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水粉画

水粉画是使用水调合粉质颜料绘制而成的一种画。其表现特点为处在不透明和半透明之间,色彩可以在画面上产生艳丽、柔润、明亮、浑厚等艺术效果。含粉对水色流畅的活动性会产生一定限制。水粉画在湿的时候,颜色的饱和度很高,干后则由于粉的作用及颜色失去光泽,饱和度大幅度降低,这就是它颜色纯度的局限性。学习水粉画可以很好的认识色彩,对颜色的透明度有一个新的认识,在学习水粉画的过程中可以学会怎样去调色,进一步的了解色彩对水粉画的重要性。

  • 中文名水粉
  • 性质水调合粉质颜料绘制而成
  • 外观不透明和半透明之间
  • 特点艳丽、柔润、明亮、浑厚
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笔耕不辍 桃李满天下--访水粉画家李宗儒

中国美术网 09-16 浏览

李宗儒先生是有声望的艺术教育家,在教育战线上耕耘40余载,可谓桃李满天下,但在繁忙的教学之余,笔耕不辍,对艺术孜孜以求,在绘画艺术方面取得了卓越的成就。李宗儒先生擅长油画,尤精于水彩...
特点

水粉画的性质和技法,与油画和水彩画有着紧密的联系。是介于油画和水彩之间的一种画种,它与水彩画一样都使用水溶性颜料,颜料成分和透明水彩颜料相同。如用不透明的水粉颜料以较多的水分调配时,也会产生不同程度的水彩效果,但在水色的活动性与透明性方面,则无法与水彩画相比拟。一般水粉画所展示出的反光效果和透明水彩画的明亮效果大不一样,因此,水粉画一般并不使用多水分调色的方法,而采用白粉色调节色彩的明度,以厚画的方法来显示自己独特的色彩效果。这一点近似于油画的绘制方法。因为不透明的水粉颜料与油画颜料都是具有遮盖力的颜料,所以水粉画是介于水彩画与油画之间的一个画种,它是通过吸取水彩画与油画的某些方法与技巧而发展形成自己的技法体系的。
如果在有颜色的底子上覆盖或叠加,那么这个过程,实际上是一个加法,底层的色彩多少都会对表层的颜色产生影响,这也就是它较难掌握的地方。但是,有经验的画家往往就是利用它的这种特性来表达水粉色彩自身的和特有的艺术魅力。

基本技法

调色
写生时调配色彩,是建立在正确观察和理解对象的色彩关系的基础上。调配颜色不能孤立的看一块,调一块,画一块。而要考虑整个的色调和色彩关系,从整体中去决定每一块颜色。水粉画写生色彩不易衔接,也应该在明确色彩的大关系的基础上,把几个大色块的颜色加以试调,准备好再往上画。切忌脱离整体,看一块,调一块,画一块,接着又调一块改一块。水粉画颜色湿时深,干后浅,干湿变化明显。
如果调色时使用粉(白色)多,或已经画了较厚的色层,再着色作画,又使用的是吸水性强的纸,颜料的干湿变化就更显著。这使水粉画调色不容易做出正确的估计。造成色彩衔接、覆盖和修改上的困难。这是水粉画的一个明显特色和难点。初学时要特别注意这个问题。所以入手时要先画重颜色。一般来说,趁画面湿时,颜色湿与湿比,一口气画完,色彩关系易于掌握。如果在一色已干的情况下再衔接、覆盖颜色,就要注意颜色的干湿变化。
水的使用
水的使用在水粉画中虽然不及水彩画中那样重要,但也是不可忽视的。水主要是起稀释、媒介的作用。调色、用笔和色层薄变化,都与水的使用,有密切关系。一般来说,适当地用水可以使画面有流畅、滋润、浑厚的效果。过多的用水则会减少色度,引起水渍、污点和水色淤积。而用水不足又会使颜色干枯、粘厚,难于用笔。通常用水以能流畅地用笔、盖住底色,为宜。在画暗处、虚处和远处,一般可适当地多用水,以增强其虚远和透明感。从作画步骤来说。在铺大调子时水要用的多些,使色层较薄,便于再往上着色。在作画过程中,水太脏了要及时换。尤其是画色彩鲜明的部位,调色用水要洁净。
用笔
由于各种类型的笔都可以用来作水粉画,因此水粉画的用笔技巧是异常丰富的。并且是在借鉴油画。国画和水彩画笔法的过程中,不断加以发展的。水粉画中常见的笔法。
“平笔法”——笔迹隐蔽。画面色层平整;
“散除法”——笔迹显露,但色层厚薄变化不显著;
“厚除法”——色层错综重叠,用色较厚、厚薄相间;
“点彩法”——利用光色的空间、初觉混合原理,用密集的小笔触(色点)塑造形象。(这种笔法用得较少,较难掌握,初学时不宜过早效仿)
刀画技法
此外,水粉画也吸收了油画的刀画技法。可用油画刀作画,也可用自制竹刀作画。水粉画在吸收其它画种的用笔技法时,必须从水粉画的特点、性能出发,目的是为了丰富水粉画的技法,增强水粉画的表现力。一般在画虚处、远处和暗部、阴影时,笔触要模糊些、平些、颜色薄一些,以增加虚远感。而在画近处、实处和亮部时,笔触则要显露些、颜色要厚一些,以增强其结实、突出、明晰的效果。当然这些都需要从整幅画的处理意图出发,运用不同的笔法。笔触也有一个整体性的问题。一幅画的用笔也要有变化而统一,形成一种节奏感。要防止缺乏整体处理意图的凌乱用笔。
衔接
水粉画由于颜色干得较快、干湿变化显著,又加之用水,颜色会在画面上流动,渗化和容易产生水渍,因此熟练地掌握好衔接技巧,对于画好水粉画关系很大。水粉画的衔接主要可以分为湿接、干接和压接这三种方法。
所谓湿接,是邻接的色块趁前一块色尚未干时接上第二、三块颜色。或是两块相邻的颜色碰接上。或是一块颜色中趁湿点入其它颜色,让其渗化。再或在笔头的不同部位分别蘸上几种不同的颜色,画到纸上时利用笔肚的水分,让其自然化接。
所谓干接,就是邻接的色块在前一块颜色已经干了的时候,再接上第二、三块颜色。
所谓压接,就是相邻的色块(形体的转折或不同的物物体),前一块色画得稍大于应有的形,第二、三个色块成一种节奏感。要防止缺乏整体处理意图的凌乱用笔。接上去时,是压放在前一块色上,压出前一块色应有的形。进行压接时,要注意颜色(压接上去的颜色)的盖色力和粘着性,一般来说压上去的这块色要比已画的色块稍厚一些。
覆盖
所谓覆盖,就是在已画的色层上再画上一层或数层颜色。覆盖的主要作用可以概括为两点:一是使画面色层重叠,厚薄有变化,是塑造形象的一种技法;二是一种修改方法。水粉画颜色的盖色力是比较强的,但又各有差异,加上作画时调用清水,覆盖时掌握不好就容易使底色(被覆盖的色层)泛起,产生水渍,造成色彩污浊。有时又故意用很薄的颜色覆盖,让底层色透露出来。这些具体效果都不容易估计,所以要掌握好覆盖技巧也并非易事,得慢慢捉

