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黄山画派

 黄山画派,是指清朝初所扎根黄山,潜心体味黄山真景,描绘黄山神妙绝伦的境名胜,在山水画史上独辟蹊径,勇于创新的一个不同籍贯的山水画家群。

  • 中文名黄山画派
  • 国籍中国
  • 代表人物梅清,石涛
  • 时间清朝初期
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道合乾坤  法自我立 ———论石涛《画谱》与蒋志鑫大写意山水画

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

在当代中国画创作中,蒋志鑫是最具开创性的画家之一。他的作品,师法天地,化用传统;大气磅礴,充满激情;笔墨奔放,不失法度;个性鲜明,深合画道。经过四十年的不断探索,不断实践,创作出了...
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文化地位

 黄山,在中国的山水文化中占有重要的地位,特别是对中国传统山水画的发展产生过很大的影响。每当人们提起中国山水画,就会油然想起黄山,称它是中国山水画的摇篮。黄山享有如此盛誉,功在明末清初创建的黄山画派的艺术大师们。这些艺术大师开拓了黄山这块艺术瑰宝,在当时"舟车闭塞"的原始山林中,把"天造的仙境"绘成纸上丹青,传播民间,对当时的画坛和后来的山水画都产生了积极而深刻的影响。

画派发展

 十七世纪下半叶,中国社会改朝换代。 这一时期的绘画艺术讲究抒写性灵,提倡气韵超逸,具有鲜明的时代特征。 黄山画派的涎生,也得力于一批明末遗民的大力开拓。他们"不求闻达,一室之外,山水而已",对功名已渐淡薄,隐于书画。黄山画派它与新安画派的区别,在于"新安"是指一批徽州画家互为影响所形成的一个画派 ;"黄山"是指由黄山的外形和内容所决定,经过笔墨锻炼,抽象出的山水画类型。在新安画派与其后的黄山画派的关系中,画家梅清是个关键人物。

 

代表人物

 梅清(1623-1697)安徽宣城人,他与新安画派的渐江、查士标是画友,与石涛也是好友。

 

石涛(1642-1718)广西全州人,公元1670-1687年旅居安徽宣城。在此期间,石涛活动在黄山和敬亭山一带。28岁时,石涛第一次游黄山对他日后的创作产生了极大的影响。受石涛作品的感染,梅清也在1671年第一次上黄山。其后石涛和梅清又多次登临黄山。梅清笔下的黄山,以黄山的真景作依据,更将自然的黄山升华为艺术的黄山。梅清自认"余游黄山之后,凡有笔墨,大半皆黄山矣"。可见黄山在画家艺术创作中的重要位置。由于梅清和石涛的介入,新安画派突破了地域的局限,从而形成了人们所说的"黄山画派 "。

 

石涛、梅清、渐江被称为黄山画派三巨子。他们不受古法束缚,虽同属一流派,却都有鲜明的个性和艺术风格。"石涛得黄山之灵,梅清得黄山之影,渐江得黄山之质"(贺天健语)。

 

艺术风格

 说到"黄山画派"的三大支柱梅清石涛、渐江,有评价说是他们虽同属一流派,不受古法束缚,却都有鲜明的个性和艺术风格。"石涛得黄山之灵,梅清得黄山之影,渐江得黄山之质"。

 

梅清在师法方面虽没有明确的记载,但还是可以从他的画上看出师法元代王蒙的痕迹,同时也受到黄公望倪瓒吴镇以及明代的沈周等一定的影响。既含有倪瓒冷逸的画风,善于师法造化,更强调自我表现意识,标榜个性。他曾自述"临摹百家祗顷刻,点染万品随生成",还专门治下一方闲章"不薄今人爱古人",由此可看出梅清对传统继承和学习的态度。自石涛来宣城,前后居住十余年,梅清虽长他19岁,却与他结为忘年交,引为契友,在石涛驻锡的广教寺,在梅清的书斋天延阁,他们时常一起切磋诗文画艺,早期石涛受梅清画风的影响,当代著名画家亚明先生在为梅清撰写的墓志铭文中称其"……乃石涛成功之先导也"。

