异教徒.贝利尼Gentile Bellini

异教徒.贝利尼Gentile Bellini(1429年—1507年2月23日),意大利画家。

  • 中文名异教徒.贝利尼
  • 外文名Gentile Bellini
  • 性别
  • 国籍意大利
  • 出生地威尼斯
  • 出生日期1429年
  • 逝世日期1507年2月23日
  • 职业画家
中文简介

传记

著名画家的外邦人出生于一个家庭:他的父亲雅格布贝里尼威尼斯是一个先锋的使用油漆作为一种艺术的载体,他广受好评的哥哥乔凡尼贝里尼,他的姐夫安德里亚曼特尼亚他被命名为外邦人在雅格布的主人,真蒂莱达·法布里亚诺.[2]外邦人在父亲的工作室教绘画。虽然今天外邦人是经常出现在家庭成员,他更有名的影子在他的时代,他被认为是最伟大的画家住在威尼斯和没有短缺的佣金,他作为一个肖像画家透露自己的人才。

绘画

 

总督Giovanni Mocenigo c。1478;蛋彩画面板;博物馆跑威尼斯。

 

队伍的真正十字架在圣马可广场,1496;蛋彩画和油画;学院威尼斯。

外邦人最早的签署工作是祝福洛伦佐Giustinian(1445年),现存最古老的油画在威尼斯(现在在学院博物馆)。在1450年代贝里尼工作委员会师范学校Grande di San马可和他兄弟画结合,乔凡尼贝里尼。从1454年他也是威尼斯总督的官方肖像画家,[3](例如,见图片的总督Giovanni Mocenigo右)。

异教徒贝里尼的大部分幸存的工作由非常大的公共建筑绘画,包括师范学校Grande di San Giovanni伊万格丽斯塔随着一员Bastiani,Vittore生牛肉片,乔凡尼MansuetiBenedetto Rusconi,贝里尼是雇来的艺术家绘画10-painting叙事周期称为奇迹的十字架的遗物。该委员会是为了庆祝遗迹圣十字这一兄弟般的关系收到了1369年。包括非犹太人的贡献的真正的交叉在圣马可广场,这可以追溯到1496年,奇迹的真正穿过美国洛伦佐1500,非犹太人的自画像,他哥哥乔凡尼

贝里尼和东

威尼斯是当时一个非常重要的文化和贸易与东地中海和网关提供亚洲非洲如上所述,在他有生之年,外邦人是最著名的画家在威尼斯。因此,政府在1479年,他被选中的威尼斯工作苏丹Mehmed二世君士坦丁堡然而,除了他在土耳其法院工作,外邦人的工作也对东方的其他方面,包括拜占庭帝国.

斯坦布尔

 

外邦人贝里尼的麦当娜和孩子坐在,15世纪晚期。注意伊斯兰教祈祷地毯的脚圣母玛利亚的一个例子,东方地毯在文艺复兴时期的绘画.

1479年9月非犹太人被威尼斯参议院新的发送奥斯曼帝国资本斯坦布尔作为威尼斯和土耳其之间的和平协议。他的角色不仅是作为访问画家在一个异国情调的场所,也是一种文化大使威尼斯。[4]这是很重要的Mehmed二世,他是意大利的艺术和文化特别感兴趣,他几次试图自己描绘了意大利艺术家。与非犹太人,他终于达到了他的目标[5]据信是谁画的肖像Mehmed II现在伦敦国家美术馆,(但基本上覆盖)。它已经注意到肖像就像一幅画的人物之一马可Palmezzano医生中,耶稣在殿里(Brisighella附近的Forli拉文纳)。贝里尼的肖像的约会和作者一直放置在问题。[6]

随后,一个东方的味道出现在他的一些作品,包括土耳其艺术家的肖像和圣马克亚历山大(上图)讲道。最后完成了他的兄弟,乔凡尼贝里尼.[7]

卡洛Ridolfi贝里尼死后(生于87年)在他1648年的相关历史的威尼斯艺术家,贝里尼曾经给了苏丹一幅被砍头的施洗约翰尽管苏丹印象深刻的工作,他指出,脖子的尺寸不准确,生动地说明了他的观点,有一个奴隶斩首前贝里尼的眼睛,于是立刻惊恐的艺术家逃到了威尼斯。这个故事可能是虚构的,类似的故事被告知塞内加Parrhasius米开朗基罗的,以及通过一个可疑的来源。[8]

希腊

 

女王Caterina Cornaroc。1500;Szepmuveszeti Muzeum,布达佩斯.