着色

固有色
固有色,就是物体本身所呈现的固有的色彩。对固有色的把握,主要是准确的把握物体的色相。
由于固有色在一个物体中占有的面积最大,所以,对它的研究就显得十分重要。一般来讲,物体呈现固有色最明显的地方是受光面与背光面之间的中间部分,也就是素描调子中的灰部,我们称之为半调子或中间色彩。因为在这个范围内,物体受外部条件色彩的影响较少,它的变化主要是明度变化和色相本身的变化,它的饱和度,也往往最高。
(1 )起稿开始象画素描一样,先用铅笔定位置和比例,不必用橡皮,以免损坏纸面,影响着色效果。接着用颜色定稿,根据静物的色调,用赭褐或群青色定稿皆可。色线可略重一点,并可用定稿
之色薄薄地略示明暗,为下一步的着色作铺垫。造型能力强一些的,也可直接用色线起稿,不示明暗,直接着色。
(2 )铺大色调定稿之后,迅速地观察一下整体色调和大色块关系,做到胸有成竹,尽快地薄涂。此刻不要考虑形体与笔触,根据新鲜的色彩印象大胆挥洒,造成画面的色彩环境。有的人在完成上一遍色后,就急于具体刻划。应进一步调整大色块的关系,使色彩之间的关系和总的色调,与实际感觉相吻合。
(3 )具体塑造在大关系比较正确的基础上,进一步进行具体塑造,从画面主体物着手,逐个完成。集中画一件物体干湿变化易于掌握,也易于塑造其受光与背光不同面的色彩变化。此时眼睛要随时环扫周围,从局部入手但不能陷入局部,顾此失彼。要看该物体与背景和春他物体的关系,掌握分寸,细节可留下一步刻划。这一遍色用色要适当加厚,底色的正确部分可以保留,增加画面的色彩层次。
(4 )细节刻划对琐碎多余的细节固然可省略,但对表现物象特征与质感的重要细节应加强刻划,画龙点睛。细节要综合到整体之中。最后的笔触最为重要,它将不被覆盖而显露给欣赏者。
(5 )调整、完成画室外一幅静物写生,作为基本练习一般以八小时为宜,力求深刻准确。熟练之后三、四个小时也可以表现得比较充分。作画时间较长,眼睛容易疲劳,色感容易减弱,具体刻划又容易忘记整体。在写生接近完成的时候,恢复一下第一印象,检查一下画面:在深入刻划时是否有些地方破坏了整体,局部和细节的色彩有没有“跳出”画面,还有没有其他毛病。检查后,调整、修改、加工。错误之处,如画得太厚,要洗掉再画,直至完成。水粉画中干和湿的技法应控制到什么程度?有哪些应用范围?水粉画运用的干湿技法,主要指调色时含水和白粉量的多少。
着色方法
水粉画颜色有较强覆盖能力,但也不能毫无顾及地随便乱涂,它有自己一定的着色方法和步骤。
着色顺序
1、从整体到局部水粉画是色彩画的一种,它同水彩、油画一样,都是从画大色块深色块入手。整体着眼和从大体入手是我们的作画原则,大色块和大片色,对画面色调起决定性作用,应首先画准组成画面的主要色块的色彩关系,然后再进行局部的塑造和细节刻划。
2、从深重色到明亮色明亮色多是厚涂,一遍遍薄涂亮不起来。先画深重色,容易被明亮色覆盖;相反,一般是先画面积较大的深重色(包括暗部和明部和重色),予以确定画面色彩的骨架。逐步向中间色和明亮色推移。以明亮色为主的画面,还是要先涂明亮的大色块,颜色稍薄一点,局部小面积的深重色后加上去。如果中间色为主,作画时先涂中间色,运用并置的方法,分别向面积较小的暗色的明亮色画过去。方法不是死的,要根据情况灵活掌握。
3、从薄涂到厚画薄涂即用水稀释颜料,如同画水彩画,根据总的色彩感觉,迅速地薄涂一遍,造成画面整体的色彩环境,尔后逐渐加厚,深入表现。薄涂比较正确的地方要善于保留,使画面色彩有厚有薄,以增加色彩有层次和厚重的效果。水粉画颜料不象油画、丙烯颜料附着力强,可随意画厚。水粉画的厚涂要厚的适当,过厚容易龟裂脱落,所以较厚而不准的颜色应洗掉再画。
具体着色
(1 )干画法和湿画法在水粉画中,干画法一般是指厚涂重叠的方法。此法可以反复地画,一遍不行再画一遍,表现对象比较充分、深刻,也宜于初学者掌握。这种厚画的画面,类似油画的效果,有浑厚之感。湿画法是以薄画为主,发挥水色渗化的效果,着色遍数不宜多,甚至白色部分可以空出白纸,具有水彩画湿润流动的意趣。当然,一些局部加厚也是可以的,干湿结合会增强表现力。
(2 )并置和重置
并置是笔触在画纸上并列摆置,着色遍数较少,开始用色即厚一些。如强调二度空间的画面。先用毛粗暴色线勾一下轮廓及结构,添色时用并置的方法把颜色摆上去,压出色线。
重置是一种叠色的方法,以色点、色线、色块进行重叠着色。作画大都是重置与并置结合运用,以利充分地表现对象。
(3 )干湿变化的掌握颜色干湿变化是水粉颜料的特性之一。将颜色涂在画纸上,湿时感觉比较恰当,干后才会发现变淡变灰一些。不了解这一特性往往给着色带来被动。掌握这一特性,事先预计干后的效果,可避免后加之色成为不协调的“补丁”。作画时,应从薄到厚进行着色。先厚画再薄涂干湿变化大;先薄画,逐步减少用水画厚,干湿变化不明显,较易掌握。修改画面时也适合厚涂。也可在要修改的周围涂一点清水,修改的部分干后就会自然统一。
(4 )色彩的衔接画面需两块颜色衔接要自然,从明到暗要过渡圆润,色彩要衔接恰当。方法有三:1、利用湿画,使明色与暗色、此色与彼色,由于水的作用交互渗化,这样效果会自然而柔润。一遍不行,可照此方法再画一遍.2、在两色之间用中间明度的颜色画上去,虽有明显笔痕,远看过渡自然。3、两色衔接生硬之处,可用其中一色在邻接处干扫几下,增加过渡的色阶。也可用笔蘸少量清水在生硬之处轻扫几下,使两色衔接处从明度或色彩方面揉出过渡层次,转折即会自然。
(5 )用笔笔色在纸面上运动,出现笔痕,即谓笔触。一般通过画面中的笔触可以看出画家大致的作画顺序和怎样用笔来塑造对象的,用笔不是目的,是一种表现手段,许多画家的笔法是有所区别的,有的大笔纵横,有的小笔点绘。哪一种笔法好呢?怎样用笔才对?应该从表现对象的目的着眼,根据不同物象的不同结构、不同质感和作者的不同感受,立足于表现。要从表现对象出发,为表现形体结构和色彩,灵活运用涂、摆、点、勾、堆、扫等各种笔法进行描绘。

