威廉斯.本杰明.领袖Benjamin Williams Leader

威廉斯.本杰明.领袖Benjamin Williams Leader(1831年3月12日- 1923年3月22日)是一位英国风景画家。

  • 中文名威廉斯.本杰明.领袖
  • 外文名Benjamin Williams Leader
  • 性别
  • 国籍英国
  • 出生地伍斯特
  • 出生日期1831年3月12日
  • 逝世日期1923年3月22日
  • 职业画家
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中文介绍

生活和工作

早期和培训

 

一个安静的池Glenfalloch(1857)

领袖出生在伍斯特[1]本杰明·威廉姆斯领袖��儿子,和十一个孩子的第一个孩子,引人注目土木工程师爱德华领袖威廉姆斯(1802 - 79)[2]撒拉怀廷(1801 - 88)。他的父亲被形容为一个“不墨守成规的持”和他的母亲是一个贵格会教徒,他们的婚姻在一个英国国教导致他们被否认社会的朋友.[3]

领导人的父亲是一个敏锐的业余艺术家——的一个朋友John Constable——在素描和便雅悯常常陪他旅行的银行塞文河.[4]他的兄弟,也爱德华·威廉姆斯领袖,后来成为一位著名的土木工程师工作,被封为爵士,现在主要是因设计曼彻斯特运河——这是成为领导者最大的绘画的主题。家庭最终驻留在“Diglis房子”——现在旅馆。[5]

受过教育的领导者皇家文法学校最初,伍斯特,在他父亲的办公室作为一个制图员在学习艺术在晚上伍斯特学院的设计在空闲时间他还做了很多“露天”山水画。

1854年,23岁的他被承认作为一个学生皇家学院在伦敦,不寻常的是,在他的第一年,在那里接受图片展览,“小屋孩子吹泡泡”,后来卖给了一个美国买家£50 -一大笔。[6]随后他的作品出现在每年夏天展览在学校直到1922年,当领导人已经91岁了。他也有一些早期作品展出的“国家机构”,波特兰1857 - 58。[7]

职业生涯

 

英文河在秋天(1877)

 

1875年本杰明领袖金夜

这些早期作品的灵感是附近的乡村伍斯特本身,“农舍,农舍,车道,树篱和教堂,所以非常别致、美丽”。[8]然而,领导人并没有完成他的课程研究r .,他也不需要,他的画被证明是需求量很大的买家和他取得了令人羡慕的富裕程度的商业上的成功只有几年内他的第一笔生意。

1857年,他将自己的名字改为本杰明·威廉姆斯领袖来区分自己从许多其他画家姓威廉姆斯。[9]在那一年秋天,他前往苏格兰,和彩绘“格伦Falloch安静池”——在1859年的r·A·展出。这一年是他最成功的但是有四个油画挂在学院和所有出售,一个买家的艺术品交易商阿格纽[10]在他的一生中谁买了他的大部分工作。这样是最好的需求,他的大部分工作现在去私人画廊和从未公开展出。

 

晚上下雨后,伍斯特郡(1886)

在接下来的10年,领袖把绘画之间的时间塞汶河流域伍斯特郡,威尔士,产生许多油画。其中,“秋天的最后一线”被认为是最好的风景在皇家艺术学院1865年的展览。1862年,他从伍斯特搬到附近惠廷顿(居住直到1889年)成为了一个最喜欢的草图。1863年,他的工作”在墓地Bettwys-y-Coed“由总理本人购买,威廉•格拉德斯通.[11]

1876年8月,领导结婚的艺术家玛丽东湖牌(生于1852年c。)[12]他们继续有6个孩子——首先,本杰明东湖牌领袖(1877 - 1916),也是一个艺术家,是在第二次世界大战中阵亡了。

1881年,“2月填堤”是在皇家美术学院展出,广受好评和领导助理(ARA)在1883年,1898年成为英国皇家院士(RA)。[13]