外邦人对东部的其他方面,包括希腊拜占庭帝国,[5]威尼���的其他贸易伙伴在北非洲黎凡特与东方威尼斯有一个历史悠久的关系地中海.圣马克威尼斯的赞助人来自埃及的城市亚历山大,威尼斯的文化和精神中心——的圣马可教堂是建立在他的荣誉(和他的陵墓)在希腊拜占庭风格。虽然君士坦丁堡1453年奥斯曼土耳其,希腊拜占庭世界持续影响威尼斯艺术和文化作为一个数量的希腊基督教徒逃离穆斯林统治。正是在这里,外邦人画的肖像女王Caterina Cornaro塞浦路斯(右)。这是算作第二个已知的肖像,包括女王,现在在布达佩斯Szepmuveszeti博物馆的收藏。[5]

退休多年,遗留

贝里尼最重要的绘画,巨大的画布中总督宫在威尼斯,于1577年毁于一场大火。只缺少他的其他作品,即大叙事作品队伍在圣马可广场(上图左)和圣马克的说教亚历山大(上图右),在他生命的最后几年。小的非犹太人的艺术从1470年代和1480年代,除了在君士坦丁堡。此外,许多车间油画和素描已经分配给外邦人贝里尼。这不幸的结果证实了他的声誉作为一个尴尬的艺术家,特别是在与他心爱的弟弟乔凡尼非犹太人从受欢迎的支持似乎已经开始在他死后不久,在1557年罗多维科温柔的做了一个相当尖刻的评论他是提香的早期老师:

提香不能忍受跟外邦的干燥和劳动的方式……由于这个原因,离开这个尴尬的外邦人,提香与乔凡尼贝里尼:但是他的风格完全不请他,他找到了乔尔乔内.[9]

他被埋葬乔凡尼教堂e保罗传统的埋葬的地方总督。

近年来,非犹太人再次产生兴趣,特别是在最近一系列的学术出版物和展览在欧美之间的跨文化交流的主题黎凡特.[10]

English Introduction

Biography

Gentile was born into a family of renowned painters: his father Jacopo Bellini, was a Venetian pioneer in the use ofoil paint as an artistic medium; his acclaimed brother was Giovanni Bellini, and his brother-in-law Andrea Mantegna. He was christened Gentile after Jacopo's master, Gentile da Fabriano.[2] Gentile was taught painting in the workshop of his father. Although today Gentile is often seen in the shadow of his more famous family members, in his own time he was considered among the greatest living painters in Venice and had no shortage of commissions; his talent as a portraitist revealed itself at an early age.

Paintings

Gentile's earliest signed work is The Blessed Lorenzo Giustinian (1445), one of the oldest surviving oil paintings in Venice (now at the Accademia Museum). During the 1450s Bellini worked on a commission for the Scuola Grande di San Marco and painted in conjunction with his brother, Giovanni Bellini. From 1454 he was also the official portrait artist for the Doges of Venice,[3] (for example, see image of the Doge Giovanni Mocenigo at right).

Much of Gentile Bellini’s surviving work consists of very large paintings for public buildings, including those for the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista. Along with Lazzaro Bastiani, Vittore Carpaccio, Giovanni Mansueti and Benedetto Rusconi, Bellini was one of the artists of hired to paint the 10-painting narrative cycle known as The Miracles of the Relic of the Cross. The commission was intended to celebrate therelic of the Holy Cross which the confraternity had received in 1369. Gentile's contributions include the Procession of the True Cross in Piazza San Marco, which dates from 1496, and the Miracle of the True Cross at the S. Lorenzo Bridge, dating from 1500 and featuring Gentile's self-portrait and that of his brother Giovanni.

