。天启六年(1626年)辞官。崇祯四年(1631年)任礼部尚书、掌詹事府事,同阉党阮大铖过从甚密。崇祯九年(1636年)八月病逝。谥文敏,后世又称董文敏。著有《容台集》、《容台别集》、《画禅室随笔》。

 

绘画擅长山水,师法董源倪瓒等人,喜纯用水墨。书法初学颜真卿的《多宝塔帖》,之后改学虞世南,又溯及魏、晋,临摹钟繇、王羲之,参以李邕和柳公权,特色“平淡天真”。其山水画如《关山雪霁图》、《秋兴八景册》、《江干三树图》、《山川出云图》、《山居图》属明朝的巅峰之作。传世书法作品以行书最多,代表作品有小楷书《月赋》,继祝枝山、文征明后对后世极有影响,康熙皇帝就酷爱董其昌书法,一生临写董字甚丰,曾遍搜董氏真迹。唯董其昌生前索画者多,董其昌往往请人代笔。

 

董其昌才艺虽高,但人品低劣,万历三十二年(1604年)冬天受命出任湖广提学副使,将“明日不考文”当作了考试题,以愚弄学生为乐。与其子董祖常眷养陈明、施心旭、吴龙、朱观等恶痞,放债霸产、诱奸民女,万历四十三年(1615年)九月陆兆芳家的使女绿英被董其昌奸淫得逞,藏娇于白龙潭“护珠阁”。绿英乘隙逃回泖口,其昌唆使其子祖权带领家奴一百多人前往陆家庄,劫走绿英,地方官府不敢办案。有华亭县学学生范昶将其恶行编撰《黑白传》,有“白公子夜袭陆家庄,黑秀才怒斥龙门里”的书目(陆秀才肤色较黑,董其昌别号思白),说书人钱二到处说唱,结果范昶被痛殴,不日暴死。董氏又对范氏家属加以凌逼,终于激起民愤。

 

明万历四十四年三月十五爆发“民抄董宦”一案,儿童妇女竞相传播“若要柴米强,先杀董其昌”的民谣,当地乡民以至上海、青浦、金山等处的报怨者将董家200余间画栋雕梁、朱栏曲槛被烧成灰烬,董其昌搜集的古今珍贵书画篆刻收藏,全付之一炬。

 

陈继儒

陈继儒(1558年~1639年),字仲醇,号眉公、麋公。华亭(今上海松江)人。明代文学家和书画家。自幼聪颖,为同郡大学士徐阶器重。二十九岁时,取儒衣冠焚弃之,隐居昆山之阳(山南),筑室东佘山,杜门著述。黄道周给崇祯帝上疏提到:“志向高雅,博学多通,不如继儒”。

 

善绘画、书法,“善写水墨梅花,即其制创,无不堪垂后世也。”,“画山水涉笔草草,苍老秀逸,不落吴下画师恬俗魔境。”。书法师法苏轼米芾,凡苏轼字帖、断简,必极力搜采,手自摹刻之,曰晚香堂帖。与同郡董其昌齐名,董其昌云:“眉公胸中素具一丘壑,虽草草泼墨,而一种苍老之气岂落吴下画师恬俗魔境。”。著有《小窗幽记》、《眉公全集》、《晚香堂小品》等。《明史》有传。

 

李日华

李日华(1565年-1635年),字实甫,江苏吴县人。明代戏曲、散曲作家。

生于明世宗嘉靖四十四年(1565年),幼时聪敏,其父“口授以《大学》,率能成诵”,万历已卯年(1579年)参加乡试,为文放纵不羁,当时主考官郝敬赏识其才,录取为第二十五名,称:“天下那得如此好秀才。”万历二十年(1592年)三甲二十二名进士,任九江推官、西华知县。官至太仆少卿。归隐后,以著述、鉴藏自娱。《明史·文苑传》称“恬澹和易,与物无忤。”

 

精鉴藏,世称“博雅君子”。擅绘画,绘《宿迁水溢图》轴,又以《南西厢记》闻名,陆采说:“李日华取实甫之语,翻为南曲,而措词命意之妙几失之矣。”[1]。又有《恬致堂集》、《槜李丛谈》、《书画想象录》、《紫桃轩杂缀》、《味水轩日记》、《六砚斋笔记》、《梅墟先生别录》、《恬致堂诗话》等书,钱谦益在《恬致堂集》作《序》称:“文章者,天地英淑之气与人之灵心结习而成者也。与山水近,与市朝远;与异石古木哀吟清唳近,与尘壒远;与钟鼎彝器法书名画近,与时俗玩好远。故风流儒雅、博物好古之人,文章往往殊邈于世,其结习使然也。”。后人称李日华有“两多”,著作多、别号多。崇祯八年(1635年)卒。

