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弗朗索瓦·布歇 Boucher François

( 法国美术院院长 )

弗朗索瓦·布歇(Francois Boucher,1703—1770),法国画家、版画家和设计师,是一位将洛可可风格发挥到极致的画家。曾任法国美术院院长、皇家首席画师。出版过《千姿百态》画册。

人物关系
  • 中文名弗朗索瓦·布歇
  • 外文名Boucher, François
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生地巴黎
  • 出生日期1703年9月29日
  • 逝世日期1770年5月30日
  • 职业画家,版画家,设计师
  • 主要成就法国美术院院长、皇家首席画师
  • 代表作品《千姿百态》
相关作品更多
中文介绍

生活

一个本地的巴黎鲍彻,是一个不太知名的画家的儿子尼古拉斯•鲍彻谁给了他第一艺术培训。17岁时,一幅鲍彻欣赏的画家弗朗索瓦LemoyneLemoyne后任命彻作为他的学徒,但仅仅三个月之后,他去雕刻师的工作让汽车. 

 

的妻子的画像Marie-Jeanne Buzeau布歇亚历山大·罗斯林

1720年,他赢得了精英德罗马大奖赛绘画,但不占用重要的机会来研究在意大利,直到五年后,由于财务问题皇家Academie de peinture et de雕塑.在意大利留学回国,他被重建Academie de peinture et de雕塑1731年11月24日。他的片断de接待(接待)是他1734年莱和Armida。

鲍彻结婚Marie-Jeanne Buzeau在1733年。这对夫妇有三个孩子在一起。鲍彻职业生涯在1734年成为一名教员和加速从这个角度,他被提拔教授学院校长,成为的检查员皇家那个工厂最后总理Peintre du Roi在1765年(第一个国王的画家)。

 

的画像玛丽O 'Murphy1752 c。

布歇死于1770年5月30日在巴黎。他的名字以及他的赞助人也就是蓬巴杜夫人成为法国洛可可风格的代名词,领导龚古尔兄弟写:“鲍彻的人代表了一个世纪的味道,表达、象征和体现。”

鲍彻闻名说自然是“太植物香等mal eclairee”(太绿、亮)。

鲍彻与宝石雕刻师董事长雅克Guay,他教画画。后来布歇了董事长的一系列绘画作品Guay然后就是蓬巴杜夫人雕刻和分布式丰厚的合订本,朝臣们青睐。[4]新古典主义画家雅克大卫开始了他的油画布歇下指令。

绘画

 

秘密消息

鲍彻等艺术家的灵感彼得·保罗鲁本斯安东尼·华托式的.布歇的早期作品歌颂大自然的田园般的宁静的描述以极大的热忱和景观。 不过,他的艺术通常放弃传统农村纯真描绘场景的风格色情作为他的神话场景充满激情和密切的而不是传统上的史诗。也就是蓬巴杜侯爵夫人(国王的情妇路易十五),他的名字成了洛可可艺术的代名词,是一个伟大的欣赏他的作品。 也就是蓬巴杜侯爵夫人通常被称为“教母洛可可。”

鲍彻的作品如早餐(1739),一个家庭场景,展示他的主人类型现场,他经常使用自己的妻子和孩子作为模型。这些亲密的家庭场景对比中看到他放肆的风格宫女肖像。

黑头发的版本的宫女画像促使艺术评论家声称丹尼斯·狄德罗鲍彻“亵渎自己的妻子”,和金发女郎宫女画像,国王的婚外关系。鲍彻获得持久的恶名通过这样的私人佣金为富有的收藏家,狄德罗之后表达了他的不满,他的声誉受到越来越关键的攻击在他职业生涯的最后几年。

 

戏剧和挂毯设计

 

安娜和木卫四,1759年

也随着他的画,鲍彻戏剧服装和布景设计,和热心的滑稽歌剧的阴谋查尔斯·西蒙Favart与自己的绘画风格。挂毯设计也是一个考虑因素。博韦挂毯车间他第一次设计了一系列节日italiennes(“意大利节日”)1736年,这被证明是非常成功的,常常被多年来,然后,在1737年委托,一套的故事丘比特和普赛克. 在二十年的参与博韦tapestry车间鲍彻生产设计六个系列的绞刑,tapestry显示心理和Basketmaker从1741 - 1742.

