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威廉·詹姆斯·格莱肯斯William James Glackens

威廉·詹姆斯Glackens(1870年3月13日—1938年5月22日)是美国现实主义画家和垃圾箱画派的创始人之一的美国艺术。他也知道他的工作在帮助阿尔伯特·c·巴恩斯收购欧洲绘画,形成著名的费城巴恩斯基金会的核心。[1]dark-hued,充满活力地画街景和日常生活的描写pre-WW我纽约和巴黎首先建立他的声誉作为一个主要的艺术家。他的后期作品亮在语气和雷诺阿的强烈影响。在他职业生涯的大部分作为一个画家,Glackens还担任插画家报纸和杂志在费城和纽约。

  • 中文名威廉·詹姆斯·格莱肯斯
  • 外文名William James Glackens
  • 性别
  • 国籍美国
  • 出生地费城
  • 出生日期1870年3月13日
  • 逝世日期1938年5月22日
  • 职业画家
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中文介绍

格拉肯斯出生在 费城 , 宾夕法尼亚 ,他的家人在那里生活了很多代人。威廉有两个兄弟姐妹:一个姐姐,艾达,和一个哥哥,插画家和漫画家 路易斯格拉肯斯 。他毕业于著名的 中央高中 1890。在校期间,他表现出极大的兴趣和天赋的绘画和绘图

毕业后,格拉肯斯成为了一名艺术家的记者 费城记录 。1892,他把报纸开始说明的 费城出版社 。他在夜校就读于 宾州艺术学院 著名的现实主义者,在研究 托马斯·安舒茨 。格拉肯斯是一个不稳定的学生,作为 艺术评论家 福布斯沃森将观察1923:“这么多的印象是各种教官让在他身上,他今天不记得谁教的时候他还是个小学生。”约翰斯隆 也参加了院,他向格拉肯斯介绍了 罗伯特·亨利 ,在费城艺术界的一个天才的画家和有魅力的人。Henri举办艺术家在他的工作室定期聚会,场合应酬,喝酒,素描,谈艺术,给彼此的工作艺术批评。亨利敦促他一起读书的年轻人 怀特曼 和 爱默生 , 威廉·莫里斯·亨特 的 谈判的艺术 和 乔治·摩尔 的 现代绘画 ,并思考需要创造一个充满活力的新的美国艺术,跟他们的时间和经验。这些集会是什么成为美国艺术的垃圾箱画派的灵感开始,一个风格,拒绝形式和19世纪的学术艺术的高贵和向工人阶层和中产阶级生活的材料。

1895,格拉肯斯前往欧洲,与几位画家,包括Henri、油漆和沉浸在欧洲艺术。 他第一次访问荷兰,他在那里研究荷兰大师。他后来搬到巴黎,在那里他租了一个与Henri工作室的一年,享受他第一次接触到的艺术 印象派画家 和 后印象派 。(对于男人,”Manet成为偶像。” )这样的旅行是常见的艺术家的时间想要建立自己在美国艺术界仍然视为省那些与大师和新艺术运动的深度体验的艺术爱好者,艺术家。而在巴黎,格拉肯斯画独立,但并未参加任何课程。在后来的生活中,确认的亲法,格拉肯斯回到定期油漆在巴黎和法国的南部。

在1896在纽约定居,格拉肯斯开始为一个艺术家 纽约世界报 一个位置,他通过他的朋友和同事的插画 乔治路斯 一个画家,曾在费城的亨利工作室会议参与者。格拉肯斯后来成为一个艺术家的素描 纽约先驱报 。他还担任多种杂志的插画,包括 麦克卢尔 ,使他 古巴 盖 –西班牙美国战争 。在这个时候,格拉肯斯是为谋生杂志插画,但他真正的激情在于绘画。1901,他表现出与Henri和Sloan艾伦画廊之后,取得了良好的通知作为一个行动和未来的艺术家。

