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博西Hieronymus Bosch

博西Hieronymus Bosch(1450年—1516年8月9日),荷兰画家。

人物关系
  • 中文名博西
  • 外文名Hieronymus Bosch
  • 性别
  • 国籍荷兰
  • 出生地荷兰
  • 出生日期1450年
  • 逝世日期1516年8月9日
  • 职业画家
相关作品更多
中文介绍

生活

波希出生Jheronimus(或Joen,分别的拉丁和荷兰中产杰罗姆”形式的名字)范Aken(意思是“从亚琛”)。他签署了许多他的画作Jheronimus博世。这个名字来源于他的出生地,“s-Hertogenbosch,这是通常被称为“窝博世”(“森林”)。

博世的生活知之甚少或培训。他没有留下书信或日记,已经确认从简短的提及他的市政的记录“s-Hertogenbosch会计帐簿的,当地的顺序杰出的兄弟会的祝福女士没有知道他的个性或他的思想在他的艺术的意义。博世的出生日期尚未确定,。据估计在c。1450年的基础上手绘的肖像(可能是一个自画像)1516年去世前不久。这幅图显示了艺术家在一个先进的年龄,可能在他的六十年代末。

博世出生和一生住在附近 “s-Hertogenbosch,在一个城市布拉班特公爵他的祖父,Jan van Aken(1454年去世),是一个画家,1430年首次记录中提到。众所周知,1月有五个儿子,四人也是画家。博世的父亲,Anthonius van Aken(死亡c。1478),担任艺术顾问杰出的兄弟会的祝福女士.[10]普遍认为,博世的父亲或他的一个叔叔教艺术家油漆,但他们的作品生存。博世市政记录中首次出现在1474年4月5日,当他叫两个兄弟和一个妹妹。

 

圣茱莉亚的受难是由于博世的中间时期,c 1497

在15世纪s-Hertogenbosch是一个繁荣的城市布拉班特省在南方,现在的荷兰,当时的一部分勃艮第的荷兰通过婚姻,在它的生命周期哈布斯堡家族在1463年、4000年的房子在镇上被灾难性的火灾,而当时(大约)13岁博世大概了。他成为一个受欢迎的画家在他有生之年,经常从国外收到佣金。1488年,他加入了备受尊敬的兄弟会的夫人,一个保守的宗教团体40影响力的公民 “s-Hertogenbosch从欧洲各地,和7000年“outer-members”。

1479年和1481年之间的某个时候,博世结婚Aleyt Goyaerts van den Meerveen,几年他的高级。Oirschot夫妇搬到附近的小镇,他妻子继承了房子和土地从她富裕的家庭。账户的一个条目的兄弟会女士记录博世的1516年去世。举行葬礼弥撒,在他的记忆在圣约翰教堂举行8月9日。 

作品

主要文章:波希的画作的列表

 

花园里的人间美味博物馆普拉多电影院马德里c。1495 - 1495年,归因于博世。

博世生产至少16个三部曲,其中8个是完全完整,和另外五个片段。[14]博世的作品通常分成三个时期的应对早期作品(c . 1470—1470),中期(c.1485 - 1500),晚期(1500 c。直到他的死亡)。根据斯蒂芬费舍尔13博世的幸存的画作完成周期末,有七个幸存的画作归因于他的中间阶段。[15]博世的早期研究的研讨会活动,可能他的一些图纸。事实上他教学生在车间,受他的影响。最近的dendrochronological调查的橡木板博世的科学家们研究和保护项目[16]导致更精确的约会的博世的绘画。[17]

他最著名的三部曲是花园里的人间美味(c . 1495—1505)的外板的目的是支架之间的主要中央面板伊甸园描述和左边的面板最后审判日在右边面板。它是由于费舍尔之间的过渡的博世绘画呈现他的中期和后期。在左边面板中上帝的礼物夏娃亚当神;创新年轻的外貌。数据集在一个景观居住着奇异的动物和不同寻常的半有机hut-shaped形式。中央面板是一个宽泛的全景充满社会参与裸体人物看似无辜的,自私的快乐,以及奇幻动物,超大号的水果和混合石的形成。[18]

右边的面板提供了一个hellscape;一个人类的世界已经屈服于邪恶的诱惑,收获永恒的诅咒。晚上,面板功能冷颜色,折磨人物和冰冻的水道。人物的下体已经失去了任何色情建议在中央面板中,[19]大爆炸在后台把光穿过城门,在专家组的midground泄漏到水。[20]

博世有时画相对粗略的方式,与传统的对比佛兰德的风格绘画的光滑surface-achieved由多个透明glazes-conceals绘画的应用。

博世的绘画与粗糙表面,所以叫道厚涂的颜料绘画不同于伟大的荷兰的画家的传统的15日和16世纪开始,那些希望隐藏工作,所以建议他们的绘画更神圣的造物。 

博世没有约会他的画作,但很不同寻常的抨击似乎已经签署了其中几个,虽然一些签名声称是他肯定不是。今天约25画仍然可以归因于他。在16世纪晚期,西班牙国王菲利普二世没收和获得博世的许多作品,包括一些可能委托和收集的西班牙人活跃在博世的家乡[需要引证]结果,普拉多博物馆马德里现在拥有麦琪的崇拜,花园里的人间美味的桌面画七宗罪和4个事情了三部曲Haywain.

