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亨利·朱利安·费利克斯·卢梭Rousseau, Henri Le Douanier

( 后印象派画家 )

亨利·朱利安·费利克斯·卢梭(1844年5月21日- 1910年9月2日)是法国后印象派的画家。

  • 中文名卢梭
  • 外文名Rousseau
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生日期1844年5月21日
  • 逝世日期1910年9月2日
  • 职业画家
  • 代表作品《村中散步》、《税卡》、《战争》、《睡着的吉普赛姑娘》、《我本人·肖像·风景》、《乡村婚礼》、《抱木偶的女孩》、《梦》
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中文介绍

亨利·朱利安·费利克斯·卢梭(Henri Julien Félix Rousseau,1844年5月21日-1910年9月2日),法国卓有成就的伟大画家也是法国后期印象派画家。生于法国西北部的拉瓦尔市。父亲朱利安·卢梭是马口铁工匠。青年时期他当过军乐队队员,后离开巴黎做了海关官员。1885年在香·埃吕西沙龙展出处女作,1886年《狂欢节之夜》参加独立派展览。此后他平均每年都有5幅以上作品展出。他的代表作有《村中散步》、《税卡》、《战争》、《睡着的吉普赛姑娘》、《我本人·肖像·风景》、《乡村婚礼》、《抱木偶的女孩》、《梦》等等。他用那纯真无瑕的眼睛去观察世界和感受生活的真谛,这使他的画具有强烈而鲜明的个性。

 

 

艺术历程

《自画像与风景》亨利·卢梭每个时代都有它的先知。被奉为二十世纪超现实主义艺术先行者的是亨利·卢梭。"他凭着本能画画,他认为创作者必须获得完全的自由才能在思想上达到美与善的境界"(亨利·卢梭自语)艺术家的全部秘密就是心灵的自由。它无需乞求,只需小心地、坚定地、执拗地保持和维护。它是一份人人享有的天赐。当然,为保持心灵的自由,就需要更多的牺牲。看看卢梭,当他离开世界的时候,告别的,只有贫穷。

折叠艺术特点

"人们描述卢梭的性格时几乎总要提到他的'质朴'与'天真'。但是,一个如此伟大、质朴的人,一颗如此纯洁的心灵,却经常在另一些人心中激起一种要伤害他的欲望"除了贫穷以外,来自四面八方的嘲弄也几乎伴随卢梭的一生。若前者尚可认为是上帝对艺术家的一种特殊"恩惠",后者却实亨利·卢梭作品在难以使人产生幽默感了。但卢梭对种种的捉弄,甚至是很残忍的玩笑,也能泰然处之。我想,当他为了尚无着落的晚餐而在街头演奏小提琴的时候,心头也依然也保持着天真与快乐吧。他并不是战胜痛苦!或者苦中作乐,不,他根本不以痛苦为痛苦!天真坦诚以及天真坦诚包裹着的自信,是那颗自由心灵的屏护。生活中一切磨难所造成的痛苦都无法进入这一方圣地。(莫扎特也是如此)

折叠"原始主义"画家

卢梭也常被人称为"原始主义"画家。因为他笔下那浸润着幻想色彩的热带丛林风光,人与野兽间充溢着温情的对视,和一种似梦非梦的神秘情调,很容易将人引向对一个遥远的古老时代的"回忆"。滤去原始时代血与火的残酷,留存的只是天真,稚拙,宁静与生命的单纯。这位都市里的"土著"(他一生未离巴黎)就生活在这个只属于他的想像的世界里。正如他自己所说,梦的单纯的力量,支配着我的景物。卢梭只是忠实地记录了一个有一个奇妙的神秘的永远的梦。是否活着的世界是虚幻的,惟有幻想中的世界才是真实的?卢《热带森林》亨利·卢梭梭的作品"纯净"得让你一眼就能看"懂",却又总疑心放过了隐藏其中的某种深刻的奥秘。(我每次听莫扎特的音乐也是这种感觉)不过,我倒愿意仅仅保留一份天真与稚拙的感受,认定那单纯、自由、随心所欲无所依傍的形式就是一切。

"他没有发现新大陆,他生来就住在新大陆"。后来无论具象的达利还是抽象的米罗,超现实主义画家都发现了这片新奇的土地,都是卢梭风格的延续。而那一颗臻于美善境界的自由的心灵,那一种与生俱来随风而逝的天真,却从这不再是新奇的土地上永远消逝了。

