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雨果·凡德·古斯Hugo van der Goes

雨果·凡德·古斯Hugo van der Goes(1430年——1482年),意大利画家。

  • 中文名雨果·凡德·古斯
  • 外文名Hugo van der Goes
  • 性别
  • 国籍意大利
  • 出生地意大利
  • 出生日期1430年
  • 逝世日期1482年
  • 职业画家
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谷歌纪念古斯塔夫•克里姆特诞辰150年

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

古斯塔夫克里姆特是奥地利的骄傲,虽然他的作品当时曾经因为过于“色情”而饱受争议,但现在他的作品在拍场动辄以几千万的价格被买家追逐。今年正值他150年的诞辰,就在奥地利热火朝天的庆祝其1...
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中文介绍

生活

雨果·凡·德·古斯很可能出生在根特或其周围围绕1440 没有什么是肯定知道关于艺术家的生活之前,1467,当他成为画家的根特公会主。他的公会会员的赞助商是朱斯面包车沃森霍夫,在根特大师级画家从1464和Daneel Ruthaert。它是可能的,他在别处受过训练之前,他成为在根特的高手。一些历史学家认为,迪里克较量是可能的van der大师那张但这种没有独立的证据。

1468年,艺术家是由根特市的委托与大的授予连接执行一些作品放纵的城市。在随后的几年里,范德去创造更多的装饰,如在城市的遗志教皇纹章。1468年他在小镇布鲁日制作的装饰品来庆祝之间的婚姻查尔斯大胆约克的玛格丽特在1468年10月18日范德去和画家的公会其他成员邀请画家图尔奈其装配在根特的圣路加日之际。圣卢克是画家的守护神。

1469年雨果·凡·德·古斯和朱斯面包车沃森霍夫我担保亚历山大·贝宁,他在根特画家公会的主项。1480年桑德斯·贝宁结婚卡特琳娜范德去,雨果范德的表弟去。范德去和他的工作室在根特市的佣金合作,为提供纹章装饰查尔斯大胆喜庆进入 1472年在根特1469及更高版本。

当1470朱斯面包车离开沃森霍夫根特供意大利的服务工作费德里科DA蒙特费尔特罗乌尔比诺公爵,范德去成为在根特的主要画家。在1473勃艮第法院支付范德去对查尔斯良好的葬礼之际,绘画和纹章。画家曾多次当选为根特画家公会的执事,并作为其担任主祭1474年至1476年。

在此期间,范德那张画的贤士(也被称为蒙福特祭坛(的崇拜油画馆,柏林)),并在服务工作托马索从Portinari的不朽从Portinari祭坛(广场德利阿布鲁乌菲齐,佛罗伦萨),它抵达佛罗伦萨仅在1483年,画家去世后。

范德去从勃艮第法院,教会机构,富裕佛兰德资产阶级和意大利商业协会分别位于那取得了相当的成功,并保证重要委员会的勃艮第低的国家在他的职业生涯的巅峰,范德去收他的工作室在根特1477年成为魔域神兵conversus在的修道界(即位置兄弟)鲁德克卢斯特(或Rooklooster)附近奥德尔赫姆(今布鲁塞尔的鲁德克卢斯特是的寺院机翼的一部分现代虔诚运动,属于Windesheim众在寺院他享有一定的特权。他被允许继续绘画委员会合作,并喝酒。据加斯帕Ofhuys,一个老乡和尚在鲁德克卢斯特1509年至1513年间在拉丁美洲写了一段时间的编年史,范德推移收到知名人士包括参观大公马克西米利

在他的修道院时,他被任命为1482年由鲁汶市的评估迪里克较量,为鲁汶市政府的未完成的作品。从城市管理,他收到莱茵哀鸣壶这项服务。范德去大概也完成较量'的伊波利特Berthoz未完成的三联。在左侧面板他画的情侣的守护神画像。1482年范德去了一趟发往科隆与他的同父异母兄弟Nicolaes谁也采取了宗教誓言和寺院的另一个兄弟在一起。在此参观科隆回程他被严重袭击抑郁症,并宣布自己被定罪。他试图失败自杀。一行决定带他到布鲁塞尔,从那里到鲁德克卢斯特。后首先做一个短暂的复苏,他在鲁德克卢斯特死了以后不长。

有人猜测,他的艺术成就焦虑也许对他的疯狂做出了贡献,为“他深深地被他怎么会永远结束艺术的他画的作品的思想困扰,并且它说,然后那九年便几乎足够了。“ 由德国医生报告海欧纳莫斯闵采尔,于1495年,根据从根特画家被企图等于驱动忧郁根特祭坛画,可参考雨果·凡·德·古斯

雨果范德的精神崩溃的推移在1863年,当比利时历史学家阿方Wauters的公布的资料显示,他在Ofhuys发现“新发现的记载才被重新发现。Wauters的“出版启发后期浪漫主义比利时画家埃米尔Wauters的(Wauters的阿尔方斯的侄子)创造他1872年油画肖像雨果范德那张(1872年,比利时皇家美术博物馆)。这幅画描绘在他的疯狂时期雨果·凡·德·古斯和非常成功,它是在授予勋章大巴黎沙龙1873年荷兰画家文森特·梵高提到这幅画的信给他的弟弟提奥·凡·高在进一步的两次梵高比喻成自己的长相,以雨果的由Wauters的重建,并说,他与15世纪画家情感识别。