鲍彻也呼吁法院庆典由截面设计国王的家庭被称为Menus-Plaisirs du Roi和歌剧和皇家城堡凡尔赛宫,枫丹白露Choisy他设计的前面提到的增强他的声誉,从他的工作,甚至导致许多版画复制他的设计biscuit-ware文森地区塞夫勒工厂。Oudry的死亡在1755年结束其贡献博韦但他与那个合作一直持续到1765年,当他辞去职务一个检查员。

图纸和照片

 

年轻的国家女孩跳舞

布雪是一个非常多产和各式各样的绘图员。他的绘画不仅是准备研究他的绘画和设计的版画复制匠也完成的艺术作品,这是一个伟大的收藏家的需求。鲍彻遵循标准工作室实践的时间,首先制定的总体构成他的主要画布,然后使粉笔研究对个人数据,或数据组。他还依赖于石油和水粉颜料制备的草图主要佣金。

逐渐他让越来越多的草图作为独立的市场工作。朝拜的牧羊人(大都会艺术博物馆),一个自由和绘画素描水粉颜料,长久以来被认为是一个准备草图就是蓬巴杜夫人的私人装饰画拉杜卢米埃monde(ca。1750年,美术博物馆,里昂)。最近的奖学金表明,然而,这是至少十年后自主工作。在过去的十年中他职业生涯的艺术家开始支持布朗粉笔,一个捏造的媒介。 

鲍彻也是一个天才雕刻师和腐蚀装置。鲍彻原始那些铜版蚀刻约180。他做了许多铜版画在华托式的。他因此帮助传播画的复制品。当自己的图纸开始卖,266人被铭刻在点画替代品Gilles Demarteau这些都是用红墨水打印所以他们就像红色的粉笔画可以陷害小图片。他们可以挂在精心装饰的小空格镶板的豪华住宅。

鲍彻最原始发明的装饰,他贡献的时尚风格中国艺术风格蚀刻后12的数字厨房用漏勺华托式的(中国的统计数字)。

English Introduction

Life

A native of Paris, Boucher was the son of a lesser known painter Nicolas Boucher, who gave him his first artistic training. At the age of seventeen, a painting by Boucher was admired by the painter François Lemoyne. Lemoyne later appointed Boucher as his apprentice, but after only three months, he went to work for the engraver Jean-François Cars.

In 1720, he won the elite Grand Prix de Romefor painting, but did not take up the consequential opportunity to study in Italy until five years later, due to financial problems at the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture.[1] On his return from studying in Italy he was admitted to the refounded Académie de peinture et de sculpture on 24 November 1731.[2] His morceau de réception (reception piece) was his Rinaldo and Armida of 1734.

Boucher married Marie-Jeanne Buzeau in 1733. The couple had three children together. Boucher became a faculty member in 1734 and his career accelerated from this point as he was promoted Professor then Rector of the Academy, becoming inspector at the Royal Gobelins Manufactory and finally Premier Peintre du Roi (First Painter of the King) in 1765.

Boucher died on 30 May 1770 in his native Paris. His name, along with that of his patron Madame de Pompadour, had become synonymous with the French Rococo style, leading the Goncourt brothers to write: "Boucher is one of those men who represent the taste of a century, who express, personify and embody it."

Boucher is famous for saying that nature is "trop verte et mal éclairée" (too green and badly lit).

Boucher was associated with the gemstone engraver Jacques Guay, whom he taught to draw. Later Boucher made a series of drawings of works by Guay which Madame de Pompadour then engraved and distributed as a handsomely bound volume to favored courtiers.The neoclassical painter Jacques-Louis David began his painting instruction under Boucher.

