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巴塞洛缪斯.赫尔斯特Bartholomeus van der Helst

巴塞洛缪斯.赫尔斯特Bartholomeus van der Helst(1613年—1670年12月16日),荷兰黄金时代肖像画家。

  • 中文名巴塞洛缪斯.赫尔斯特
  • 外文名Bartholomeus van der
  • 性别
  • 国籍荷兰
  • 出生地哈勒姆
  • 出生日期1613年
  • 逝世日期1670年12月16日
  • 职业画家
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中文介绍

传记

 

自画像(1655)

出生在哈勒姆哈勒姆旅馆老板的儿子,Van der Helst搬到阿姆斯特丹一段时间在1636年之前,因为他在那一年结了婚。他的第一次约会,一群的肖像评议隆孤儿院(目前在阿姆斯特丹Maison笛卡尔的位置),始于1637年。它从他学会了油漆是未知的,但在哈勒姆,他必须至少有已知的工作弗朗斯·哈尔斯喜欢他,他从来没有去过意大利和专业肖像画。哈尔斯甚至不愿意前往阿姆斯特丹涂料利润丰厚的schuttersstukken,几年之后trekschuit1632年通勤阿姆斯特丹可能他这1636年未遂De Magere公司,但放弃了让Pieter Codde完成它。作为一个旅馆老板的儿子在trekschuit顾客不断增加的情况下,van der Helst立即就会看到的重要性和阿姆斯特丹的相对价值高于哈勒姆在任何情况下,他移居阿姆斯特丹,1639年,他赢得了自己的schutterstuk委员会,上尉鲁洛夫•争吵和中尉的公司简Michielsz Blaeuw他很有可能训练在阿姆斯特丹尼古拉斯Eliaszoon Pickenoy.

职业生涯在阿姆斯特丹

 

亚伯拉罕del法院和他的妻子玛丽亚·德·Kaersgieter在博物馆Boijmans Van Beuningen

在阿姆斯特丹Van der Helst是同时代的伦布兰特他很快成为最受欢迎的城市的肖像画家,他的形象风格的安东尼·范·戴克立即更有吸引力比伦勃朗的黑暗和内省之后的工作。伦勃朗的一些学生,包括费迪南德•波尔Govaert Flinck,采用范Helst的风格,而不是主人的。

他的大群的肖像,阿姆斯特丹公民警卫队的宴会庆祝和平的明斯特创作于1648年,表现出普遍的赞誉。这幅画,密封为后代他的名声,据阿诺德Houbraken,它被欣赏Godfried科内尔.

Joshua Reynolds在1781年去过阿姆斯特丹,他称赞这幅画是“也许,世界上第一幅肖像,理解更多的这些品质使一个完美的比我见过的任何其他肖像”。2006年6月25日,Hans-Joachim Bohlmann,他已经在类似的攻击造成了估计1.3亿欧元损失在德国,故意损坏的绘画表面喷涂打火机燃料和照明。仅在2005年1月Bohlmann被关押在精神病学超过16年,已经发布了一个法院的裁决,尽管精神病学家仍然看到进一步攻击的风险很高,这种风险对房地产不可能导致无期徒刑。虽然这次的损坏主要是清漆层,最初使用的某些部分和布也折磨以及框架。

他是他儿子的老师Lodewijk van der Helst他跟着他的风格。他在1670年死于阿姆斯特丹。

遗产

 

阿姆斯特丹公民警卫队的宴会庆祝和平的明斯特画1648年展出博物馆.

连同他的画像是最著名的,Van der Helst画一些历史、圣经和神话的场景。在他死后,他的遗孀提供他的作品在1671年出售的广告哈勒姆克,可能(抑郁)荷兰经济的必要的,因为:

 

杰拉德Andriesz争吵

Bartholomeus van der Helst的寡妇,生活中一个非常受人尊敬的和艺术的画家,愿意出售他所有的作品中,包括许多大块,所画的自己以及尊重大师等Frans Floris,西蒙·德·沃斯,Goltzius,奥斯塔这,Pieter Lastman,杰拉德van Zyl,西蒙德Vlieger,•Gerritsz锅,奥托marceli,威廉·范·德·威尔德等。

 

吉迪恩德称船长的画像

杰拉德Andriesz争吵的画像

今天van der Helst最著名的画像是他半身的描述杰拉德Andriesz斗嘴,的儿子安德利争吵阿姆斯特丹市长,他也创作于1642年。这幅画像是常用来描述肥胖作为财富的象征的阿姆斯特丹的商人荷兰黄金时代在阿姆斯特丹。这可能是创作于1639年,同年作为第一个schutterstuk鲁洛夫•争吵是中心人物。当时杰拉德Andriesz斗嘴17岁,把主标题Muiden Engelenburg和高法警。很常见的艺术家获得全家肖像佣金后schutterij绘画小组的成员肖像。这就是为什么schutterstukken竞争如此激烈,由伦勃朗的领导夜班.