艺术特色

 吴门派在山水画上成就突出,无论对元四家或南宋院体绘画,都有新的突破。在人物画和花卉画方面也各有建树,除仇英外,另外3人尤其注重诗、书、画的有机结合,使文人画的这一优良传统更臻完美、普遍,有力地影响了明代后期直至清初画坛。吴门派形成后,其派系世代相传,绵延不断,其中文徵明的学生和子孙即达30多人。在吴门派后期画家中,著名的有陈淳陆治钱榖、陆师道、周天球等人,其中不少人在某些领域有新的发展。如陈淳发展了水墨写意花卉画,周之冕创造了钩花点叶的小写意花鸟画法,陆治以工整妍丽的花鸟画著称于世。另外,谢时臣的粗笔山水,尤求的白描人物,周天球的水墨兰石,均别开生面。

 

吴门派绘画对明末清初重要画派的影响也很大,以董其昌为主的松江派,以及后来派生的苏松派、云间派等,都与吴门派有一脉相承的关系。

影响

 吴门派绘画对明末清初重要画派的影响也很大,以董其昌为主的松江派,以及后来派生的苏松派、云间派等,都与吴门派有一脉相承的关系。

 

南宋以来长江下游的经济和文化不断发展,渐居全国先进地位。位于长江三角洲太湖流域一带的苏州地区农业和手工业繁荣,交通便利,商品经济活跃。由于长江入海口淤积,明代海外贸易的中心从扬州下移到太仓和松江一带,生产变化首先在这一地区萌发。江南科举之风炽盛,文人宦游返归故里,携回巨量金钱财货,促成了苏州地区的富庶和繁华。苏州地区文化艺术发展,出现了不少学术思想和文学艺术卓有成就人物。在炽盛文风的熏陶下,官僚文人大量贮藏法书名画、古玩器物和珍本书籍,营建私家园林,讲究饮食服饰器用。明代中期在苏州地区形成“吴门画派”,标志文人画走向极盛的阶段。

English Introduction

 Since Jiajing, Wu School has become the most influential painting school, with many painters appearing. In Wanli and Chongzhen dynasties, the Wu school was divided into Songjiang (Dong Qichang), Huating (Gu Zhengyi, Mo Tinghan, etc.), Yunjian (Shen Shichong, Chen Jiru, etc.), and Su Song (Zhao Zuo, Jiang Lan, etc.). Wu Meicun once painted nine friendship songs for famous Wu painters in the late Ming Dynasty. "Nine Friends in Pictures" are Dong Qichang, Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Li Liufang, Yang Wenji, Cheng Jiazhao, Zhang Xuezeng, Bian Wenyu and Shao Mi. Since Wang Shimin and Wang Jian, the Loudong School has been separated from the Yunjian School. The main difference between these schools is that there are different preferences between the brush and ink of Dong Yuan, Juran, Huang Gongwang and Ni Zan's predecessors. Therefore, the use of brush and ink is different from each other, and they are different from each other. Specifically, he explains the emphasis on the formal factors such as brush and ink in that period.

During Xuande's (1426-1435) years, Shen Zhou, the founding master of Wumen School, was born in Suzhou. His successors were Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin and Qiu Ying. They inherited the fine traditions since Song and Yuan Dynasty, formed their own unique styles, created a new generation of styles, replaced academies and Zhejiang School and occupied the dominant position in the art circle for more than 150 years. Year. In the history of painting, Shen, Wen, Tang and Qiu were called the Four Schools of Wumen or the Four Schools of Ming Dynasty, and they were the representative painters of Wumen School. Although these four painters rose up in Suzhou at the same time, their styles are quite different and each has its own inheritance. Shen Zhou was influenced by Du Qiong and other predecessors because of his family background. He mainly inherited the paintings of literati in Yuan Dynasty. He was good at concise, vigorous and vigorous rough brush painting. Wen Zhengming learned from Shen Zhou and absorbed Zhao Mengfu and Wang Meng's painting methods. He was famous for his meticulous, quiet, elegant and fine brushwork. They mainly developed the literati painting tradition of the Yuan Dynasty, emphasizing the expression of brush and ink, emphasizing the emotional color and the quiet mood, and pursuing the plain, natural, tranquil and peaceful style, which laid the tone of the Wumen School. Tang Yin is a down-to-earth scholar, who is a student of Shen and Zhou Dynasty with Wen Zhengming, but also a student of Zhou Chen. His landscape paintings are mainly taught by Li Tang and Liu Songnian, and integrate literati painting techniques appropriately to form a strong and delicate brushwork, rich ink, precise and elegant style of art. Qiu Ying was born a craftsman and began to learn from Zhou Chen. After that, he carefully copied the historical sites, especially Liu Songnian and Zhao Boju. He was good at making delicate green landscapes and meticulous characters. Both Tang and Qiu started with courtyard style painting in the Southern Song Dynasty and pursued the famous artists in the Northern Song Dynasty. They attached great importance to the theme and structure, paid attention to the real scenery, accurate modeling, precise brush and ink, elegant style and elegant rhyme. Their art was both elegant and popular.

