《老残游记续集遗稿》第一回：“﹝老残﹞问那道士说：‘西廊下那块破石片是什么古碑？’道士回说：‘就是 秦 碣，俗名唤做泰山十字。此地有拓片卖，老爷们要不要？’”
杨朔《泰山极顶》：“你如果想捉住点历史的影子，尽可以在朝阳洞那家茶店里挑选几件 泰山 石刻的拓片。”
Rubbing refers to a piece of paper rubbing down the shape of cultural relics such as inscriptions, stone carvings, bronzes and the characters and patterns on them. It is an ancient traditional skill in our country. It is a skill of using rice paper and ink to copy clearly the words or patterns on tablets and utensils.
Rubbing is one of the important carriers to record the Chinese nation's culture. We can find useful materials in history, geography, politics, economy, military affairs, nationality, folklore, literature, art, science and technology, architecture and so on. Generally speaking, rubbings cover Xuan paper on the surface of utensils and record patterns and characters with ink rubbings. The abundance of quantity and content can be described as all-embracing, such as oracle bone bronze, inscribed epitaphs, cliff statues, coin portraits, etc. In the narrow sense, rubbings mainly refer to stele rubbings. Many of the lost and destroyed inscriptions, because of rubbings handed down, can feel the content and style of the original inscriptions, such as the Han Dynasty "Xiyue Huashan Temple Stele", the Northern Wei Dynasty "Zhangxuan Epitaph", the Eastern Wu "Tianfa Shenzhen Stele" and the Tang and Liu Gongquan "Song Tuo Shence Military Stele" and so on. If there is no rubbings, it will be hard to see the true Lushan, and then become a "mystery".
Rubbing (rubbing, rubbing) refers to the technique of using dyes to copy characters on hard surfaces onto paper that is easy to carry. Most dyes use ink, and pencils are commonly used in modern times. Paper materials often choose Xuan Paper and Sticker Paper with super absorbency.
Zhang Yanyuan in the late Tang Dynasty wrote in Volume 2 of The Records of Famous Paintings of the Past Dynasties, "On Painting Style, Work Use, and Rubbing": "A hundred pieces of Xuan Paper should be set up for good deeds, and wax should be used to prepare for copying (Gu Kaizhi's method of drawing pictures by imitation). In ancient times, there were seven or eight good rubbings, and they did not lose their spirits. There are also rubbings of the imperial government, known as official rubbings. The Kuomintang treasury, Hanlin, Jixian and Secretariat Cabinet have been rubbing out endlessly. In Chengping, this road was very good. After difficulties, things gradually abandoned. Therefore, there are very good people who have developed their own origins and should be treasured. We can hope for its authenticity and leave it as a testimony." This shows that the skills of copying calligraphy and painting were quite good before the Tang Dynasty, and there were many government agencies who were also engaged in copying calligraphy and painting.
In ancient times, rubbing was a traditional craft in Chinese culture because of its high difficulty and strict requirements. Chinese rubbing techniques are divided into two major factions, the South and the north, and then into branches. Ancient stone carving calligraphy works mostly exist in the form of rubbings. Since the Song Dynasty, "Beibei Nantie" simply summarized the main differences between the North and South factions. The Southern School focuses on calligraphy (ink calligraphy), while the Northern School focuses on stele calligraphy (stone calligraphy). During the period of Wuhu Chaohua, the two factions were separated for political reasons. The Southern faction passed through the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Liu Song Dynasty, Nanqi Dynasty, Liang Dynasty and Chen Dynasty. After the northern faction, Zhao, Qian Yan, Pre-Qin Dynasty, Northern Wei Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty and Sui Dynasty came down in one continuous line, and the Tang and Song dynasties formed their present The Southern School is represented by the Soviet School, and Jin Chungang is the representative master of the Soviet School's techniques.
Chinese traditional rubbings are mainly printed on stone tablets, oracle bones and bronze utensils, with a small number of patterns. Rubbing techniques are different. Simply cover the paper on the hard surface with the content to be expanded, tilt the pencil head, gently paint, so that the uneven parts of the picture and text can be copied onto the paper. The traditional rubbing procedure in China requires that the surface of stones or bronzes be washed and then watered. The rice paper can be wetted, the small rubbings can be wetted with soft brushes, and the large rubbings can be wetted with towels. After wetting, the paper is lightly laid on the rubbing surface from top to bottom, then a layer of dry rice paper is pasted on the wet rice paper to absorb excess moisture. The four corners are fixed, and the paper is hammered with a brush to make the wet rice paper close to the rubbing surface, and then the dry rice paper is removed. After the wet rice paper dries slightly, dip in appropriate amount of ink with a poker and gently beat the wet rice paper to copy the depicted pictures and texts. After drying or air-drying the rice paper and ink on the tablet, remove the four corners and fix them. Finally, remove the rice paper.
Rubbing, that is, sticking rice paper on the surface of utensils and using ink rubbing to record patterns and characters.
Rubbing is printed directly from the original, the size and shape are the same as the original, which is a good way to record scientifically. In addition to concave and convex decorative objects, oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions, inscriptions, epitaphs, ancient coins, brick portraits, stone portraits, etc., are widely recorded by this method.
The basic method of rubbing is to clean the surface of stone, to clear the rubbing pattern or text as far as possible, to cover it with rice paper of suitable size, to wet the paper gently, and then cover it with a soft absorbent paper to protect the paper surface, with a brush tapping gently, so that the wet paper adheres to the surface of the object, and fluctuates and convexes with its pattern text. Remove the covered layer of paper, wait for the wet paper to dry slightly, dip a suitable amount of ink with a poker, apply it evenly on the surface of the poker, and gently beat on the protruding image, it will form a black and white rubbings.
In the process of rubbing, the best way to wet Xuan paper is to use Bletilla water, which can make thin paper better attached to the surface of the rubbed object. Small rubbings can be wetted with soft brushes and brushes. Large rubbings can be wetted with towels. The size of the poker depends on the size of the object. The interior is made of new cotton, with an impermeable sheet of tissue paper. The outside is covered with silk and tied with string or leather band. Dip in ink face without wrinkles, flutter slightly drum.