1904、格拉肯斯结婚 伊迪丝迪莫克 ,一个富有的康涅狄格家庭的女儿。她也是一位艺术家,和他们一起住在格林威治村的别墅,在那里他们养育了两个孩子,Lenna和伊拉。如果他们的许多艺术家的朋友,过着放荡不羁的生活,按照当时的标准,这不是威廉和Edith Glackens为例。1957、艾拉格拉肯斯发表的关于他和他的父亲在新兴的现实主义艺术运动中扮演的角色一个轶事的书。

1906他被选入 国家设计研究院 作为一个准会员,并成为1933全院士。

在纽约,格拉肯斯成为一个艺术家称今天为八,其中五人(Robert Henri,约翰·斯隆, 乔治路斯 ,和 埃弗雷特希恩 以及格拉肯斯)被认为是垃圾桶的现实主义者。这个松散的协会其他成员 亚瑟B.戴维斯 , 厄尼斯特·劳森 ,和 莫里斯·普伦德加斯特 ”。八“是一个没有期限的集团自己的选择,但他们在1908第一个展览,它在新闻成了他们的官方名称,暗指艺术家因为有风格上的相似性和一切与艺术政治。这八个人已经决定在经历多次拒绝来自“官方”的展览,在强大的单独举行展览,保守的国家设计研究院。他们的分裂风险,部分一个抗议的方式,控制体的刚性定义艺术美。他们在麦克白画廊展示是一个小规模的“成功è的丑闻”,参观了几个城市从纽瓦克到芝加哥的旅游会展策划人Sloan。画家获得了广泛的认可和被邀请出现在许多机构。更重要的是,他们已经发起了一项全国性的辩论可接受的题材在艺术和需要结束美国文化中的上流社会的传统约束。大多数的八也参加的“独立艺术家展”1910,企图进一步打破奥斯卡的排他性。
 

艺术风格

格拉肯斯的题材和风格改变了一生。通过工作,他看到在欧洲期间的影响,从Hals和奈弗兰克·杜韦内克和印象派画家,格拉肯斯的早期作品以黑暗的、戏剧性的色彩和苛刻,重叠的笔触他描绘的巴黎及其郊区的城市生活场景和画曼哈顿的剧院和公园。他继续这种风格和题材的一段时间,直到他开始脱离八。在这一点上,他最常见的题材是风景,特别是海滩场景。后来格拉肯斯成了他最著名的肖像画,并在晚年专注于静物。尽管不断变化的主题,格拉肯斯的工作显然是一个男人谁爱的液体产品,在画布上的油无质量。福布斯Watson宣称格拉肯斯以强烈的色彩效果,高于一切,因为“世界的色彩使他彻底的快乐和色彩表达幸福成为了他的第一个和最自然的冲动。” 他的画,奇怪的是,“被幸福的幽灵,沉迷于欢乐的沉思。”在许多方面,他总是温柔的,还是最激进的艺术家。

格拉肯斯有时会批评他相似 雷诺阿 。他被一个模仿者。电荷是在20世纪20、30年代“他曾经旺盛的艺术个性已经因为太接近雷诺阿的一个模仿晚期风格”。格拉肯斯本人似乎没有对自己的目的和独创性的任何疑虑影响。他的艺术没有反映当时的社会危机,比如大萧条;相反,它提供了一个躲避黑暗。
 