Dong Qichang

"There are two sects of Zen, the North and the South, which began in the Tang Dynasty, and the North and the South sect of painting, which was also in the Tang Dynasty. But they are not from the north and the south. In the Northern Zong Dynasty, Li Sixun's father and son (Sixun and Zhaodao) painted mountains and rivers, spreading to Zhao Wu, Boju and Boju of the Song Dynasty, and even to Ma (yuan) and Xia (xie) generations; in the Southern Zong Dynasty, Wang Mahao (Wei) began to use shade and changed the method of hooking, which was Zhang Bi, Jing (hao), Guan (Tong), Guo Zhongshu and Dong (Yuan). Four great masters: Ju (Ran), Mi Father and Son (Fu, Youren) and Yuan Dynasty. It is also like the prosperity of Mazu Yunmen and Linji's descendants after the Six Ancestors (Huineng), while the prosperity of Beizhong (Shenxiu) is slight. To be sure, the so-called "Yunfeng stone color, out of the sky, vertical and horizontal thinking, refer to the creator". Dongpo praised Wu Daozi and Wang Wei for their paintings, and also said,'I can't help it in Uygur. Know your words! " The main contents of the theory are as follows: 1. Landscape paintings have been divided into Nanzong and Beizhong since the Tang Dynasty. (2) The Southern Sect is higher than the Northern Sect. (3) The most fundamental problem in the history of the development of painting art is the inheritance and evolution of the factors of form (texture, lines, ink rendering, coloring, etc.).

It is considered that the two schools of landscape painting, which have been distinguished from each other according to the style of brush and ink techniques since the Tang Dynasty, are inconsistent with the true situation in history. Wang Wei did not occupy such an important position in Tang Dynasty as to stand side by side with Li's father and son. Moreover, there are not such two schools of strict division in the method of using brushes in landscape paintings of past dynasties. Zhao Boju's brothers'green and Ma Xia's ink and wash can't be classified as one school, while Zhao Wu and Guo Xi are not suitable to be classified as the North School (according to Dong Qichang's criteria). If we combine Dong Qichang's several comments on the issue of the Northern and Southern Sects and compare them with those of his friend Chen Jiru, we can see that their series of names of painters of the two schools of the Northern and Southern Sects is full of loopholes. As for Shen, Tang and Wen in Ming Dynasty, their pen-writing methods are not so-called "the authentic biography of Nanzong". Other critics in Ming Dynasty have already pointed out their close relationship with the painters of Nansong Dynasty (that is, what Dong Qichang called "the Northern Zong").

The popularity of the "Southern and Northern Zonglun" has led to many misconceptions about the development of painting history.

Some people think that "Nanzong" developed in the Yangtze River basin and "Beizhong" developed in the Yellow River basin, which is the north and south of the region. Others think that "Nanzong" is higher than "Beizhong", which shows that the landscape painting art of the Yangtze River basin in the south is more developed than that of the Yellow River basin in the north. This is what Dong Qichang did not advocate and lacks foundation. The "Nanzong" painters mentioned in Dong Qichang's theory: Wang Wei, Jinghao, Guantong, Li Cheng, Guoxi and Mi Pu were not in the Yangtze River valley, while the "Beizhong" painters such as Zhao Feiju Brothers, Ma and Xia were all active in Hangzhou in the Southern Song Dynasty. Dong Qichang's "Southern and Southern Sects" and the geographical environment determinism are based on his ignorance of the historical facts of Chinese painting. Others believe that "Beizhong" is a fine brushwork, while "Nanzong" is a freehand brushwork of ink and wash, which is also the falsehood of Dong Qichang's statement.