English Introduction

Life

Hieronymus Bosch was born Jheronimus (or Joen,respectively the Latin and Middle Dutch form of the name "Jerome") van Aken (meaning "from Aachen"). He signed a number of his paintings as Jheronimus Bosch.The name derives from his birthplace, 's-Hertogenbosch, which is commonly called "Den Bosch" ('the forest').

Little is known of Bosch's life or training. He left behind no letters or diaries, and what has been identified has been taken from brief references to him in the municipal records of 's-Hertogenbosch, and in the account books of the local order of the Illustrious Brotherhood of Our Blessed Lady. Nothing is known of his personality or his thoughts on the meaning of his art. Bosch's date of birth has not been determined with certainty. It is estimated at c. 1450 on the basis of a hand drawn portrait (which may be a self-portrait) made shortly before his death in 1516. The drawing shows the artist at an advanced age, probably in his late sixties.

Bosch was born and lived all his life in and near 's-Hertogenbosch, a city in the Duchy of Brabant. His grandfather, Jan van Aken (died 1454), was a painter and is first mentioned in the records in 1430. It is known that Jan had five sons, four of whom were also painters. Bosch's father, Anthonius van Aken (died c. 1478), acted as artistic adviser to theIllustrious Brotherhood of Our Blessed Lady.[10] It is generally assumed that either Bosch's father or one of his uncles taught the artist to paint, but none of their works survive.[11] Bosch first appears in the municipal record on 5 April 1474, when he is named along with two brothers and a sister.

's-Hertogenbosch was a flourishing city in 15th-century Brabant, in the south of the present-day Netherlands, at the time part of the Burgundian Netherlands, and during its lifetime passing through marriage to the Habsburgs. In 1463, 4,000 houses in the town were destroyed by a catastrophic fire, which the then (approximately) 13-year-old Bosch presumably witnessed. He became a popular painter in his lifetime and often received commissions from abroad. In 1488 he joined the highly respected Brotherhood of Our Lady, an arch-conservative religious group of some 40 influential citizens of 's-Hertogenbosch, and 7,000 'outer-members' from around Europe.

Sometime between 1479 and 1481, Bosch married Aleyt Goyaerts van den Meerveen, who was a few years his senior. The couple moved to the nearby town of Oirschot, where his wife had inherited a house and land from her wealthy family. An entry in the accounts of the Brotherhood of Our Lady records Bosch's death in 1516. A funeral mass served in his memory was held in the church of Saint John on 9 August of that year.

Works

Main article: List of paintings by Hieronymus Bosch

Bosch produced at least sixteen triptychs, of which eight are fully intact, and another five in fragments. Bosch's works are generally organized into three periods of his life dealing with the early works (c. 1470–1485), the middle period (c.1485–1500), and the late period (c. 1500 until his death). According to Stefan Fischer, thirteen of Bosch's surviving paintings were completed in the late period, with seven surviving paintings attributed to his middle period. Bosch's early period is studied in terms of his workshop activity and possibly some of his drawings. Indeed he taught pupils in the workshop, who were influenced by him. The recentdendrochronological investigation of the oak panels by the scientists at the Bosch Research and Conservation Projectled to a more precise dating of the majority of Bosch's paintings.

His most famous triptych is the The Garden of Earthly Delights (c. 1495–1505) whose outer panels are intended to bracket the main central panel between the Garden of Eden depicted on the left panel and the Last Judgment depicted on the right panel. It is attributed by Fischer as a transition painting rendered by Bosch from between his middle period and his late period. In the left hand panel God presents Eve to Adam; innovatively God is given a youthful appearance. The figures are set in a landscape populated by exotic animals and unusual semi-organic hut-shaped forms. The central panel is a broad panorama teeming with socially engaged nude figures seemingly engaged in innocent, self-absorbed joy, as well as fantastical animals, oversized fruit and hybrid stone formations.

The right panel presents a hellscape; a world in which humankind has succumbed to the temptations of evil and is reaping eternal damnation. Set at night, the panel features cold colours, tortured figures and frozen waterways. The nakedness of the human figures has lost any eroticism suggested in the central panel,as large explosions in the background throw light through the city gate and spill onto the water in the panel's midground.

Bosch sometimes painted in a comparatively sketchy manner, contrasting with the traditional Flemish style of painting in which the smooth surface—achieved by the application of multiple transparent glazes—conceals the brushwork.

Bosch's paintings with their rough surfaces, so called impasto painting, differed from the tradition of the great Netherlandish painters of the end of the 15th, and beginning of the 16th centuries, who wished to hide the work done and so suggest their paintings as more nearly divine creations.

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