干湿技法

干画法
干画法:就是说水少粉多的意思,这种画法多采用挤干笔头所含水分,调色时不加水或少加水,使颜料成一
种膏糊状,先深后浅,从大面到细部,一遍遍地覆盖和深入,越画越充分,并随着由深到浅的进展,不断调入更多的白粉来提亮画面。干画法运笔比较涩滞,而且呈枯干状,但比较具体和结实,便于表现肯定而明确的形体与色彩,如物体凹凸分明处,画中主体物的亮部及精彩的细节刻画。这种画法非常注重落笔,力求观察准确,下笔肯定,每一笔下去都代表一定的形体与色彩关系。干画法也有它的缺点,画面过多的采用此法,加上运用技巧不当,会造成画面干枯和呆板。但干画法的色彩干后变化小,对于练习色彩收效较大,也容易掌握。
湿画法
湿画法:此法与干画法相反,用水多,用粉少。它吸收了水彩画及国画泼墨的技法,也最能发挥水粉画运用“水”的好处,用水分稀释颜料渲染而成。湿画法也可以利用纸和颜色的透明来求得像水彩那样的明快与清爽。但它所采用的湿技法比画水彩要求更高,由于水粉颜料颗粒粗,就要求湿画时必须看准画面,湿画部位一次渲染成功,过多的涂抹或多遍涂抹必然造成画面灰而腻。但这种画法运笔流畅自如,效果滋润柔和,特别适于画结构松散的物体和虚淡的背景以及物体含糊不清的暗面。如发挥得当,它能表现出一种浑然一体和痛快淋漓的生动韵味。它的色彩借助水的流动与相互渗透,有时会出现意想不到的效果。为制造这种湿效
果,不但颜料要加水稀释,画纸也要根据局部和整体的需要用水打湿,以此保证湿的时间和色彩衔接自然。有关湿画法的控制及实际操作运用,上述画法步骤中已讲得很多,不再不一一细述。
干湿画法的特点
水粉画干湿画法的特点以及应用范围,基本上如前所述。要特别说明的是:干画法与湿画法的分界是以画笔含水量的多少来决定,一般人认为用粉及用色多了,画得厚了,就是干画法,这不准确,因为必须是粉多、色多、水少才成为干画法。也有人认为粉少、画得薄就是湿画法,这也不确切,只有稀释颜料用水多的情况下才能成为湿画法。因此,可以说有粉多的干画法,也有粉少的干画法。与此相反,湿画法也有粉多湿画法和粉少的湿画法。但不管干也好,湿也罢,仍然以粉使用之得当为佳,这样才不失水粉画的特点。干画法和湿画法,二者在作画时应交叉运用,只是根据画面实际需要,有的湿画法运用多一些,有的干画法运用多一些。如果一幅画用水过多,全部采用湿画法来处理画面,就容易造成失控,使物体松散,并失去色彩光泽。同样,全部采用干画法,靠堆积的颜色和白粉不断加厚画面,就会出现死板、干裂和颜色脱落的情况,画面也难以长期保存。
干湿画法的步骤
总之,干、湿画法只有根据作画步骤,由湿到干、由薄到厚的顺序合理运,才能发挥干、湿技巧的最佳效果。这是一般的作画过程所遵守的原则,真正运用还要在实践中根据画面要求灵活掌握。
水粉静物画技法
第一步:这种平摆浮搁的构图给人的感觉很自然,也是一种构图形式。单色起底。用色要注意,造型要准确。