幼年家境并不富裕,1871年进入巴黎市政府海关处担任收税员,而终其一生,就是担任这个安分的公务员;他的闲暇嗜好,就是创作绘画,曾经获准在罗浮宫美术馆临摹。曾经参加官方的沙龙展,却未曾入选;但他仍自得其乐的不断创作。

卢梭于从巴黎一所收费站中退休后,始全力作画,因此博得"关税员"的称号。别人常把他归为"原始的"、"素人的"、"周日画家"之列,他却光明正大地认为自己是不折不扣的专业画家。

1891年起常至植物园观赏温室里的热带景物,创作了许多充满幻想《战争》亨利·卢梭式的作品,如"睡眠中的吉普赛女郎"、"梦"等,1893年退休之后,生活清苦,却全心投入绘画创作;他充满想像的作品,却获得了诗人的赞赏及毕加索等前卫画家所推崇。

卢梭画的主题包罗万象,除了巴黎市郊,还有手法率真直接的人像,瑰丽的寓言性作品,花卉、尤其是一批富异国情调的大幅幻想式作品,这些作品是他常逛巴黎的公园、植物园、动物园所激发出来的。

卢梭创作热衷于创造一个幻想的世界,他的艺术很难归到哪一派,但他的画法属超现实主义。他似乎总是生活在一个梦幻的世界,这种与生俱来的爱幻想的天真性格,在他的日常生活中也充满天真烂漫,他的画具有原始童话般的魅力。

作品赏析

《梦》《梦》204.5×298.5cm

油彩

纽约现代美术博物馆藏 亨利·卢梭是法国现代派画家,《梦》是卢梭逝世前最后一幅杰出的作品,可以说代表了他的真个风格与追求。在画面左角,卢梭将他初恋时的情人画在沙发长椅上,置身于充满梦幻的热带丛林中。在这片森林里,奇花异草郁郁苍苍,两只狮子虎视眈眈,还有隐藏在森林深处的大象和禽鸟,以及惨淡月光下吹奏长笛的黑人,营造了一种异国情调和带有神秘意味的梦幻之境。当时有位评论家曾写信问画家为何这般构成,卢梭回答:"那是长椅上的少女梦见自己被运到热带丛林时的景象"。所以这幅画中的草木花卉、禽兽人物,乃至森林中沙发上的裸女,均是少女亚德菲加的梦中情景。画家在这幅画中所创造的奇妙而迷人的境界,正式借用梦境超脱于现实的那种神秘与荒诞,给观众造成难以言状的激动。其实画中所描绘的"热带植物"并非是出自热带,在法国到处可见,只不过卢梭将它放大并极为细致地画出,通过画中的荒诞情景去营造一种异国的、原始的气氛罢了。

折叠代表作品

卢梭 (1844-1910年)《睡着的吉普赛人》亨利·卢梭《诱蛇者》亨利·卢梭亨利·卢梭出生于法国拉瓦尔,逝于巴黎。他18岁从军,27岁参加德法战争。退役后任税务员,是位业余画家,到40岁退了职开始不断地作画,受到当时前卫艺术家毕加索等人的推崇。他的画没有师授,完全靠自学成功。他自己说:"除了自然之外,我没有老师。"人们称他为"星期日画家"。这类画家出于完全喜欢画而作画,没有任何规律约束,有着纯朴的感情,因而其作品有一种原始的和纯朴率真的美感。

《睡着的吉普赛人》

这是一幅具有异国情调的作品,一位席地而睡的吉普赛人和一头雄狮在空旷冷峻的沙漠境界中格外神秘莫测,具有明显的超现实主义画风。

English is introduced

Henri Rousseau

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (French: [ɑ̃ʁi ʒyljɛ̃ feliks ʁuso]; May 21, 1844 – September 2, 1910)[1] was a French post-impressionistpainter in the Naïve or Primitive manner.[2][3] He was also known asLe Douanier (the customs officer), a humorous description of his occupation as a toll collector.[1] Ridiculed during his lifetime by critics, he came to be recognized as a self-taught genius whose works are of high artistic quality.[4][5] Rousseau's work exerted an extensive influence on several generations of avant-garde artists.