English Introduction

Biography

Born in Haarlem, the son of a Haarlem innkeeper, Van der Helst moved to Amsterdam some time before 1636, for he was married there in that year. His first dated picture, a group portrait of the regents of the WalloonOrphanage (currently the location of Maison Descartes in Amsterdam), dates from 1637. It is unknown from whom he learned to paint, but in Haarlem he must have at least known the work of Frans Hals, who like him, never traveled to Italy and specialized in portraiture. Hals refused even to travel to Amsterdam to paint the lucrativeschuttersstukken, and a few years after the trekschuit made commuting to Amsterdam possible in 1632 he attempted this in 1636 with the De Magere Compagnie, but gave it up and let Pieter Codde finish it. As the son of an innkeeper with ever-increasing trekschuit patrons, van der Helst would have seen immediately the importance of this and the relative value of Amsterdam above Haarlem. In any case, he moved to Amsterdam and in 1639 he won his ownschutterstuk commission, The company of Captain Roelof Bicker and Lieutenant Jan Michielsz Blaeuw. In Amsterdam he may well have trained with Nicolaes Eliaszoon Pickenoy.

Career in Amsterdam

In Amsterdam Van der Helst was a contemporary of Rembrandt. He soon became the most popular painter of portraits in that city, his flattering portrayals in the style ofAnthony van Dyck being more immediately appealing than Rembrandt's dark and introspective later work. Some of Rembrandt's pupils, including Ferdinand Bol andGovaert Flinck, adopted Van Helst's style instead of their master's.

His large group portrait, Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of thePeace of Münster, was painted in 1648, and exhibited to popular acclaim. It was this painting that sealed his fame for future generations, according to Arnold Houbraken, and it was admired by Godfried Kneller.

When Joshua Reynolds visited Amsterdam in 1781, he praised the painting as "perhaps, the first picture of portraits in the world, comprehending more of those qualities which make a perfect portrait than any other I have ever seen". On 25 June 2006, Hans-Joachim Bohlmann, who had already caused an estimated 130 million Euros damage in similar attacks in Germany, intentionally damaged the painting by spraying lighter fuel on its surface and lighting it. Only in January 2005 Bohlmann, having been held in psychiatry for more than 16 years, had been released by a court ruling that, although psychiatrists still saw a high risk for further attacks, such risk for property could not lead to a life sentence. Although the damage this time was mostly to the varnish layer, some parts of the original paint and cloth were also afflicted as well as the frame.

He was the teacher of his son Lodewijk van der Helst who followed his style. He died at Amsterdam in 1670.

Legacy

Along with the portraits for which he is most famous, Van der Helst painted a few historical, biblical and mythological scenes. Upon his death, his widow offered his works for sale in 1671 in an advertisement in the Haarlems Dagblad,[3]probably necessary because of the (depressed) Dutch economy:

The widow of Bartholomeus van der Helst, in life a very respected and artistic painter, is willing to sell all of his works, including many large pieces, that are painted by himself as well as respected masters such asFrans Floris,Simon de Vos,Goltzius,Adriaen Brouwer,Pieter Lastman,Gerard van Zyl,Simon de Vlieger, Hendrik Gerritsz Pot,Otto Marcelis,Willem van de Velde, etc.

Portrait of Gerard Andriesz Bicker

Today van der Helst's most famous portrait is his half-length portrayal of Gerard Andriesz Bicker, the son of Andries Bicker, the mayor of Amsterdam, whom he also painted in 1642. This portrait is often used to depict obesity as a symbol of wealth of the Amsterdam merchants of the Dutch Golden Age in Amsterdam. It was probably painted in 1639, the same year as the first schutterstuk where Roelof Bicker is the central figure. At that time Gerard Andriesz Bicker was 17 years old, and held the titles Lord of Engelenburg and High Bailiff of Muiden. It was quite common for artists to win whole family portrait commissions from members of the schutterij after painting group portraits. This is why the competition in schutterstukken became so fierce, led by Rembrandt's Nightwatch.

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