第二步:这是一幅紫颜色的画面,紫色不易反复画。第一遍的颜色要争取画准确,使下一步能有一个好的基础。黄与紫是强对比色,通过玻璃盘的灰紫色;把两种对比较强的颜色连接起来,把粉紫色衬布上的梨和桔子的暗部色画得偏桔偏暖、形成对比,很有颜色感、瓷瓶和瓷碗的反射能力较强,在背光的暖颜色加了紫色的成分,使整体颜色处在变化统一的色彩气氛中,很响亮鲜明。
第三步:用干画法表现塑造桃子的质感。用小笔调一下的黄绿色,画出桃子的微妙变化;如背光、反光、倒影、桃子之间的缝隙。而粉紫衬布上的黄梨颜色调得很饱和,水分适当。如浅黄加白至中黄过渡到桔加绿,在颜色湿的时候进行衔接,笔触含蓄,表现出梨的光泽质感和韵味。花瓶受光部分的花纹可画虚些,偏蓝紫味。而转折部画的实些,背光带绿味。这一步要注意画面的虚实、强弱、冷暖变化。
第四步:这一步是收口工作,要求准而精、一定要整体观察。影响整体关系的地方要毫不犹豫改掉,如花瓶背光的调整,调普蓝加熟褐画出背光里的花纹变化,边缘处调点紫色,明度与后边的衬布接近,使之边缘线含到背光里面,空间感比原来要好多了。桃子之间的关系有些过实,缝隙过重可带点暖色减弱些。玻璃酒杯的边缘用小笔细心画出细线,提出质感、粉衬布靠里边一些地方加了些冷灰色。白碗里的梨边缘也带了几笔。前后形成色彩的透视变化和画面的整体协调感。使画面更完整。
第五步:调整画面,细部的地方,大体的画面要处理好,杂乱的东西要除去。
彩纯度与明度的局限性
水粉明度的提高是通过稀释、加粉或含粉质颜料较多的浅颜色来实现的。它的干湿变化非常之大,往往有些颜色只加少许的粉,在湿时和干时,其明度就表现出或深或浅的差别。由于水粉画干后颜色普遍变浅,所以,运用好粉是水粉画技术上最难解决的问题。而含粉的色彩又恰恰是水粉画的魅力所在,它使画面的颜色充满水粉画特有的“粉”的品质,而出现特别丰富的中间色彩。
颜料的个性差异
水粉颜料大部分颜色是比较稳定的,如土黄、土红、赭石、桔黄、中黄、淡黄、橄榄绿、粉绿、群青、钴蓝、湖蓝等等。
但是,水粉颜料中的深红、玫瑰红、青莲、紫罗兰等颜色就极不稳定,容易出现翻色,不易覆盖。水粉颜色的透明色彩种类较少,只有柠檬黄、玫瑰红、青莲等少数几种颜色,要画好水粉画就必须充分掌握水粉各颜料的个性,了解它的受色能力的强弱、覆盖能力的大小、色价的高低。这些问题都要通过不断实践,做到熟能生巧。
工具的选择
羊毫的特点是含水量较大,醮色较多,优点是一笔颜色涂出的面积较大,缺点是由于含水量太大,画出的笔触容易浑浊,不太适合于细节刻画。狼毫的特点是含水量较少,比羊毫的弹性要好,适合于局部细节的刻画。随着现代化工业的进步,市面上大量流行尼龙毛笔,在选择尼龙毛笔的时候,要特别注意它的质地,要软且具有弹性,切忌笔锋过硬。过硬笔锋的笔往往很难醮上颜料,在画面上容易拖起下面的颜色,使覆盖力大为降低。在选择笔的形状上,不同的种类都选择一些,如扁头、尖头、刀笔等,以备不同场合,不同题材的作画之需。
颜料最好使用正宗美术用品生产厂家生产的锡管装的专业产品,它膏体细腻,色彩较饱和。切勿被廉价的劣质产品所迷惑。在纸张的选择上,应选用有纹理的优质水彩画纸作画,吸水性不能太强。有些劣质的纸张,不但吸水还吸颜色,使颜色干后发黑,用这样的纸张作画,画面的颜色难以明快亮丽。
 