 

以后的生活

1889年,全家搬到了“洞穴”,谢尔吉尔福德附近的萨里郡,一个大豪宅设计的诺曼·肖RA -领袖住在这里,直到他生命的最后。[14]在同一年,他的骑士荣誉军团勋章推荐,获得这一殊荣的法国艺术家Meissonier.[15]在1914年他成为了城市的荣誉弗里曼的伍斯特承认他的服务(如主管皇家伍斯特Porcerlain和土生土长的城市)。

除了家乡伍斯特和威尔士,领导也画在英国其他地区包括德文郡、萨里和在欧洲大陆在德国,瑞士,法国和比利时。他在1923年死于萨里。

工作

 

村里的教堂(1900)

领导人的早期作品的影响拉斐尔前派艺术家关注细节,强调绘画的灵感来自大自然“en”练习。在晚年,他采取了宽松的风格,更多的是给人深刻印象的自然而不是一个精确的拷贝,这被证明是更受欢迎。[16]

评论家詹姆斯Dafforne,写于1871年艺术杂志说领导者的风格:[17]

他展示了一个好自然的美女,在不同方面,盟军与诗意的感觉。先生领导的风格是一个快乐的媒介之间多余的细节和能说会道一方面,执行和破折号。有足够的完成他的作品来满足那些寻找仔细,但是这个质量不沦为影响鸡毛蒜皮的事情,虽然他们显示宽度的方式和杰出的效果光与影的明智的安排。他的色彩,也通常是纯粹和真实的本性。

根据1901年的艺术杂志,在领袖一生最受欢迎的作品,“在秋天必有光”,“2月填堤”和“Llugwy谷”。[18]和在他最好的作品时认为:“浪漫的诗——做梦在月光下”,“晚上应当光”和“老霍路通过北威尔士”。

领导人的画作目前在公开展出维多利亚和艾伯特博物馆泰特美术馆在伦敦,哈德斯菲尔德艺术画廊,伯明翰博物馆和艺术画廊,在伍斯特郡(英国最大的收藏他的作品到目前为止),在英国曼彻斯特和其他地区。剑桥画廊圣塔莫尼卡美国也有他的一些作品。很多,此外,保存在私人收藏家手中。有一个纪念,设计的艾拉奈培领导人在圣Buryan教堂.[19]2003年,“一个夏季的一天”(1888)拍卖£168000索斯比拍卖行.

English Introduction

Life and work

Early years and training

Leader was born in Worcester[1] as Benjamin Leader Williams, the son, and first child of eleven children, of notable civil engineer Edward Leader Williams (1802–79)[2] and Sarah Whiting (1801–88). His father was described as a "non conformist dissenter" and his mother was a Quaker – their marriage in an Anglican church resulted in them being disowned by the Society of Friends.[3]

Leader's father was a keen amateur artist – a friend of John Constable – and Benjamin would often accompany him on sketching trips along the banks of the River Severn.[4]His brother, also Edward Leader Williams, later became a notable civil engineer who was knighted for his work, and is now mainly remembered for designing Manchester Ship Canal– which was to become the theme of Leader's largest painting. The family eventually came to reside at "Diglis House" – now a hotel.[5]

Leader was educated at the Royal Grammar School, Worcester, and initially worked at his father's office as a draughtsman while studying art in the evenings at the Worcester School of Design. In his free time he also did a lot of "open air" landscape painting.

In 1854, at the age of 23, he was admitted as a student to the Royal Academy Schools in London, and, unusually, in his first year, had a picture accepted for exhibition there, "Cottage children blowing bubbles", which was subsequently sold to an American buyer for £50 – a large sum in those days.[6] Subsequently his work appeared in every summer exhibition at the academy until 1922, when Leader was 91 years old. He also had some early works exhibited at the "National Institution", Portland Place in 1857–58.[7]

Career

The inspiration for these early works was the countryside around Worcester itself, "the cottages, farmhouses, lanes, hedgerows and churches, so exceedingly picturesque and beautiful".[8] However, Leader did not finish his course of studies at the R. A, nor did he need to – his paintings proved to be in great demand by wealthy buyers and he achieved an enviable degree of commercial success within only a few years of his first sale.

