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拓片

 拓片,指将碑文石刻、青铜器等文物的形状及其上面的文字、图案拓下来的纸片。是我国一项古老的传统技艺,是使用宣纸和墨汁,将碑文、器皿上的文字或图案,清晰地拷贝出来的一种技能。

  • 中文名拓片
  • 外文名rubbing
  • 拼音tà piàn
  • 注音ㄊㄚˋ ㄆㄧㄢˋ
  • 种类甲骨文拓片、秦汉瓦当拓片
  • 属性传统技艺
  • 分派南派和北派
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拓墨书法作品(拓片)的具体操作方法和步骤?

中国美术网 09-18 浏览

一、创作材料:白纸、宣纸等。  二、制作拓墨书法作品的前期程序:制作脱墨书法作品。  1、书写物:笔者使用的书写物:文具商店所售之广告色(白色),宣纸(生、熟宣纸均可)用白色; 光...
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词语解释

 指从碑刻、铜器等文物上拓印下其形状、文字或图画的纸片。

《老残游记续集遗稿》第一回:“﹝老残﹞问那道士说:‘西廊下那块破石片是什么古碑?’道士回说:‘就是 秦 碣,俗名唤做泰山十字。此地有拓片卖,老爷们要不要?’”

鲁迅《书信集·致王正朔》:“其拓片一包,共六十七张,亦已于同日收到无误。”

杨朔《泰山极顶》:“你如果想捉住点历史的影子,尽可以在朝阳洞那家茶店里挑选几件 泰山 石刻的拓片。”

基本概念

 拓片是记录中华民族文化的重要载体之一。凡历史、地理、政治、经济、军事、民族、民俗、文学、艺术、科技、建筑等都可以从中找到有益的材料。广义的拓片就是将宣纸蒙在器物表面用墨拓印来记录花纹和文字,数量、内容之丰富可谓包罗万象,如甲骨青铜、碑刻墓志、摩崖造像、钱币画像等。狭义的拓片主要指碑拓。许多已散失毁坏的碑刻,因有拓片传世,才能感受原碑刻的内容及风采,如汉《西岳华山庙碑》,北魏《张玄墓志》,东吴《天发神谶碑》以及唐柳公权《宋拓神策军碑》等皆为孤本。若没有拓片,将难睹庐山真容,遂成“迷局”。

拓片(拓本、拓版)是指用染料将硬表面上的文字图符复制到轻易、便于携带的纸张上的技艺。染料多采用墨汁,现代普遍以铅笔代替。纸料常选择高吸水性的宣纸和缣纸。

晚唐张彦远在《历代名画记》卷二“论画体、工用、拓写”中写道:“好事家宜置宣纸百幅,用法蜡之,以备摹写(顾恺之有摹拓妙法)。古时好拓画,十得七八,不失神采笔踪。亦有御府拓本,谓之官拓。国朝内库、翰林、集贤、秘阁,拓写不辍。承平之时,此道甚行,艰难之后,斯事渐废,故有非常好本拓得之者,所宜宝之。既可希其真迹,又得留为证验。”这说明远在唐代之前摹拓书画的技艺已相当不低,且有多家兼任拓写的官府机构。

古时,拓片技艺因难度较高且要求严格,在中国文化中还算是一门传统手艺。中国拓片技艺分南、北两大派系,派下又分支系。古时的石刻书法作品多以拓片形式存在于世。自宋代起,“北碑南帖”简单地概括了南北派系的主要分歧。南派着重于帖学(墨迹书法),北派则注重碑学(石刻书法)。南北二派在五胡乱华时期因政治原因隔离开来,南派通过东晋、刘宋、南齐、梁、陈前后五朝,北派以后赵、前燕、前秦、北魏、东魏、北齐、北周、隋朝一脉相承,至唐宋二派形成现状。南派以苏派为代表,金春刚是苏派技法的代表大师。

中国传统拓片的主要拓印对象是石碑、甲骨、青铜器皿上的书法文字,另有少量的花纹图案。拓片制作手法不同。简单可将纸覆盖在刻有欲拓内容的硬平面上,倾斜铅笔头,轻轻涂画,使图文的凹凸不平之处复制到纸上。中国传统拓印程序要求先将石头或青铜表面图文部分刷洗干净,再浇上清水。将宣纸润湿,小型拓片可用软毛笔润湿、大型拓片可用毛巾润湿。润湿后自上而下将宣纸轻敷于拓文表面,再在湿宣纸上贴上一层干宣纸以吸取多余水分,将四角四边固定,用毛刷敲捶宣纸,使湿宣纸紧贴所拓平面,随后除去干宣纸。待湿宣纸稍干后再用扑子蘸取适量的墨汁,轻轻扑打湿宣纸以复制刻画的图文。等宣纸、墨汁在碑器上晒干或风干,移去四角固定,最后将宣纸取下。