English Introduction

Gouache nature and techniques, is closely related with the oil painting and watercolor. It is a kind of painting which is between oil painting and watercolor. It uses water-soluble pigment like watercolor. As with gouache opaque to the deployment of more water, will produce different degrees of watercolor effect, but in the activity of color and transparency, and cannot be compared to watercolor. The general effect of reflective gouache show and Transparent Watercolor bright effect is not the same, so the method of gouache is generally not used water color, the color white color brightness adjustment, to show their unique color effect with thick paint. This is similar to the drawing method of oil painting. Because opaque gouache and oil paints are hiding pigments, so gouache is between watercolor painting and oil painting of a painting, it is through some methods and skills to learn watercolor painting and painting and develop their own skills system.
If there is a color on the basis of overlay or overlay, then this process is actually an addition, the underlying color will affect the color of the surface, which is where it is difficult to grasp. However, experienced painter often is to use this feature to express its gouache color itself and unique artistic charm.

Color
Sketch when the deployment of color, is based on the correct observation and understanding of the relationship between the object color. Deployment of color can not be isolated to see a piece of a tune, draw a piece. To consider the whole tone and color relations, from the whole to determine each color. Gouache painting color is not easy to converge, should also be based on the clear relationship in the color, the color of the color to be several tries, ready to draw. Avoid from the whole, see a piece, tune a piece, draw a piece, then adjust a piece of change. Gouache color when wet dry deep, shallow, wet change obviously.
If you use the powder color (white), or have painted a thick layer, and then color painting, but also the use of absorbent paper, wet change pigment is more remarkable. The gouache color is not easy to make a correct estimate. Difficulties in color cohesion, coverage and modification. This is an obvious characteristic and difficulty of watercolor painting. Beginners should pay special attention to this problem. So start painting heavy colors first. In general, while the screen is wet, color wet and wet than, one breath finish, color relationship easy to master. If in the case of the color has been dry again, covering color, it should pay attention to color dry and wet change.
Use of water
The use of water in gouache watercolor painting though not so important, but also can not be ignored. Water is mainly played by dilution, the role of media. Color, color pen and thin change, and water use, there is a close relationship between. In general, properly can make the picture smooth, moist, and the effect of water. Too much water will reduce the chroma, caused by water stains, stains and water deposition. The shortage of water will make the color of dry, thick, hard pen. Usually use fluent pen, cover background, as appropriate. In the dark, empty and draw distance, can be appropriate to use more water to enhance its transparency and virtual distance. From the painting step. In the shop to tune when the water used more, the layer is thin, easy to coloring. In the painting process, the water is too dirty to change in time. Especially the painting brightly colored parts, toning water should be clean.
Pen
Due to various types of pen can be used as gouache, so waterpainting pen tip is unusually rich. And is drawing oil painting. The process of painting and watercolor brushwork, continue to develop. Gouache common style.
"Brushwork" -- subtle handwriting. Flat screen color;
"Division" handwriting appeared, but its thickness did not change significantly;
"Thick layer division" -- intricate overlap, color, thickness and thickness;
"Stippling method" -- the use of color space, began to feel the mixing principle, with dense small brush (color) image. (this technique used less, difficult to grasp, when it is premature to follow)
Oil painting techniques
In addition, gouache also absorbed the painting oil painting techniques. Oil painting knife can be painted, can also use homemade bamboo knife painting. Gouache in the absorption of other kinds of painting technique of pen, gouache, must from the characteristics of the performance of the purpose is to enrich the gouache painting techniques to enhance the expressive force of gouache. In general, the painting of virtual office and shadows, shadows, strokes, and some vague flat color thin, to increase the false sense of distance. In the foreground, implement and light painting, brush to reveal some color to be thicker, to enhance its strong, prominent and clear effect. Of course, these are needed from the processing of the whole picture point of view, the use of different strokes. Strokes also have a holistic problem. A painting pen must change and unify, form a sense of rhythm. To prevent the lack of overall intention of the messy pen.
Join
Gouache color due to dry faster, dry and wet changes significantly, and the water will flow into the picture, color, and prone to water seepage, so master cohesion skills, for drawing gouache relations. Convergence of watercolor painting can be divided into wet and dry ground and then pressed the three methods.
The so-called wet joint, are adjacent blocks before taking advantage of a color is not dry up second, three pieces of color. Or two adjacent colors touching. Or a color in the wet point into other colors, let the infiltration. Or in different parts of the head were dipped in several different colors, water use pen to paper on the belly, let the natural.
The so-called dry joint, it is adjacent to the block in front of a color is dry, then second, three pieces of color.
The so-called crimping is adjacent patches (body turning or different physical objects), before a color painting was slightly larger than its shape, second, three colors into a rhythm. To prevent the lack of overall intention of the messy pen. Next, pressure is placed in front of a color, the color should be out of shape before a piece of. When pressed, pay attention to the colour (crimping up color) cover color and adhesion, the color generally pressed than painting color slightly thicker.
cover
The so-called coverage, is to draw one or several layers of color in the painting layer. The main function of coverage can be summarized as two points: one is to make the picture color overlap, thickness change, is a technique of image building; two is a modification method. Cover color gouache color is relatively strong, but each has difference, called water plus paint, covering the bad master is easy to make the background (covered layer) on water stains caused by dirty color. Sometimes it's very thin.