 

但是后来,梅清受石涛的影响更大一些,可以说,他们的绘画艺术中风格相处渗透,画风很有些相似。无疑,梅清以自己独特的画风创立了独领风骚的宣城画派,是宣城画派的领军人物。宣城画派的重要画家,则是石涛、半山和尚,梅清的儿子梅蔚、梅磊,侄孙梅庚、梅翀等。

相关名家

 近代画家黄宾虹、汪采白、刘海粟张大千李可染赖少其等大家也都留下了以黄山为题材的作品。尤其是艺术大师黄宾虹,他少年时开始临摹董其昌石涛、渐江、查士标的作品,十九岁首次游黄山就被山中胜景深深吸引,一生九上黄山,自称"黄山山中人"。他继承了黄山画派师法自然的传统,同时又博采众长,融会中西。晚年风格从淡恬清雅变为浑厚凝重,达到了物我两忘,随意自如的境界。他十分重视黄山画派的研究,亲手编辑了《黄山画家源流考》一书。无论是在绘画艺术上,还是在学术研究上,黄宾虹都进一步丰富和发展了"黄山画派",是近代黄山画派中声名昭著的人物。

 

黄宾虹同乡的汪采白,是民国时期的一位山水画家。他对黄山画派亦深有研究。他擅长于画黄山的青山绿水,格调清新明快,有《黄海卧游集》画册,颇具现代山水画的特点。他的作品曾在巴黎国际艺展会获一等奖。

 

世界著名的国画大师张大千曾数上黄山,记下了不少黄山景观,出版了《张大千黄山画册》。他对黄山留有深刻的印象,刻有"黄海归来"、"二到黄山绝顶人"等印章。

 

黄宾虹

(1865-1955),近现代画家、学者。原籍安徽歙县,生于浙江金华。初名懋质,后改名质,字朴存,号宾虹,别署予向、虹叟、黄山山中人。擅画山水,为山水画一代宗师。精研传统与关注写生齐头并进,早年受"新安画派"影响,以干笔淡墨、疏淡清逸为特色,为"白宾虹";八十岁后以黑密厚重、黑里透亮为特色,为"黑宾虹"。其画风苍浑华滋,意境深邃。偶作花鸟草虫亦奇崛有致。除绘画之外,并从事绘画史论、篆刻的研究和教学。曾任杭州国立艺专教授等职。著有《黄山画家源流考》《虹庐画谈》《画法要旨》等。

 

刘海粟

现代画家、美术教育家,名盘,字季芳,号海翁,。汉族,江苏常州人,祖籍安徽凤阳。1912年与乌始光、张聿光等创办上海图画美术院,后改为上海美术专科学校,任校长。1949年后任南京艺术学院院长。早年习油画,书法学康有为,苍古沉雄。兼作国画,线条有钢筋铁骨之力。后潜心于泼墨法,笔飞墨舞,气魄过人。晚年运用泼彩法,色彩绚丽,气格雄浑。历任南京艺术学院名誉院长、教授,上海美术家协会名誉主席。中国美术家协会顾问。英国剑桥国际传略中心授予"杰出成就奖"。意大利欧洲学院授予"欧洲棕榈金奖"。

English Introduction

 Cultural status

Huangshan, which occupies an important position in Chinese landscape culture, has exerted a great influence on the development of traditional Chinese landscape painting. Whenever people mention Chinese landscape painting, they will think of Huangshan, calling it the cradle of Chinese landscape painting. Huangshan enjoys such a high reputation, and the artists of the Huangshan Painting School founded in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties have made great contributions to it. These artists pioneered the artistic treasure of Huangshan Mountain. In the primitive forest of the time when the boats were blocked, they painted the "heaven-made fairyland" on paper and spread it among the people, which had a positive and profound impact on the painting circle at that time and the landscape painting later.