拓片,也就是将宣纸贴在器物表面用墨拓印来记录花纹和文字。

拓片是从原物直接打印下来的,大小和形状与原物相同,是一种科学记录的好办法。除了有凹凸纹饰的器物外,甲骨文字、铜器铭文、碑刻、墓志铭、古钱币、画像砖、画像石等,都广泛使用这种办法记录。

拓印的基本方法是:先把石头表面清洗干净,在要拓的花纹或文字尽可能剔刷清楚,用大小合适的宣纸盖上,把纸轻轻润湿,然后再湿纸上蒙一层软性吸水的纸保护纸面,用毛刷轻轻敲捶,使湿纸贴附在该物表面,随着它的花纹文字而起伏凹凸。再除去蒙上的那层纸,等湿纸稍干后,用扑子蘸适量的墨,敷匀在扑子面上,在突起的物象上轻轻扑打,就会形成黑白分明的拓片。

在拓印过程中,润湿宣纸最好用白芨水,它能使薄纸更好的贴附于被拓物的表面。小型拓片,可以用软毛笔、软毛刷润湿,大型拓片,可以用毛巾润湿。扑子的大小,根据所拓对象的大小而定。内部用新棉花,外加一层不透水的薄纸,最外面包上绸子,用细绳或皮筋扎住。扑子蘸墨面要没有褶皱,扑心要稍鼓。

揭裱古旧书画,尤其是具有珍贵文物价值的古旧书画,一定要找那些经验丰富、技艺高超又认真敬业的装裱师。北京、上海、苏州等地都有专业的书画装裱店和技艺上乘的装裱师。如北京琉璃厂的荣宝斋是国有企业,负有保全救护文物的责任。他们接到古旧书画,须经过研究讨论决定如何揭裱后才分配专 人操作。切不可为了图省事省钱就近找技艺平庸的人揭裱。清代书画鉴别名家陆时化在其所著《书画说钤》一书中说:“书画不遇名手装池,虽破烂不堪,宁包好藏之匣中。不可压以它物,不可性急而付拙工,性急而付拙工,是灭其迹也。拙工谓之杀画刽子。”此实为经验之谈。

另外,珍贵的古旧书画揭裱前最好拍照或录像,以备揭裱过程中毁坏而诉诸法律的凭证。

种类

 【甲骨文拓片】甲骨文是商周二代以契刀刻划的文字,又名“契文”“契刻”,不同时期有不同风格。内容除极少数属于记事外,大部分属于当时王公问卜的记载。

【秦汉瓦当拓片】瓦当是古代建筑构件,为泥质,不能多拓,不像照片可以无限复制,因而增加了收藏分量。

【历代砖拓】历代墓葬风俗制度变迁,自秦砖至明砖,成为一个系列。朝代愈短,数量愈少,愈有价值,尤其是有文字、图案者为佳。

【古币拓片】古钱一般体形较小,打拓工具要精致、小巧,成为收藏新宠。

【砚铭拓片】砚台是文房四宝之一,砚铭属派生物。砚铭内容记录着刻砚者、砚主人、赠砚者、收藏者、鉴赏者对砚的描述、感慨和因砚及人、事而发的感慨。

【汉画像拓片】汉画是指汉代遗留下来的画像石、画像砖、墓室壁画等,是绘画与雕刻的结合。汉画拓片具有珍贵的艺术价值、收藏价值和学术研究价值。 其中拓片分为朱拓和墨拓两种,分别是用朱砂和墨汁作为颜料拓印,表现出不同的色彩效果,而且古代把刚出土的石刻常用朱拓。其拓印形式又分为蝉翼拓和乌金拓。

【碑拓】此乃拓片数量最多部分,涉及历代名碑,是如今书法临摹的主要参照。

【铜器拓片】铜器拓片,是指在铜镜和青铜器的铭文与花纹,而拓印下来的拓片。

【造像拓片】造像拓片,是指在古代石刻造像(多以佛教题材为主),而拓印下来的拓片,是中国传统美术的源泉。

English Introduction

 Rubbing refers to a piece of paper rubbing down the shape of cultural relics such as inscriptions, stone carvings, bronzes and the characters and patterns on them. It is an ancient traditional skill in our country. It is a skill of using rice paper and ink to copy clearly the words or patterns on tablets and utensils.

 

Rubbing is one of the important carriers to record the Chinese nation's culture. We can find useful materials in history, geography, politics, economy, military affairs, nationality, folklore, literature, art, science and technology, architecture and so on. Generally speaking, rubbings cover Xuan paper on the surface of utensils and record patterns and characters with ink rubbings. The abundance of quantity and content can be described as all-embracing, such as oracle bone bronze, inscribed epitaphs, cliff statues, coin portraits, etc. In the narrow sense, rubbings mainly refer to stele rubbings. Many of the lost and destroyed inscriptions, because of rubbings handed down, can feel the content and style of the original inscriptions, such as the Han Dynasty "Xiyue Huashan Temple Stele", the Northern Wei Dynasty "Zhangxuan Epitaph", the Eastern Wu "Tianfa Shenzhen Stele" and the Tang and Liu Gongquan "Song Tuo Shence Military Stele" and so on. If there is no rubbings, it will be hard to see the true Lushan, and then become a "mystery".