Solid colored
Solid color, is the object itself presents the inherent color. To grasp the color, the main object is to grasp the exact hue.
Because solid color occupies the largest area in an object, it is very important to study it. Generally speaking, solid colored objects showing the most obvious place is the middle part between the surface and the back surface, which is a note of gray sketch, we called half tone or color. Because in this range, the object is less affected by external conditions of color, its change is mainly the changes of lightness and hue change itself, it is often the highest saturation.
(1) draft starts like the sketch, in pencil first set position and proportion, need not use rubber, so as not to damage the surface, affect the coloring effect. Then use the color according to the finalized, still life with brown or ochre tone, ultramarine blue can be finalized. Color line can be slightly heavier, and can be finalized
Thin color slightly light and shade, pave the way for the next step coloring. Some other ability, also can be directly used color line drafting, not shown light, direct coloring.
(2) after the shop tone finalized, quick review the overall tone and color, be sure, as soon as possible thin coating. Now don't take shape and strokes, according to the fresh color impression caused by bold sway, the picture color environment. Some people after finishing the last color, eager to specific characterization. Should further adjust the color, make the relationship between color and the color, is consistent with the real feeling.
(3) the concrete mold is on the basis of the correct comparison of the big relations, further carries on the concrete mold, starts from the picture main body, completes one by one. Focus on painting an object dry and wet change easy to master, but also easy to shape its light and backlight different color changes. The eyes always sweep around the ring, starting from the local but not local care for this and lose that. To see the object and background and the relationship between the spring, he objects to grasp the sense of proportion, the details can be left scratching step. The use of color to color it properly thickened, right part of color can be retained, increase the screen color level.
(4) the details of characterization to extra trivial details are omitted, but important details of image texture features and performance should strengthen the ruling, touch. Details should be integrated into the whole. The last stroke is the most important, it will not be covered and revealed to the appreciation.
(5) adjustment, complete the studio outside a sketch, as a basic practice in general to eight hours, to a profound and accurate. Skilled after three or four hours can also be more fully behaved. Painting time is longer, easy to fatigue eyes, color sense easily weakened, the specific characterization and easy to forget the whole. When painting is nearing completion, restore a first impression, check whether the picture: some places destroyed in depth characterization, and the details of the local color is not "jump out" picture, there is no other. After the inspection, adjustment, modification, processing. Wrong place, picturesque too thick, to wash and draw, until completed. Gouache dry and wet techniques should be controlled to what extent? What are the scope of application? Using the techniques of dry and wet gouache, mainly refers to the amount of water and white color.
Coloring method
Have a strong ability to cover the gouache color, but not without regard to any graffiti, it has its own certain coloring methods and steps.
Coloring sequence
1, from the local to the whole gouache is a color painting, with watercolor painting, painting is starting from the dark color block. The overall focus and starting from the general principle of our painting, color and large color, play a decisive role on the color screen, color should first draw the main color picture of the quasi composition, then the local shape and detail description.
2, from the deep color to bright bright color is thick, thin Tuliang up again. Draw a deep color, bright color easy to be covered; on the contrary, is generally the first to draw a large area deep color (including the dark and bright and heavy color), the color of the screen frame to be determined. Gradually to intermediate color and bright color. With a bright color screen, or to put bright color, the color is slightly thinner, local small area deep color. If the intermediate color, paint besmear first intermediate color, use juxtaposition method, respectively to the small area of dark bright color paintings in the past. Method is not dead, according to the situation flexible grasp.
3, from thin to thick painting thin paint dilute with water paint, like watercolor painting, according to the overall color feeling, quickly thin coated again, resulting in the overall picture color environment, and then gradually thickening, in-depth performance. Thin coated the right place to be good at keeping, so that the screen color is thick and thin, in order to increase the color level and heavy effect. Not like painting, gouache and acrylic paint adhesion, can be painted thick. Gouache painted thick to thick appropriate, too thick easy cracking, so thick and no color wash painting.
Specific coloring