Painting

Boucher took inspiration from artists such as Peter Paul Rubens and Antoine Watteau.Boucher's early works celebrate the idyllic and tranquil portrayal of nature and landscape with great elan.[6] However, his art typically forgoes traditional rural innocence to portray scenes with a definitive style of eroticism as his mythological scenes are passionate and intimately amorous rather than traditionally epic. Marquise de Pompadour (mistress of KingLouis XV), whose name became synonymous with Rococo art, was a great admirer of his work.[7]Marquise de Pompadour is often referred to as the "godmother of Rococo."

Boucher's paintings such as The Breakfast (1739), a familial scene, show how he was as a master of the genre scene, where he regularly used his own wife and children as models. These intimate family scenes are contrasting to the licentious style seen in his Odalisqueportraits.

The dark-haired version of the Odalisque portraits prompted claims by the art critic Denis Diderot that Boucher was "prostituting his own wife", and the Blonde Odalisque was a portrait that illustrated the extramarital relationships of the King. Boucher gained lasting notoriety through such private commissions for wealthy collectors and, after Diderot expressed his disapproval, his reputation came under increasing critical attack during the last years of his career.

 

Theatrical and tapestry designs

Along with his painting, Boucher also designed theater costumes and sets, and the ardent intrigues of the comic operas of Charles Simon Favart closely paralleled his own style of painting. Tapestry design was also a concern. For the Beauvais tapestryworkshops he first designed a series of Fêtes italiennes ("Italian festivals") in 1736, which proved to be very successful and often rewoven over the years, and then, commissioned in 1737, a suite of the story of Cupid and Psyche.[8] During two decades' involvement with the Beauvais tapestry workshops Boucher produced designs for six series of hangings in all, like the tapestry showing Psyche and the Basketmaker from 1741–1742.

Boucher was also called upon for designs for court festivities organized by that section of the King's household called the Menus-Plaisirs du Roi and for the opera and for royal châteaux Versailles, Fontainebleau and Choisy. His designs for all of the aforementioned augmented his earlier reputation, resulting in many engravings from his work and even reproduction of his designs on porcelain and biscuit-wareat the Vincennes and Sèvres factories. The death of Oudry in 1755 put an end to its contribution to Beauvais but his collaboration with the Gobelins lasted until 1765, when he stepped down from his position as an inspector.

Drawings and prints

Boucher was a very prolific and varied draftsman. His drawings served not only as preparatory studies for his paintings and as designs for printmakers but also as finished works of art for which there was a great demand by collectors. Boucher followed standard studio practices of the time, by first working out the overall composition of his major canvases, and then making chalk studies for individual figures, or groups of figures. He also relied on oil and gouache sketches in the preparation of major commissions.

Gradually he made more and more sketches as independent works for the market. TheAdoration of the Shepherds (Metropolitan Museum of Art), a free and painterly sketch in gouache, was long considered a preparatory sketch for Madame de Pompadour’s private altarpiece La lumière du monde (ca. 1750, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyon). Recent scholarship suggests, however, that it was made at least 10 years later as an autonomous work. In the last decade of his career the artist began to favor brown chalk, a fabricated medium.[9]

Boucher was also a gifted engraver and etcher. Boucher etched some 180 original copperplates. He made many etchings after Watteau. He thus helped propagate a taste for reproductions of drawings. When his own drawings began to sell, 266 of them were etched in stipple substitutes by Gilles Demarteau. These were printed in red ink so they resembled red chalk drawings which could be framed as little pictures. They could then be hung in the small blank spaces of the elaborately decorated paneling of luxury dwellings.

Boucher's most original inventions were decorative, and he contributed to the fashionable style of chinoiserie, after having etched 12 'Figures Chinoises' (Chinese figures) by Watteau

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