Bellini and the East

Venice was, at that time, a very important point in which cultures and trade bordered on the eastern Mediterranean Sea and provided gateways to Asia and Africa. As noted, in his lifetime, Gentile was the most prestigious painter in Venice. Therefore, in 1479, he was chosen by the government of Venice to work for Sultan Mehmed II inConstantinople. However, in addition to his work at the Ottoman Court, Gentile's work also responded to other aspects of the East, including the Byzantine Empire.

Istanbul

In September 1479 Gentile was sent by the Venetian Senate to the new Ottoman capitalIstanbul as part of the peace settlement between Venice and the Turks. His role was not only as a visiting painter in an exotic locale, but also as a cultural ambassador for Venice.[4] This was important to Mehmed II, as he was particularly interested in the art and culture of Italy, and he attempted on several occasions to have himself portrayed by Italian artists. He finally reached his goal with Gentile,[5] who is believed to have painted the portrait of Mehmed II now in the National Gallery, London, (but largely overpainted). It has been noticed that the portrait is like one of the figures in a painting by Marco Palmezzano, Jesus among the Doctors in the Temple(Brisighella, near Forlì and Ravenna). So the dating and authorship of the portrait by Bellini have been placed in question.[6]

Subsequently, an Oriental flavour appears in several of his paintings, including the portrait of a Turkish artist and St. Mark Preaching at Alexandria (above). The last was completed by his brother, Giovanni Bellini.[7]

Carlo Ridolfi (who was born 87 years after Bellini's death) relates in his 1648 history of the Venetian artists that Bellini once presented the Sultan with a painting of the beheading of John the Baptist. Though the Sultan was impressed with the work, he pointed out that the dimensions of the neck were inaccurate, and graphically illustrated his point by having a slave beheaded before Bellini's eyes, whereupon the horrified artist fled to Venice at once. This anecdote is likely apocryphal, as a similar story had been told by Seneca of Parrhasius, as well as of Michelangelo via a dubious source.[8]

Greece

Gentile responded to other aspects of the East, including the Byzantine Greek Empire,[5] as well as Venice’s other trading partners in North Africa and Levant. Venice had a long-established relationship with the Eastern Mediterranean. Saint Mark, Venice’s patron, was from the Egyptian city of Alexandria, and Venice’s cultural and spiritual centre – the basilica of San Marco – was built in his honor (and as his mausoleum) in the Greek Byzantine style. Although Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Greek Byzantine world had a continuing impact upon Venetian art and culture as a number of Greek Christians fled Muslim rule. It was here that Gentile painted the portrait of Queen Caterina Cornaro of Cyprus (at right). This is counted as the second known portrait including the queen, which is now in the collection of the Szepmuveszeti Museum in Budapest.[5]

Retirement years and legacy

Bellini's most important paintings, the monumental canvases in the Doge’s Palace in Venice, were destroyed by fire in 1577. Only a few of his other works remain, namely the large narrative paintings The Procession in Piazza San Marco (above left) and The Preaching of Saint Mark in Alexandria (above right), produced in his final years. Little remains of Gentile’s art from the 1470s and 1480s, except for the works made in Constantinople. Moreover, many workshop paintings and drawings have been assigned to Gentile Bellini. This has had the unfortunate consequence of confirming his reputation as an awkward artist, especially in comparison with his beloved brother Giovanni. Gentile's fall from popular favor seems to have begun shortly after his death; by 1557 Lodovico Dolce made a rather acerbic comment about him as an early teacher of Titian:

Titian could not bear to follow the dry and labored manner of Gentile... Because of this, leaving this awkward Gentile, Titian attached himself to Giovanni Bellini: but his style did not entirely please him either, and he sought out Giorgione.[9]

He was interred in the Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, a traditional burial place of the doges.

In recent years, Gentile has once again generated interest, especially in a recent spate of scholarly publications and exhibitions on the subject of cross-cultural exchange between Europe and the Levant.[10]

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