Some people also think that the "Southern Sect" or the watery landscape painting is produced under the influence of Buddhist Zen thought, which lacks the basis of facts. Among the important landscape painters in ancient China, no one has ever found acceptance of Zen thought, except for a few monks who painted ink and wash paintings in the early years of Southern Song Dynasty. But these monks did not leave their names because of their great influence in the history of Chinese painting. They were valued because their works had been preserved in ancient temples in Japan and became valuable relics of paintings of the Song Dynasty. What advocates the connection between "Nanzong" and Zen is only that Dong Qichang's original text is misinterpreted in writing. Dong Qichang's original text only uses the North-South metaphor of Zen to describe the North-South of landscape painting. If there is a point, it means that the difference in style is difficult to describe in words, and is superficially similar to Zen's "unspeakable". It can be said that Dong Qichang intentionally mystifies the distinction of style and removes other people's difficulties by pretending to be mysterious. However, Dong Qichang can not be regarded as advocating that the difference between the "Southern and Northern Sects" is related to Zen's idealistic philosophy in terms of ideological content.

Dong Qichang believes that the most basic starting point of "Nanzong" over "Beizhong" is to oppose the styling ability of brush and ink techniques. Dong Qichang's actual purpose of fabricating history is to oppose the meticulous landscape figure painters of the Ming Dynasty and the landscape figure painters known as "Zhejiang School". Because their pen and ink technology department also maintained a considerable level of traditional modeling ability, for example, they can depict realistic characters. Dong Qichang himself and his writers of the same school, like the four great writers of the Yuan Dynasty, could not paint figures, but only "amorphous" mountains and trees. But Dong Qichang's objection is not from the aspect of shape, but from the aspect of style. They think that the pursuit of Meticulous Brushwork is "board", "restraint", "craftsmanship", "vulgarity" and "fire" in green and green coloring, and "brushwork" in Zhejiang School is "rough", "village" and "vertical and horizontal" in painting history.

Dong Qichang advocated the "charm of pen and ink" (the new interpretation of "vivid charm" in ancient times). In their own words, it is "empty and Xiaosan", "no cannibalism fireworks" (Chen Jiru language), and in their concurrent words, it is "beautiful and charming", so it is actually a kind of weak interest. His handwriting also shows the same style. Therefore, what he advocated in his paintings is not the technical and stylistic relevance of pen and ink in calligraphy and painting. But he advocates a special style.

During the development of Ming and Qing paintings (especially landscape paintings), many different schools were formed consciously in a fixed subject area. These schools are based on different systems and styles of ink and brush. They regard the historical process of painting as the change and evolution of only formal factors (texture, lines, ink shading, coloring, etc.). They ignore or deny the argument that art reflects real life. They do not regard art as a form of understanding of real life. They also use this idea to practice in many ways. Thoughts have had a serious impact on the development of painting in the past hundred years.

Dong Qichang

Dong Qichang (1555 - 1636), Xuanzai, Sibai and Siweng, also known as Xiangguang Gushi, was born in Huating, Songjiang (now Songjiang, Shanghai). Ming Dynasty calligrapher and painter.

In his early years, he worked as a school teacher at Feng Dashen's residence in Ximen, Pinghu City. He was fond of Zen Cao Dong Sect and was friendly with Lu Zhaofang, Sikou, Xindai Town. Longqing five years (1571) 17 years old to participate in the Songjiang government examination, because the Songjiang Zhifu Zhengji think Dong writing is too bad, only the second, from then on angry Linchi, learn from Lu Shusheng, Mo Ruzhong, and so on, benefited a lot. Wanli seven years (1579) to participate in the Nanjing Rural Examination, Wang Xizhi's "Official Slave Tie" Tang copy, amazed.