Development of Painting School

In the second half of the seventeenth century, Chinese society was transformed into a dynasty. The painting art of this period pays attention to expressing spirit and advocates super-leisure and charm, which has distinct characteristics of the times. The salivation of Huangshan Painting School was also attributed to the vigorous development of a group of adherents in the late Ming Dynasty. They "don't want to hear, just outside the room, mountains and rivers," the fame has faded away, hidden in painting and calligraphy. The difference between Huangshan Painting School and Xin'an Painting School lies in that "Xin'an" refers to a school formed by a group of Huizhou painters who interact with each other; and "Huangshan" refers to the type of landscape painting abstracted by the shape and content of Huangshan and exercised by brush and ink. Mei Qing is a key figure in the relationship between Xin'an School and Huangshan School.

representative figure

Mei Qing (1623-1697) is a native of Xuancheng, Anhui Province. He is a friend of Jianjiang and Zheshi Biao of Xin'an School of Painting and Shi Tao.

Shi Tao (1642-1718) was a native of Quanzhou, Guangxi. He lived in Xuancheng, Anhui Province from 1670 to 1687. During this period, Shitao activities were in the area of Huangshan and Jingting Mountains. At the age of 28, Shi Tao's first trip to Huangshan had a great impact on his later creation. Influenced by Shi Tao's works, Mei Qing also went to Huangshan for the first time in 1671. Later, Shi Tao and Mei Qing visited Huangshan many times. Huangshan in Mei Qing's works is based on the real scenery of Huangshan and sublimates the natural Huangshan Mountain to the artistic Huangshan Mountain. Mei Qing admits that "after traveling to Mount Huangshan for the rest of the year, most of the pens and ink are written in Mount Huangshan." It can be seen that Huangshan plays an important role in the artist's artistic creation. Due to the intervention of Mei Qing and Shi Tao, Xin'an School of Painting broke through the regional limitations, thus forming what people call the "Huangshan School of Painting".

Shi Tao, Mei Qing and Jianjiang are known as the three giants of Huangshan Painting School. They are not bound by the ancient law. Although they belong to the first-class school, they all have distinct personality and artistic style. "Shi Tao gets the spirit of Huangshan, Mei Qing gets the shadow of Huangshan, and gradually Jiang gets the quality of Huangshan" (He Tianjianyu).

Style of Art

When it comes to Meiqing, Shitao and Jianjiang, the three pillars of the Huangshan School of Painting, it is said that although they belong to the first-class school and are not bound by the ancient laws, they all have distinct personalities and artistic styles. "Shi Tao gets the spirit of Huangshan, Mei Qing gets the shadow of Huangshan, and gradually Jiang gets the quality of Huangshan."

Although there is no clear record of Mei Qing's teachings, we can still see the traces of Wang Meng in the Yuan Dynasty from his paintings, which were also influenced by Huang Gongwang, Ni Zan, Wuzhen and Shen Zhou in the Ming Dynasty. It not only contains Nizan's cool and easy painting style, but also is good at mastering the art, emphasizing self-expression consciousness and flaunting personality. He once described himself as "copying a hundred schools of thought in an instant, lighting and dyeing everything as it comes into being". He also specially ruled one side of the chapters, "Do not care for the present and love the ancients". From this we can see Mei Qing's attitude towards inheritance and learning of tradition. Since Shi Tao came to Xuancheng and lived in Xuancheng for more than ten years, although Mei Qing was 19 years old, he had forgetted his old age and made friends with him. He was stationed at Guangjiao Temple in Xixi and at Tianyan Pavilion in Mei Qing's study. They often discussed poetry, literature and painting together. In the early period, under the influence of Mei Qing's painting style, Mr. Ya Ming, a famous contemporary painter, wrote for Mei Qing. The epitaph calls it'... It is Shi Tao's forerunner of success.