In 1857 he changed his name to Benjamin Williams Leader to distinguish himself from the many other painters with the surname Williams.[9] In autumn of that year he travelled to Scotland, and painted "A Quiet pool in Glen Falloch" – exhibited at the R. A. in 1859. That year was his most successful yet with four paintings hung at the Academy and all sold, one of the buyers being the art dealer Agnew's[10]who bought much of his work during his lifetime. Such was the demand that much of his best work now went to private galleries and was never publicly exhibited.

For the next 10 years, Leader divided his time painting between the Severn Valley, Worcestershire, and Wales, producing many canvases. Amongst them, "Autumn's last Gleam" was regarded as the best landscape in the Royal Academy's 1865 exhibition. In 1862 he moved home from Worcester to nearby Whittington (where he lived until 1889) which became a favourite sketching ground. In 1863, his work "The Churchyard at Bettwys-y-Coed" was purchased by the Prime Minister himself, William Gladstone.[11]

In August 1876, Leader married fellow artist Mary Eastlake (born c. 1852)[12] and they went on to have 6 children – the first, Benjamin Eastlake Leader (1877–1916), also an artist, was killed in action during World War I.

In 1881, "February Fill Dyke" was exhibited at the Royal Academy to great acclaim and Leader was made an associate (ARA) in 1883, becoming a Royal Academician (RA) in 1898.[13]

 

Later life

In 1889, the family moved to "Burrows Cross", Shere near Guildford, Surrey, a large mansion designed by Norman Shaw RA – Leader lived here until the end of his life.[14] In that same year he was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, an honour secured on the recommendation of French artist Meissonier.[15] In 1914 he was made an Honorary Freeman of the City of Worcester in recognition of his services (as a director of Royal Worcester Porcerlain and a native of the city).

Apart from his native Worcestershire and Wales, Leader also painted in other parts of Britain including Devon and Surrey and on the continent in Germany, Switzerland, France and Belgium. He died in Surrey in 1923.

Work

Leader's early works bore the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites with their attention to fine detail and emphasis on painting from nature "en plein air". In his later years he adopted a looser style which was more impressionistic rather than being an exact copy of nature and this proved to be more popular.[16]

Critic James Dafforne, writing in 1871 in The Art Journal said of Leader's style:[17]

he shows a fine sense of the beauties of nature, in her varied aspects, allied with much poetic feeling. Mr. Leader's style is a happy medium between excess of detail and over-elaboration on the one hand, and dash of execution on the other. There is enough of finish in his works to satisfy those who look for carefulness, but this quality does not degenerate into affected trivialities, while they show breadth of manner and brilliant effect by judicious arrangement of light and shade. His colouring, too, is generally pure and true to nature.

According to The Art Journal of 1901, amongst Leader's most popular works during his lifetime were, "In Autumn there shall be light", "February Fill Dyke" and "The Valley of the Llugwy".[18] And amongst his best works at the time it considered: "Romantic Tintern – dreaming in the moonlight", "In the evening it shall be light" and "The Old Holyhead road through North Wales".

Leader's paintings are currently exhibited publicly at the Victoria and Albert Museum and Tate Gallery in London, Huddersfield Art Gallery, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, and in Worcester (the largest collection of his works in Britain by far), Manchester and other regions in Britain. The Cambridge gallery in Santa Monica, USA, also has several of his works. Many, in addition, are held by private collectors. There is a memorial, designed by Ella Naper to Leader in St Buryan's Church.[19] In 2003, "A Summer's Day" (1888) sold at auction for £168,000 at Sotheby's.

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