His best-known paintings depict jungle scenes, even though he never left France or saw a jungle. Stories spread by admirers that his army service included the French expeditionary force to Mexico are unfounded. His inspiration came from illustrations in children's books[11] and the botanical gardens in Paris, as well as tableaux of taxidermy wild animals. He had also met soldiers during his term of service who had survived the French expedition to Mexico, and he listened to their stories of the subtropical country they had encountered. To the critic Arsène Alexandre, he described his frequent visits to the Jardin des Plantes: "When I go into the glass houses and I see the strange plants of exotic lands, it seems to me that I enter into a dream."

Along with his exotic scenes there was a concurrent output of smaller topographical images of the city and its suburbs.

He claimed to have invented a new genre of portrait landscape, which he achieved by starting a painting with a specific view, such as a favourite part of the city, and then depicting a person in the foreground.

Criticism and recognition

 

Rousseau's flat, seemingly childish style was disparaged by many critics; people often were shocked by his work or ridiculed it.[5][12] His ingenuousness was extreme, and he always aspired, in vain, to conventional acceptance. Many observers commented that he painted like a child, but the work shows sophistication with his particular technique.[3][5]

From 1886, he exhibited regularly in the Salon des Indépendants, and, although his work was not placed prominently, it drew an increasing following over the years. Tiger in a Tropical Storm (Surprised!) was exhibited in 1891, and Rousseau received his first serious review, when the young artist Félix Vallotton wrote: "His tiger surprising its prey ought not to be missed; it's the alpha and omega of painting." Yet it was more than a decade before Rousseau returned to depicting his vision of jungles.[6]

In 1893, Rousseau moved to a studio in Montparnasse where he lived and worked until his death in 1910.[13] In 1897, he produced one of his most famous paintings, La Bohémienne endormie (The Sleeping Gypsy).

In 1905, Rousseau's large jungle scene The Hungry Lion Throws Itself on the Antelope was exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants near works by younger leading avant-garde artists such as Henri Matisse, in what is now seen as the first showing of The Fauves. Rousseau's painting may even have influenced the naming of the Fauves.[6]

In 1907, he was commissioned by artist Robert Delaunay's mother, Berthe, Comtesse de Delaunay, to paint The Snake Charmer.

Le Banquet Rousseau

When Pablo Picasso happened upon a painting by Rousseau being sold on the street as a canvas to be painted over, the younger artist instantly recognised Rousseau's genius and went to meet him. In 1908, Picasso held a half serious, half burlesque banquet in his studio at Le Bateau-Lavoir in Rousseau's honour.[1] Le Banquet Rousseau, "one of the most notable social events of the twentieth century," wrote American poet and literary critic John Malcolm Brinnin, "was neither an orgiastic occasion nor even an opulent one. Its subsequent fame grew from the fact that it was a colorful happening within a revolutionary art movement at a point of that movement's earliest success, and from the fact that it was attended by individuals whose separate influences radiated like spokes of creative light across the art world for generations."

Guests at the banquet Rousseau included: Guillaume Apollinaire, Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris, Max Jacob, Marie Laurencin, André Salmon, Maurice Raynal, Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler, Leo Stein, and Gertrude Stein 

Maurice Raynal, in Les Soires de Paris, 15 January 1914, p. 69, wrote about "Le Banquet Rousseau".[16] Years later the French writer André Salmon recalled the setting of the illustrious banquet:

"Here the nights of the Blue Period passed... here the days of the Rose Period flowered... here the Demoiselles d'Avignon halted in their dance to re-group themselves in accordance with the golden number and the secret of the fourth dimension... here fraternized the poets elevated by serious criticism into the School of the Rue Ravignan... here in these shadowy corridors lived the true worshippers of fire ... here one evening in the year 1908 unrolled the pageantry of the first and last banquet offered by his admirers to the painter Henri Rousseau called the Douanier."[14][15][17]

Retirement

After Rousseau's retirement in 1893, he supplemented his small pension with part-time jobs and work such as playing a violin in the streets. He also worked briefly at Le petit journal, where he produced a number of its covers.[6]

Rousseau exhibited his final painting, The Dream, in March 1910, at the Salon des Independants and in the same month suffered a phlegmonin his leg which he ignored.[18] In August he was admitted to the Necker Hospital[19] in Paris where his son had died and was found to have gangrene in his leg. On 2 September 1910 after an operation he died from a blood clot. At his funeral, seven friends stood at his grave: the painters Paul Signac and Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, the artist couple Robert Delaunay and Sonia Terk, the sculptor Brâncuși, Rousseau's landlord Armand Queval and Guillaume Apollinaire who wrote the epitaph Brâncuși put on the tombstone:

We salute you Gentle Rousseau you can hear us.
Delaunay, his wife, Monsieur Queval and myself.
Let our luggage pass duty free through the gates of heaven.
We will bring you brushes paints and canvas.
That you may spend your sacred leisure in the
light and Truth of Painting.
As you once did my portrait facing the stars, lion and the gypsy.