 

Rubbing (rubbing, rubbing) refers to the technique of using dyes to copy characters on hard surfaces onto paper that is easy to carry. Most dyes use ink, and pencils are commonly used in modern times. Paper materials often choose Xuan Paper and Sticker Paper with super absorbency.

 

Zhang Yanyuan in the late Tang Dynasty wrote in Volume 2 of The Records of Famous Paintings of the Past Dynasties, "On Painting Style, Work Use, and Rubbing": "A hundred pieces of Xuan Paper should be set up for good deeds, and wax should be used to prepare for copying (Gu Kaizhi's method of drawing pictures by imitation). In ancient times, there were seven or eight good rubbings, and they did not lose their spirits. There are also rubbings of the imperial government, known as official rubbings. The Kuomintang treasury, Hanlin, Jixian and Secretariat Cabinet have been rubbing out endlessly. In Chengping, this road was very good. After difficulties, things gradually abandoned. Therefore, there are very good people who have developed their own origins and should be treasured. We can hope for its authenticity and leave it as a testimony." This shows that the skills of copying calligraphy and painting were quite good before the Tang Dynasty, and there were many government agencies who were also engaged in copying calligraphy and painting.

 

In ancient times, rubbing was a traditional craft in Chinese culture because of its high difficulty and strict requirements. Chinese rubbing techniques are divided into two major factions, the South and the north, and then into branches. Ancient stone carving calligraphy works mostly exist in the form of rubbings. Since the Song Dynasty, "Beibei Nantie" simply summarized the main differences between the North and South factions. The Southern School focuses on calligraphy (ink calligraphy), while the Northern School focuses on stele calligraphy (stone calligraphy). During the period of Wuhu Chaohua, the two factions were separated for political reasons. The Southern faction passed through the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Liu Song Dynasty, Nanqi Dynasty, Liang Dynasty and Chen Dynasty. After the northern faction, Zhao, Qian Yan, Pre-Qin Dynasty, Northern Wei Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty and Sui Dynasty came down in one continuous line, and the Tang and Song dynasties formed their present The Southern School is represented by the Soviet School, and Jin Chungang is the representative master of the Soviet School's techniques.

 

Chinese traditional rubbings are mainly printed on stone tablets, oracle bones and bronze utensils, with a small number of patterns. Rubbing techniques are different. Simply cover the paper on the hard surface with the content to be expanded, tilt the pencil head, gently paint, so that the uneven parts of the picture and text can be copied onto the paper. The traditional rubbing procedure in China requires that the surface of stones or bronzes be washed and then watered. The rice paper can be wetted, the small rubbings can be wetted with soft brushes, and the large rubbings can be wetted with towels. After wetting, the paper is lightly laid on the rubbing surface from top to bottom, then a layer of dry rice paper is pasted on the wet rice paper to absorb excess moisture. The four corners are fixed, and the paper is hammered with a brush to make the wet rice paper close to the rubbing surface, and then the dry rice paper is removed. After the wet rice paper dries slightly, dip in appropriate amount of ink with a poker and gently beat the wet rice paper to copy the depicted pictures and texts. After drying or air-drying the rice paper and ink on the tablet, remove the four corners and fix them. Finally, remove the rice paper.

 

Rubbing, that is, sticking rice paper on the surface of utensils and using ink rubbing to record patterns and characters.

 

Rubbing is printed directly from the original, the size and shape are the same as the original, which is a good way to record scientifically. In addition to concave and convex decorative objects, oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions, inscriptions, epitaphs, ancient coins, brick portraits, stone portraits, etc., are widely recorded by this method.

 

The basic method of rubbing is to clean the surface of stone, to clear the rubbing pattern or text as far as possible, to cover it with rice paper of suitable size, to wet the paper gently, and then cover it with a soft absorbent paper to protect the paper surface, with a brush tapping gently, so that the wet paper adheres to the surface of the object, and fluctuates and convexes with its pattern text. Remove the covered layer of paper, wait for the wet paper to dry slightly, dip a suitable amount of ink with a poker, apply it evenly on the surface of the poker, and gently beat on the protruding image, it will form a black and white rubbings.

 

In the process of rubbing, the best way to wet Xuan paper is to use Bletilla water, which can make thin paper better attached to the surface of the rubbed object. Small rubbings can be wetted with soft brushes and brushes. Large rubbings can be wetted with towels. The size of the poker depends on the size of the object. The interior is made of new cotton, with an impermeable sheet of tissue paper. The outside is covered with silk and tied with string or leather band. Dip in ink face without wrinkles, flutter slightly drum.

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