English Introduction

Life

Hugo van der Goes was likely born in Ghent or its environs around 1440.[1] Nothing is known with certainty about the artist's life prior to 1467, when he became a master in the painters' guild in Ghent. The sponsors for his membership of the guild were Joos van Wassenhove, master painter in Ghent from 1464, and Daneel Ruthaert. It is likely that he had trained elsewhere before he became a master in Ghent. Some historians have suggested that Dieric Bouts was possibly the master of van der Goes but there is no independent evidence for this.

In 1468 the artist was commissioned by the city of Ghent to execute some works in connection with the grant of the Great Indulgence of the city. In the following years, van der Goes created further decorations such as papal blazons at the behest of the city. In 1468 he was in the town of Bruges making decorations to celebrate the marriage between Charles the Bold and Margaret of York. On 18 October 1468 van der Goes and other members of the painter's guild invited painters from Tournai to their assembly in Ghent on the occasion of St. Luke's day. St. Luke was the patron saint of painters.

In 1469 Hugo van der Goes and Joos van Wassenhove vouched for Alexander Bening for his entry as a master in the Ghent painter's guild. In 1480 Alexander Bening married Catherina van der Goes, a cousin of Hugo van der Goes. Van der Goes and his workshop worked on commissions of the city of Ghent to provide heraldic decorations for Charles the Bold's Joyous Entry in Ghent in 1469 and later in 1472.

When in 1470 Joos van Wassenhove left Ghent for Italy to work in the service of Federico da Montefeltro, the Duke of Urbino, van der Goes became the leading painter in Ghent. In 1473 the Burgundian court paid van der Goes for the paintings and blazons on the occasion of Charles the Good's funeral. The painter was repeatedly elected as deacon of the Ghent painter's guild and served as its deacon from 1474 to 1476.

In this period, van der Goes painted the Adoration of the Magi (also referred to as the Monforte Altarpiece (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin)) and worked in the service of Tommaso Portinari on the monumental Portinari Altarpiece (Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence) which arrived in Florence only in 1483, after the death of the artist.

Van der Goes achieved considerable success and secured important commissions from the Burgundian court, church institutions, affluent Flemish bourgeoisie and Italian business associations that were located in the Burgundian Low Countries.[1] At the highpoint of his career, van der Goes closed up his studio in Ghent in 1477 to become a frater conversus (i.e. a lay brother) at the monastic community of the Rood Klooster (or Rooklooster) near Auderghem (now in Brussels).[4] The Rood Klooster was part of the monastic wing of the Modern Devotion movement and belonged to theWindesheim Congregation. At the monastery he enjoyed certain privileges. He was allowed to continue working on painting commissions and to drink wine. According to the chronicle written up in Latin some time between 1509-1513 by Gaspar Ofhuys, a fellow monk in the Rood Klooster, van der Goes received visits by eminent persons including Archduke Maximillian.

During his time at the cloister he was appointed in 1482 by the City of Leuven to assess the unfinished works of Dieric Bouts for the Leuven city hall. From the city administration he received a jug of Rhine whine for this service. Van der Goes probably also completed Bouts' unfinished Triptych for Hyppolite Berthoz. On the left panel he painted the patron portraits of the couple. In 1482 van der Goes was sent on a trip to Cologne together with his half-brother Nicolaes who had also taken religious vows and another brother of the monastery. On the return trip from this visit to Cologne he was struck by an acute depression and declared himself to be damned. He tried to kill himself unsuccessfully. His entourage decided to take him to Brussels and from there to the Rood Klooster. After first making a brief recovery, he died not long thereafter in the Rood Klooster.

There is speculation that anxiety about his artistic achievements may have contributed to his madness, for 'he was deeply troubled by the thought of how he would ever finish the works of art he had to paint, and it was said then that nine years would scarcely suffice'.[2] A report by a German physician, Hieronymus Münzer, from 1495, according to which a painter from Ghent was driven to melancholy by the attempt to equal the Ghent Altarpiece, may refer to Hugo van der Goes.

The mental breakdown of Hugo van der Goes was only rediscovered in 1863, when the Belgian historian Alphonse Wauters published the information, which he had found in Ofhuys' newly discovered chronicle. Wauters' publication inspired the late Romantic Belgian painter Emile Wauters (a nephew of Alphonse Wauters) to create his 1872 painting Portrait of Hugo van der Goes (1872, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium). This painting depicts Hugo van der Goes during his period of madness and was so successful that it was awarded a Grand Medal at the Paris salon. In 1873 the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh referred to this painting in a letter to his brother Theo van Gogh. On two further occasions van Gogh likened his own appearance to that of Hugo's recreated by Wauters, and stated that he identified emotionally with the 15th-century painter

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