Legacy

Rousseau's work exerted an extensive influence on several generations of avant-garde artists, including Pablo Picasso, Jean Hugo, Fernand Léger Jean Metzinger, Max Beckmann, and the Surrealists. According to Roberta Smith, an art critic writing in The New York Times: "Beckmann’s amazing self-portraits, for example, descend from the brusque, concentrated forms of Rousseau’s portrait of the writerPierre Loti."[6][20]

In 1911, a retrospective exhibition of Rousseau's works was shown at the Salon des Indépendants. His paintings were also shown at the first Blaue Reiter exhibition.

Critics have noted the influence of Rousseau on Wallace Stevens's poetry. See, for instance, Stevens's Floral Decorations for Bananas in the collection Harmonium.

The American poet Sylvia Plath was a great admirer of Rousseau, referencing his art, as well as drawing inspiration from his works in her poetry. The poem, Yadwigha, on a Red Couch, Among Lilies (1958), is based upon his painting, The Dream, whilst the poem Snakecharmer (1957) is based upon his painting The Snake Charmer.[21]

The song, The Jungle Line, by Joni Mitchell, is based upon a Rousseau painting.[22]

Underground comic artist Bill Griffith drew a four-page autobiographical sketch of Rousseau, A Couch in the Sun, which was included in issue #2 of the Arcade anthology.

The visual style of Michel Ocelot's 1998 animation film, Kirikou and the Sorceress, is partly inspired by Rousseau, particularly the depiction of the jungle vegetation.[23]

A Rousseau painting was used as an inspiration for the 2005 animated filmMadagascar.[24]

Exhibitions

Two major museum exhibitions of his work were held in 1984–85 (in Paris, at the Grand Palais; and in New York, at the Museum of Modern Art) and in 2001 (Tübingen, Germany). "These efforts countered the persona of the humble, oblivious naïf by detailing his assured single-mindedness and tracked the extensive influence his work exerted on several generations of vanguard artists," critic Roberta Smith wrote in a review of a later exhibition.[6]

A major exhibition of his work, "Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris," was shown at the Tate Modern from November 2005 for four months, organised by the Tate and the Musée d’Orsay, where the show also appeared. The exhibition, encompassing 49 of his paintings, was on display at the National Gallery of Art in Washington from July 16–October 15, 2006.

A major collection of Rousseau's work was shown at the Grand Palais from March 15 to June 19, 2006.

 

Background

Rousseau was born in Laval, France, in 1844 into the family of a plumber; he was forced to work there as a small boy.[7] He attended Laval High School as a day student and then as a boarder, after his father became a debtor and his parents had to leave the town upon the seizure of their house. Though mediocre in some of his high school subjects, Rousseau won prizes for drawing and music.[8] After high school, he worked for a lawyer and studied law, but "attempted a small perjury and sought refuge in the army."[9] He served four years, starting in 1863. With his father's death, Rousseau moved to Paris in 1868 to support his widowed mother as a government employee. In 1868, he married Clémence Boitard, his landlord's 15-year-old daughter, with whom he had six children (only one survived). In 1871, he was appointed as a collector of the octroi of Paris, collecting taxes on goods entering Paris. His wife died in 1888 and he married Josephine Noury in 1898. He started painting seriously in his early forties; by age 49, he retired from his job to work on his art full-time.[6]

Rousseau claimed he had "no teacher other than nature",[3] although he admitted he had received "some advice" from two established Academic painters, Félix Auguste Clément and Jean-Léon Gérôme.[10] Essentially, he was self-taught and is considered to be a naïve or primitive painter.