(1) dry drawing and wet drawing in gouache, dry brushwork generally refers to the method of overlapping thick coating. This method can be repeated again not to draw, draw again, performance object is sufficient and profound, and is also suitable for beginners to master. The thickness of painting, oil painting has a similar effect, deep feeling. Wet drawing is a thin painting, play the color seepage effect, coloring times should not be, even the white part can free white paper, watercolor has moist flow charm. Of course, some local thickening is also possible, dry and wet combination will enhance performance.
(2) set and reset
Juxtaposition is placed in parallel strokes paper, coloring number of times less, began to use the color that is thick. Such as the emphasis on two degrees of space screen. First with the hair color line hook about rough outline and structure, add color with the color juxtaposition set up, press the color line.
Reset is a method of laminated color, color to color overlap point, color, line color. The painting is mostly used to reset and juxtaposition, and fully express the object.
(3) the master color changes of wet and dry wet change is one of the characteristics of the gouache. The color coated paper, wet feeling when appropriate, that will become pale grey some dry. Do not understand this feature often brings passive coloring. Master this characteristic, anticipate the effect after dry, can avoid after adding color becomes uncoordinated "patch"". Painting, should be thin to thick coloring. First thick painting and then thin coated dry and wet change; first thin painting, gradually reduce water painting thick, dry and wet change is not obvious, easier to master. Modify the screen is also suitable for thick coating. Can also be modified to be painted around a little water, modified part will naturally unify after dry.
(4) the color of the connection screen needs to be linked to the natural color of two blocks, from bright to dark to transition mellow, color to connect properly. There are three methods: 1, using the wet paint, the bright colors and dark, the color and other color, because of the role of water infiltration interaction, so the effect will be natural and smooth. Again not according to this method, can draw again at.2, and between the middle brightness color painted, although there are obvious pen marks, far see a natural transition. 3, two link stiff about, which can merge in the adjacent dry brush a few levels, increasing the transition. Also using a pen dipped in a small amount of water in the light and stiff about a few times, and make joint and transition layers from the brightness or color, which is naturally turning.
(5) use Bibi color on the paper movement, the emergence of pen marks, that is, strokes. The general picture of the painter painting strokes can be seen roughly the order and how to use the pen to the shape of the object, the pen is not the purpose, is a means of expression, many painters style is different, some large aspect, some small amount of plotting. What a good way? How to use? Should focus on the performance of the object from the objective, according to the different feelings of different images of different structure, texture and author, based on the performance. Starting from the performance of the object, for the performance of body structure and color, flexible use of coating, pendulum, point, hook, heap, sweep strokes are described.