English is introduced

Guerra Keith was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where his family lived for many generations. William has two siblings: a sister, Ada, and a brother, illustrator and cartoonist Luis Guerra jenkins. He graduated from the famous Central High School 1890. During school, he showed great interest and talent in painting and drawing
After graduation, Glackens became an artist recording journalist in Philadelphia. 1892, he began to explain the newspaper Philadelphia press. He studied at the Art Institute of Pennsylvania realism famous in the evening, in the study of Thomas Anschutz. Guerra Keith is an unstable student, as art critic Buss Watson will observe the 1923 photo: "so much is that instructors impression on him, he did not remember when he was still a schoolboy who taught today." John Sloan also attended the Academy where he introduced Robert Henry, a talented painter and charismatic man to the Philadelphia art world. Henri hosts artists in his studio for regular parties, social occasions, drinking, sketching, talking about art, and giving each other the work of art criticism. Henry urged him to study together the young Whitman and Emerson, William Morris Hunt's modern painting art of negotiation and George Moore, and think about the need to create a vibrant new American art, with their time and experience. The rallies are what became the dustbin of American Art Painting inspiration, a style, form of denial and nineteenth Century academic art to the noble and working-class and middle-class life.
1895, Glackens to Europe, and some of the artists, including Henri, paint and immersed in European art. His first visit to Holland, where he studied the master of Holland. He later moved to Paris, where he rented a studio with Henri for a year, enjoying his first exposure to the art of Impressionist and post impressionist. For men, "Manet became an idol." Such travel is common to artists who want to build their own artistic community in the United States, which is still regarded as the province of those who are masters of art and the depth of experience with the new art movement, artists. While in Paris, Glackens paintings independently, but did not attend any course. In later life, confirmed Francophile, Glackens returned to regular paint in Paris and southern france.
In 1896 settled in New York, Glackens started as an artist of New York world, a position he by his friend and colleague George Adams illustration of a painter, worked at Henry studios in Philadelphia conference participants. Glackens later became a sketch artist of the New York herald. He also served as an illustrator for a variety of magazines, including Mike, who made him a Cuban cover - the Spanish American War in. At this time, Glackens is making a living as a magazine illustrator, but his true passion in painting. 1901, he demonstrated with Henri and Sloan after the Alan Gallery, and achieved good notice as an action and future artist.
1904, Glackens married Edith Dimock, a wealthy Connecticut family's daughter. She is also an artist, and they lived together in Greenwich Village villa, where they raised two children, Lenna and ira. If many artists of their friends, live a life lead a fast by the standards of the day, this is not William, and Edith Glackens as an example. 1957, Ella Glackens published about him and his father played in the realism art movement in the emerging role of a Book of anecdotes.
1906 he was elected as a member of the National Institute of design and research, and became a full academician of the 1933.
In New York, Glackens become an artist said today is eight, five of them (Robert Henri, John Sloan, George and Everett Sheen and Ruth, Glackens considered) trash realist. This loose association of other members of the Arthur Davies B., and Emest Lawson, and Maurice prendergast". Eight "is not a term of the group's own choice, but they are in the 1908 first exhibition, it became their official name in the news, because of the style of the artist implies similarity and all the art and politics. The eight men have decided to go on a number of occasions to refuse to come from the "official" exhibition, held in a strong independent exhibition, the conservative National Institute of design. They split the risk, part of a protest in the way that the rigidity of the control body defines the beauty of art. They are a small "s successful scandal" in the Macbeth gallery show, visit the city from Newark to Chicago tourism exhibition planner Sloan. The painter was widely recognized and invited to appear in many institutions. What's more, they have launched a nationwide debate on the subject matter of acceptance in the arts and the need to end the traditional constraints of the upper class in American culture. Most of the eight also participated in the "independent artists exhibition" in 1910, in an attempt to further break Oscar's exclusivity.Guerra Keith's theme and style changed his life. Through the work, he saw the influence in Europe during the period, from Hals and Nafrank Duvenek and the impressionist painter, Guerra Keith's early works in the dark, dramatic colors and harsh, overlapping strokes he portrayed in the city of Paris and its suburbs life scenes and painting the theatre in Manhattan and park. He continued this style and theme for some time until he began to break away from eight. At this point, he is the most common theme of the landscape, especially the beach scene. Later, Glackens became his most famous portrait, and in the later years focused on still life. Despite the changing theme, Glackens is clearly the work of liquid products with a man who loves the oil on canvas without quality. Watson said Forbes Glackens with strong color effect, above all, because of the color of the world that he completely happy and happy color expression became his first and most natural impulse." His paintings, strangely, "are the spirits of happiness and the contemplation of joy." In many ways, he is always gentle, or the most radical artist.
He sometimes criticizes him like Renoir. He was an imitator. The charge was in twentieth Century 20 and in 30s, "he once had a strong artistic personality that had been too close to Renoir's imitation of a late style". Guerra Keith himself does not seem to have any doubts about his purpose and originality. His art did not reflect the social crisis of the time, such as the Great Depression; on the contrary, it provided a refuge from the dark.

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