彼得.伯尔Boel, Pieter

彼得.伯尔Boel, Pieter(1622年—1674年),佛兰德画家。专攻奢华静物画和动物绘画。

  • 中文名彼得.伯尔
  • 外文名Boel, Pieter
  • 性别
  • 国籍佛兰德
  • 出生地佛兰德
  • 出生日期1622年
  • 逝世日期1674年
  • 职业画家
  • 代表作品Vinitas Still Life
中文介绍

生活

他出生于一个家庭在安特卫普的艺术家。他的儿子雕刻师Jan伯和雕刻师的兄弟Quirin伯二世。他的老师是他的父亲Jan Fijt,一个著名的景观动物画家Jan Fijt下研究了主要动物和静物画家弗朗斯·斯奈德.

 

武器和战争的工具

据信,他是在1640年代前往意大利或1651年。[1][2]他带他去热那亚罗马在热那亚,他住在他叔叔,画家和艺术经销商Cornelis威尔德建立了自己的城市。[2]

伯尔回到安特卫普在当地注册圣卢克的公会wijnmeester(葡萄酒大师)(标题预留给公会成员的孩子)在1650 - 51。1668年以后他移居巴黎他在这里工作了查尔斯·勒布伦在他的第一个tapestry车间。[1]他被任命为paintre平常的国王路易十四在1674年,但在当年9月去世。[2]

他的父亲Jan浸信会的伯年轻的和Balthasar-Lucas伯。他的儿子,他是老师大卫·德·科尼克.[1][2]

工作

 

虚无静物,1663

伯尔主要画静物画包括花卉静物画,狩猎静物画,动物和鱼类静物画,的虚无绘画和静物画的武器。他还画一些风景。[1]以来,他的大部分作品是无限期的,很难建立一个时间表为他工作。伯尔取得了很高的质量在他的作品中。相信很多他的作品可能有他们的签名去掉,这样他们可以通过Frans斯奈德的作品或主人九、委托方私自复印1月。直到最近的静物画在博物馆,原先九、委托方私自复印给,reattributed Pieter伯。[3]

伯在很大程度上遵循Jan Fijt老师的风格,特别是在他的小作文有一只野兔或一些鸟类在户外。伯尔的作品不同于Fijt的克制,更顺利,更控制油漆的处理。他的调色板也不同于Fijt偏爱口音的蓝色,红色和粉色。[2]在意大利期间的伯认识了热那亚的艺术家的作品乔万尼-贝和静物画家朱塞佩飞机气象侦察他从这些意大利大师提高油画的戏剧性的影响通过强调阴影。他还在后台使用红色的窗帘,出类拔萃的巴洛克风格元素,增强他的作品的气氛。[4]

 

储藏室

伯尔是已知与安特卫普的艺术家伊拉斯谟Quellinus二世雅各Jordaens,谁画的他的作品中的人物。[4]

伯尔实现了大规模的虚空画描绘丰富的水果、鲜花、游戏和珍贵的对象。他的杰作在这个类型是虚空仍然生活德里尔美术宫殿.[2]

据说Pieter伯已经彻底改变了动物的绘画。而艺术家有满足自己之前做静态研究填充动物玩具,伯尔画和画动物的生活动物园凡尔赛宫他因此代表动物在自然的姿势。他的自然主义影响大的动物艺术家、画家让-巴蒂斯特·Oudry的雕塑家Antoine-Louis巴列.[5]伯尤其适应在呈现各种纹理,特别是羽毛。[2]

 

研究骆驼

他的动物实验被用作动物模型在前台的tapestry,称为“几个月”或“皇家住宅”的产生哥白林挂毯车间。[5]有意识的伯尔的价值的动物,哥白林工作坊的保持整个组的伯尔的画和画的研究。法国画家弗朗索瓦Desportes复制他的几个绘画和结果,它被Desportes认为,最初的图纸。只有确认后原件是由伯尔伯尔的声誉作为一个动物画家是重新建立

English Introduction

Life

He was born into a family of artists in Antwerp. He was the son of the engraver Jan Boel and the brother of engraver Quirin Boel II. His teachers were his father and Jan Fijt, a well-known landscape and animal painter. Jan Fijt had studied under the leading animal and still life painter Frans Snyders.

He is believed to have traveled to Italy in the 1640s or in 1651.[1][2] His trip brought him to Genoa andRome. In Genoa he stayed with his uncle, the painter and art dealer Cornelis de Wael who had established himself in that city.[2]

Boel returned to Antwerp where he was registered in the local Guild of Saint Luke as a wijnmeester (wine master) (a title reserved for the children of members of the guild) in 1650-51. After 1668 he moved toParis. Here he worked for Charles Le Brun in his first tapestry workshop.[1] He was appointed paintre ordinaire by King Louis XIV in 1674, but died in September of that year.[2]

He was the father of Jan Baptist Boel the Younger and Balthasar-Lucas Boel. He was the teacher of his sons and David de Koninck.[1][2]

Work

Boel principally painted still lifes including flower still lifes, hunting still lifes, animal and fish still lifes, vanitas paintings and still lifes of weapons. He also painted some landscapes.[1] Since most of his works are undated, it is difficult to establish a chronology for his work. Boel achieved a very high quality in his work. It is believed that a number of his compositions may have had their signature removed so that they could pass as works by Frans Snyders or his master Jan Fyt. Only recently a number of still lifes in museums, which were formerly given to Fyt, have been reattributed to Pieter Boel.[3]

Boel follows to a large extent the style of his teacher Jan Fijt, in particular in his smaller compositions featuring a hare or a few birds in the open air. Boel's compositions differ from Fijt's works in their restraint and the smoother and more controlled handling of the paint. His palette also differs from Fijt's in his preference for accents of blue, red and pink.[2] During his stay in Italy Boel got to know the work of the Genoese artist Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione and the still life painter Giuseppe Recco. He learned from these Italian masters to heighten the dramatic effect of his canvases by emphasizing the shadows. He also used red drapes in the background, a Baroque element par excellence, to enhance the atmosphere of his compositions.[4]

Boel is known to have collaborated with fellow Antwerp artists Erasmus Quellinus II and Jacob Jordaens, who painted the human figures in his compositions.[4]

Boel was accomplished in large-scale vanitas paintings depicting an abundance of fruit, flowers, game and precious objects. His masterpiece in this genre is the Vanitas Still Life in the Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille.[2]

Pieter Boel is said to have revolutionized animal painting. Whereas artists had contented themselves before with making static studies from stuffed animals, Boel drew and painted his animals from life in themenagerie at Versailles. He thus represented animals in their natural poses. His naturalism influenced a long line of great animal artists, from the painter Jean-Baptiste Oudry to the sculptor Antoine-Louis Barye.[5] Boel was particularly adapt at rendering various textures, especially feathers.[2]

His animal studies were used as models for the animals in the foreground of a large tapestry, referred to as 'The Months' or 'The Royal Houses' produced at the Gobelins tapestry workshop.[5] Conscious of the value of Boel's animal repertoire, the Gobelins workshops kept the entire set of Boel's painted and drawn studies. The French painter François Desportes copied several of his paintings and as a result, it was believed that the original drawings were by Desportes. It is only after it was confirmed that the originals had been made by Boel that Boel's reputation as an animal painter was re-established.

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