Paintings

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保罗•古斯塔夫•费舍尔Fischer, Paul
沃尔特·豪厄尔德弗雷尔Walter Howell Deverell
弗兰克·班纳特莫斯Bennett, Frank Moss
埃弗特.彼得斯Evert Pieters
卢多维科.卡拉奇Carracci, Lodovico
奇戈利Cigoli
亨丽埃塔.李博Henrietta Rae
胡安·苏亚雷斯Juan Botas
阿尔维斯·维瓦里尼Vivarini, Alvise
休·琼斯博尔顿Hugh Bolton Jones
弗拉·菲利普·利比Fra Filippo Lippi
赫尔曼·克恩Hermann Kern
爱德华·维亚尔Edouard Vuillard
马斯登.哈特利Marsden Hartley
乔托Giotto
列奥纳多达芬奇
里昂·莱歇Leon Richet
安迪·沃霍尔
塞缪尔.范.霍赫斯特拉滕Samuel van Hoogstraten
阿尔弗雷德·芒宁斯Alfred Munnings
约翰乔治.布朗Brown, John George
爱德华·普里切特Edward Pritchett
朱塞佩德.尼蒂斯Giuseppe de Nittis
爱德华.屈居埃尔Edward Cucuel
科尔,乔治 · 维卡Cole, George Vicat
弗雷德里克·巴齐耶Frédéric Bazille
约阿希姆.帕蒂尼尔Joachim Patenier
雷诺兹Joshua Reynolds
乔治·德·基里科Giorgio de Chirico
丹尼尔 · 格林Daniel E. Greene
让·杜布菲Jean Dubuffet
约翰内斯·维米尔Johannes Vermeer
托马斯·罗兰森Thomas Rowlandson
汉斯·马卡特Hans Makart
雅格布·阿米格尼Amigoni, Jacopo
安德烈萨基Andrea Sacchi
雅各布·贝利尼Jacopo Bellini
巴尔纳.锡耶纳Barna da Siena
格雷斯.哈德森Grace Hudson
保罗·西涅克
伊曼纽尔 杜瓦Amaury-Duval, Eugène-Emmanuel
阿特米谢·简特内斯基Artemisia Gentileschi
斯图尔特·戴维斯Stuart Davis
威廉Koekkoek,Willem Koekkoek
皮萨内洛Pisanello
乔瓦尼·达米兰Giovanni da Milano
弗朗西斯科.米拉勒Francisco Miralles
约翰 · 格奥尔格 · 迈耶Bremen, Johann Georg Meyer von
克雷斯皮,乔瓦尼 · 巴蒂斯塔Crespi, Giovanni Battista
爱德华.德塔耶Detaille, Edouard
埃米尔·莱维 Emile Levy
泰里克·威廉姆斯Terrick Williams
约翰·马丁John Martin
詹姆斯·杰布萨·香农James Jebusa Shannon
莫迪盖.阿尔顿Mordecai Ardon
安东尼·凡·戴克Anthony van Dyck
王元友
张弘乙
雷内.马格利特René Magritte
杨珺
梅万金
罗远明
鲁晓波
姚占元
郎琳
大卫·埃米尔·约瑟夫·德·诺特David Emile Joseph de Noter
谭巍
肖勇
卡斯蒂格利奥,乔瓦尼·贝内德托Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto
美洛佐.达.弗利Melozzo da Forlì
米征
王琨
蒯惠中
邱新良
金世权
梁越
朱利奥 · 坎皮Campi, Giulio
李永浩
王斐
任伟
缪鹏飞
颜真卿
亚里昆·哈孜
陈令璀
刘人岛
王树艺
吕培桓
吴春宝
李贇
黄耿卓
吕林
潘天寿
朱宇航
耶律培
闵先瑞
徐卫国
阿旺曲扎
谭植桓
刘凌沧
王玉浩
张星
林艺阳
孙景波
周阿成
杨启舆
阿道夫·亚历山大·莱斯雷尔Adolphe Alexandre Lesrel
吴定川
陈前喜
李津
施赖尔阿道夫Adolf Schreyer
王永才
柳敦贵
余镇河
李广才
刘既明
李嵘
杨志
郑胜天
李振良
宋雨树
孙春龙
李兵
郭晓辉
史秉有
郑华宁
何阿平
朱廷仁
张彤
安娜Bilinska-Bohdanowicz, Anna
李德明
封雄强
郝红章
王珣
陈亮
储金山
孙长喜
周瑞庄
梁子隽
董晓霞
张安朴
恽珠
陶冶
高正石
刘凯
朱蓓蕾
石谷
李福来
骆文冠
戴熙
贾楠
张树权
宁耀曾
何柳生
王琥
王赞
唐亮