In 17th year of Wanli (1589), the first scholar in Second Class A was awarded the honorary scholars of Hanlin College to study in Hanlin College. Tian Yijun, the left attendant of the Ministry of Rites, died of illness. He was mourned in Tian's hometown of Fujian. In the spring of 1592, he was awarded the editing of Hanlin College. In the 22nd year of Wanli (1594), Zhu Changluo, the eldest son of the emperor, gave lectures in the cabinet and served as a lecturer. In the 26th year of Wanli (1598), he was deputy envoy of Huguangzhan. Wanli thirty-two years (1604), as deputy envoy of Huguang University. In the first year of Taichang (1620), Ming Guangzong took office and worked for Shaoqing and the head of the state. In the second year of Tianqi (1622), he took part in Taichang True Records. In the fifth year of Tianqi (1625), the official went to Nanjing Rite Department to publish the book. Six years after Tianqi (1626) resigned. In 1631, Chongzhen served as the official of the Ministry of Rites in Shangshu and Zhan Dynasty. He had a close relationship with Ruan Darong, the Rong Party. Chongzhen died of illness in August in the ninth year (1636). Ji Wenmin, later known as Dong Wenmin. His works include Rong Tai Collection, Rong Tai Bie Collection and Painting Chan Room Essays.

Painting is good at landscapes, learning from Dong Yuan, Ni Zan and others, like pure ink. Yan Zhenqing's "Duo Pagoda Tie" was first studied in calligraphy, then he changed to Yu Shinan, and then traced back to Wei and Jin Dynasty. He imitated Zhongxi and Wang Xizhi, and referred to Li Yong and Liu Gongquan with the characteristics of "plain innocence". His landscape paintings such as Guanshan Snow Map, Autumn Xing Eight Scenery Books, River Trunk Three Trees Map, Mountain Cloud Map and Mountain Residence Map are the peak works of the Ming Dynasty. The most handed down calligraphy works are running scripts. The representative works are the small script "Moon Fu", which has great influence on later generations after Zhu Zhishan and Wen Zhengming. Emperor Kangxi loved Dong Qichang's calligraphy very much. During his lifetime, Dong's handwriting was very abundant and Dong's authentic works were searched all over. Only Dong Qichang used to ask for paintings before his death, and Dong Qichang often asked others to write for him.

Dong Qichang was appointed Vice Envoy of Huguang University in the winter of 1604 in Wanli thirty-two years. He regards "no texts tomorrow" as an examination question and takes pleasure in fooling students. In September of 1615, Luying, the maid of Lu Zhaofang's family, was raped by Dong Qichang and succeeded in hiding in Bailongtan's Pearl Pavilion. Green Ying fled back to Sikou in the gap, and his Chang instigated his descendants to lead more than 100 slaves to Lujiazhuang, robbing Green Ying. The local government dared not handle the case. Fan Chang, a student of Huating County, compiled his evil deeds in Biography of Black and White. There are bibliographies of "Bai Gongzi attacked Lujiazhuang at night and Hei Xiuci angrily denounced Longmen Li" (Lu Xiuci's skin color is darker, Dong Qichang's nickname is white). Qian Er, a storyteller, talked and sang everywhere. As a result, Fan Chang was beaten up and died violently every day. Dong's bullying Fan's family members finally aroused public indignation.

On March 15, 194, Ming Wanli broke out the case of "copying Dong officials by the people". Children and women competed to disseminate the ballad "If you want Chai Miqiang, kill Dong Qichang first". Local villagers and complainers from Shanghai, Qingpu, Jinshan and other places burned more than 200 paintings of Dong Jia's Dong Diao Liang and Zhu Lanqu sills to ashes. Dong Qichang collected valuable books of ancient and modern times. The collection of paintings and seal carvings was burned to the flames.

Chen Jiru

Chen Jiru (1558-1639), the word secondary alcohol, named Meigong, Elk Gong. Huating (now Songjiang, Shanghai) people. Literators and painters of the Ming Dynasty. Since childhood, Xu Tiao, a scholar of Tongjun University, has been very respectful. When he was 29 years old, he took Confucian clothes and burned them. He lived in seclusion in the south of Kunshan Mountain. He built Dongshe Mountain and wrote by Dumen. Huang Daozhou mentioned to Emperor Chongzhen that his ambition is elegant and knowledgeable, so it is better to follow Confucianism.

Good at painting and calligraphy, "good at writing ink plum blossom, that is, its creation, can not be overwhelmed by future generations." "Painting mountains and rivers involves brushwork and grass, old and elegant, not falling into Wuxia painter's tranquil and vulgar magic realm." Calligraphers like Su Shi and Mi Fu, Fan Su Shi's handwriting posts and short-cut posts, will try their best to collect them and copy them by hand, saying that the evening Xiangtang posts. Tongjun Dong Qichang is equally famous, Dong Qichangyun: "The eyebrow Prince has a hill in his chest, although grass splashes ink, but a kind of old spirit falls into Wuxia painter's tranquil magic realm." His works include The Story of the Small Window, The Complete Works of Mei Gong and The Essays of the Evening Chamber. History of the Ming Dynasty is a biography.