Later, however, Mei Qing was more influenced by Shi Tao. It can be said that their style of painting was permeated with each other, and their style of painting was quite similar. Undoubtedly, Mei Qing founded Xuancheng Painting School with her unique style, which is the leader of Xuancheng Painting School. The important painters of Xuancheng School are Shi Tao, Banshan monk, Mei Wei, Mei Lei, Mei Qing's son, nephew Mei Geng and Mei Yi.

Relevant celebrities

Modern painters Huang Binhong, Wang Caibai, Liu Haisu, Zhang Daqian, Li Keran and Lai Shaoqi all left works on Huangshan. In particular, Huang Binhong, a master of art, began copying works of Dong Qichang, Shitao, Jianjiang and Zheshibiao when he was young. When he was nineteen years old, he first visited Huangshan Mountain and was deeply attracted by its scenic spots. He went to Huangshan nine times in his life and called himself "a man in Huangshan Mountain". He inherited the tradition of learning from nature of Huangshan School of Painting, and at the same time, he absorbed all the advantages of Chinese and Western painting. In his later years, his style changed from tranquil and elegant to thick and dignified, reaching the realm of forgetting both things and me and being at ease. He attached great importance to the study of the Huangshan School of Painting and edited the book The Origin and Origin of Huangshan Painters by himself. Whether in painting art or in academic research, Huang Binhong has further enriched and developed the "Huangshan Painting School", which is a well-known figure in modern Huangshan Painting School.

Wang Caibai, a fellow of Huang Binhong, was a landscape painter in the period of the Republic of China. He also has a deep study of the Huangshan School of Painting. He is good at painting the green mountains and waters of Huangshan Mountain. His style is fresh and lively. He has a picture album of Huanghai Recumbent Travel Collection, which has the characteristics of modern landscape painting. His works won the first prize at the International Art Fair in Paris.

Zhang Daqian, a world-famous master of Chinese painting, has gone to Mount Huangshan several times, recorded many scenery of Mount Huangshan, and published "Zhang Daqian Huangshan Painting Album". He was deeply impressed by the Huangshan Mountains, engraved with the seals of "Return of the Yellow Sea" and "Two to the Top of the Huangshan Mountains".

Huang Binhong

(1865-1955), modern painter and scholar. She County, Anhui Province, was born in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province. The first name is Confucian, then renamed Confucian, the word is simple, the number is Binhong, other department to Xiang, Hongsao, Huangshan Zhongren. He is good at landscape painting and is a master of landscape painting. The intensive study of tradition goes hand in hand with the concern of sketching. Influenced by Xin'an School of Painting in his early years, he was characterized by dry brush, light ink, light and leisurely style, and was characterized by "Bai Binhong". After 80 years of age, he was characterized by thick black ink and bright black inside, which was called "Black Binhong". His painting style is graceful and graceful, and his artistic conception is profound. Occasionally, flowers, birds, weeds and insects are also peculiar. Besides painting, he also engaged in the research and teaching of painting history and seal carving. He was a professor of Hangzhou National Arts College. His works include A Textual Study of the Origin and Development of Huangshan Painters, A Talk on Honglu Painting, Essentials of Painting, etc.

Liu Haisu

Modern painter, art educator, famous plate, the word Jifang, Haiweng,. Han nationality, from Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, originated in Fengyang, Anhui Province. In 1912, he founded Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts with Wu Shiguang and Zhang Yuguang, and later changed to Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts as president. After 1949, he became president of Nanjing Academy of Art. Early learning oil painting, calligraphy Kang Youwei, ancient Shenxiong. As a Chinese painting, the lines have the strength of steel and iron. Later, he devoted himself to the ink-splashing method and danced with great boldness. In his later years, he used the splash-colored method, which had brilliant colors and vigorous temperament. He has been honorary Dean and professor of Nanjing Academy of Art and honorary chairman of Shanghai Artists Association. Consultant of China Artists Association. The Cambridge Center for International Heritage awarded the Outstanding Achievement Award. The Italian European Academy awarded the European Palm Gold Prize.

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