Dry drawing
Dry drawing: that is much less water powder, this technique uses the pen squeezed moisture, color is no water or less water, so that the pigment into a
A paste, deep to shallow, from the surface to the details, repeat coverage and in-depth, draw more and more fully, and with the progress from deep to shallow, continuously transferred more white to light screen. Dry drawing pen and a comparison of Sezhi, dry shape, but more specific and strong, easy performance certainly and clear form and color, such as object is concave and convex, light painting subject matter and wonderful details. This technique attaches great importance to the observation accuracy, pen strokes, sure, every on behalf of certain form and color relations. Dry painting also has its shortcomings, the screen too much use of this method, coupled with improper use of technology, will cause the picture dry and dull. But the dry color of dry painting change small, for exercise color effect is bigger, also easy to master.
wet-in-wet
Wet painting: this method and dry painting on the contrary, more water, less powder. It absorbed the watercolor painting and ink painting techniques, but also can play the most gouache using "water" benefits, use water to dilute the pigment rendered. Wet painting can also use paper and color transparency to obtain as bright and refreshing as watercolor. But the wet technique the watercolor is more demanding, because the gouache coarse, requires the wet paint to see the picture, the wet paint part of a successful rendering, excessive smearing or multiple times will inevitably lead to ash and greasy smear picture. However, the pen is smooth and flexible, the effect is moist and soft, especially suitable for drawing loose objects and virtual background and dim surface of objects. Such as play properly, it can show a vivid charm and with great eloquence all blend into one harmonious whole. Its color with the flow of water and mutual penetration, and sometimes unexpected results. To make such a wet effect
The fruit, not only pigment to be diluted with water, the paper also according to local and global needs in order to ensure the water wet, wet time and convergence of natural color. Control of the wet and the actual operation, the drawing step speaks a lot, no longer do not dwell on one by one.
Characteristics of wet and dry painting
The characteristics of dry wet painting gouache and application scope, basically as mentioned before. In particular: dry and wet drawing boundary painting is how to brush the water content to decide, generally believed that using powder and color more, painted thick, dry brushwork is, this is not accurate, because must be multi, multi colored powder, less water to become dry brushwork. Some people think that powder less, painting thin is wet painting, which is not accurate, only diluted pigment water can become a wet painting. Therefore, it can be said that there are many dry powder painting, there are less dry powder painting. On the contrary, the wet painting also has a powder multi wet painting and powder less wet painting. But whether dry or wet it still is better to use the powder characteristics properly, so that you don't lose gouache. Dry painting and wet painting, the two should be crossed when painting, just according to the actual needs of the picture, some wet painting use more, some dry painting use more. If a painting too much water, all wet painting to deal with the picture, it is easy to cause uncontrolled, loose objects, and lose color luster. Also, all of the dry brushwork, rely on the accumulation of color and white thicken picture will appear rigid, chapped and color loss, the picture is difficult long-term preservation.
Steps of wet and dry painting
In short, dry, wet painting only according to the painting steps, from wet to dry, from thin to thick order reasonable transportation, in order to play the best effect of dry and wet techniques. This is the general principles of the painting process to comply with the true use of the practice in accordance with the requirements of the picture flexible grasp.
Watercolor painting techniques
The first step: this flat pendulum floating composition gives the feeling is very natural, but also a form of composition. From the end of monochrome. With color should pay attention to, modeling to accurate.
The second step: This is a purple screen, purple is not easy to repeat painting. The first color to strive for painting accurately, so that the next step can have a good foundation. Yellow and purple is a strong contrast color, through the glass plate to two kinds of grey purple; strong color connected, the powder on the pear and orange purple crinoline dark color painted orange, partial warm contrast, a reflection color, porcelain and porcelain ability is strong, with purple in the warm color backlight components, so that the overall color change in uniform color bright atmosphere, very loud.
The third step: using dry painting performance shaping peach texture. With a small yellow green tone, draw the subtle changes in peach; such as the gap between the backlight, reflection, reflection, peach. The purple color of the lining cloth of pineapple very saturated, proper water. Such as yellow and white to yellow to orange and green transition, convergence, when the color of wet brushwork subtle, showing luster texture and flavor of pear. Vase by the light part of the pattern can be painted more virtual, partial blue purple flavor. The turning point painting some real, backlit with green flavor. This step should pay attention to the actual picture, strength, changes in temperature.

The fourth step: this step is closing, requirements and fine, must observe the whole. Affect the overall relationship where you do not hesitate to get rid of the vases, backlight adjustment, adjustable eplant and cooked brown painted pattern changes in the edge backlight, adjustable brightness and purple, behind the lining to close to the edge line with backlight, the sense of space is much better than the original. The relationship between some peaches, can bring warm heavy gap down. The edge of the glass carefully draw the string with a small pen, the texture, powder on the inside lining in some places with some cold grey. The pears in the white bowl also took a few pens. Before and after the formation of color perspective changes and the overall picture coordination. To make the picture more complete.
The fifth step: adjust the picture, details of the place, the general picture to deal with, messy things to remove.
The limitations of the color purity and brightness
Is realized by light color dilution, plus powder or powder containing pigments more gouache brightness increase. Dry and wet changes it is very large, often some color only add a little powder in wet and dry, its brightness shows or deep or shallow differences. Because the color of gouache dry becomes shallow, so make good use of gouache powder is the most technically difficult to solve the problem. With powder is gouache color charm, it makes the picture color full of gouache unique "powder" quality, and the middle is particularly abundant in color.
Personality differences of pigments
Gouache color is much more stable, such as yellow soil, red, ochre and orange yellow, yellow, yellow, olive green, pink and green, blue, ultramarine, cobalt blue and so on.
However, gouache in dark red, rose red, violet, violet color is very unstable, prone to turn color, not easy to cover. Transparent color less gouache color, only lemon yellow, rose red, violet and other few colors to draw gouache must fully grasp the gouache pigment color by understanding its personality, abilities, ability to cover the size, color of the high and low price. All these problems should be through practice, do Practice makes perfect.
Tool selection
A brush is characterized with high moisture, add color more, a color paint has the advantages of large area, due to the shortcomings of the water content is too large to draw strokes easily turbid, is not suitable for details. Langhao is characterized by less moisture, better than elastic brush, suitable for the characterization of local details. Along with the development of modern industrial progress, a large number of popular nylon brush on the market, in the choice of nylon brush, should pay special attention to its texture, soft and elastic, avoid an excellent. Excellent writing pen is often difficult to take the paint and drag the color easily on the screen, the coverage is greatly reduced. In the choice of the shape of a pen, choose different kinds of some, such as flat head, pointed, pettifoggery, for different occasions, different themes of painting.
Pigment is best to use authentic art supplies manufacturers tin tube production of professional products, it cream delicate, more saturated color. Don't be fooled by cheap inferior products. In the choice of paper, should use a high quality watercolor paper texture painting, water can not be too strong. Some poor quality paper, not only the water absorption also color, the color of dry black paint with this paper, the color of the screen is bright.

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