Li Rihua

Li Rihua (1565-1635) was born in Wuxian County, Jiangsu Province. Ming Dynasty opera and Sanqu writers.

Born in 1565, Jiajing, Emperor Shizong of Ming Dynasty, when he was a child, he was intelligent. His father "dictated to the University" and was able to recite it. Wanli has been taking the local exam for three years (1579). He was indulgent in writing. At that time, Hao Jing, the chief examiner, appreciated his talent and was admitted to the 25th place. He said, "That's such a good talent in the world." In the twentieth year of Wanli (1592), thirty-two Jinshi were appointed as Jiujiang Tui Officer and Xihuazhi County. Official to Taifu Shaoqing. After returning to seclusion, he amused himself by writing and collecting. "History of the Ming Dynasty. Biography of Wen Yuan" said, "calm and easy, and things are not in harmony."

Jingjian Collection, known as "Boya gentleman". Proficient in painting, painting the axis of Suqian Water Overflow Picture, and also known as The Story of the Southern West Chamber, Lu Cai said: "Li Rihua took Shifu's words and turned them into Nanqu, but the delicate meaning of the wording was almost lost." [1]. Qian Qianyi's preface to Tian Zhi Tang Ji, Yu Li Cong Tan, Imagination of Calligraphy and Painting, Purple Peach Hybrid, Weishui Xuan Diary, Notes of Six Inkstone Studio, Mr. Meixu's Fair Record and Tian Zhi Tang's Poetry Talks, says, "The Artist, the Spirit of Heaven and Earth Yingshu and the Spirit of Man" They become adults by habit. Close to the mountains and rivers, far from the city; close to the mourning and singing of ancient trees with different stones, far from the dust; close to the famous calligraphy and paintings of Zhong Dingyi ware, and far away from the fashion. Therefore, people who are elegant and have good antiquities tend to have different articles in the world, and their habits make them so. Later generations called Li Rihua "more than two", many works, nicknames. Chongzhen died in eight years (1635).

The influence of Wumen School on the important schools of painting in the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty is also great. The Songjiang School, mainly composed of Dong Qichang, and the Susong School and Yunjian School, which were derived later, are closely related to the Wumen School.

Since the Southern Song Dynasty, the economy and culture of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River have been developing continuously and gradually occupying an advanced position in the whole country. Agriculture and handicraft industry are flourishing, transportation is convenient and commodity economy is active in Suzhou area, which is located in Taihu Basin of Yangtze River Delta. Due to the siltation of the Yangtze River estuary, the center of overseas trade in the Ming Dynasty moved from Yangzhou to Taicang and Songjiang, where production changes first sprouted. The prosperity of the imperial examinations in the south of the Yangtze River was so strong that literati returned home and brought back huge amounts of money and goods, which contributed to the prosperity and prosperity of Suzhou. With the development of culture and art in Suzhou, many outstanding figures in academic thought and literature and art have emerged. Influenced by the fiery literary style, the bureaucratic literati stored a large number of calligraphy, paintings, antiques and rare books, built private gardens, and paid attention to the use of food and clothing appliances. In the mid-Ming Dynasty, "Wumen Painting School" was formed in Suzhou, which marked the period when literati paintings were going to flourish.

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吴派
北方山水画派
新造型主义
金陵八家
巴比桑学派
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拉斐尔前派
王元友
多梅尼科.贝卡富米Domenico Beccafumi
秦岭云
约翰·瓦利John Varley
繆辅
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张汝为
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赵秀勋
戴振宇
雅格布朱奇Zucchi, Jacopo
都本基
包仕武
陈琦
余润德
王辰光
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姚旭辉
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潘望森
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列维威尔斯普伦蒂斯Levi Wells Prentice
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许以诚
张键
崔广五
张明军
鲁晓波
朱晓昀
刘庆涛
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丁观鹏
杜苏旭
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唐稚云
陈祖煌
薛佛影
徐志敏
程恩平
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时君贞
程明震
张泽光
郑礼阔
崔海
石劲松
唐世储
邓圣
查尔斯·考特尼伦Charles Courtney Curran
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王敬生
肖峻
东京国立美术馆
郑樗
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刘智尹
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贝尔梅霍Bermejo, Bartolomè