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福特马多克斯布朗Brown, Ford Madox

福特马多克斯福特Brown, Ford Madox(1821年4月16日—1893年10月6日),英国画家。

人物关系
  • 中文名福特马多克斯布朗
  • 外文名Brown, Ford Madox
  • 性别
  • 国籍英国
  • 出生地加来
  • 出生日期1821年4月16日
  • 逝世日期1893年10月6日
  • 职业画家
中文介绍

早期的生活

 

布朗,在左,威廉·霍尔曼狩猎.漫画通过马克斯Beerbohm罗赛蒂和他的圈子.

布朗的孙子医疗理论家约翰布朗的创始人Brunonian医学体系他的曾祖父是一个苏格兰劳动者。他的父亲福特棕色担任出纳员皇家海军,包括下一段服务艾萨克爵士棺材和一段HMS兰科植物他离开了海军结束后拿破仑战争.

1818年,福特布朗卡罗琳Madox结婚,肯特的一个古老家族,他的中间名。布朗的父母有限的金融资源,他们搬到加来寻求更便宜的住宿,他们的女儿伊丽莎白棺材生于1819年,他们的儿子1821年福特Madox布朗。

布朗的教育是有限的,因为家庭住所之间频繁移动加莱海峡和亲戚在肯特,但他显示,复制大师艺术才能打印。他的父亲最初寻求的是海军生涯为他儿子,写信给他的前队长艾萨克爵士棺材。全家搬到了布鲁日1835年所以布朗学院读书艾伯特Gregorius布朗搬到根特1836年,继续他的研究Pieter van Hanselaere他搬到安特卫普1837年的研究古斯塔夫Wappers他继续研究在1839年安特卫普在他母亲死后。他的妹妹在1840年去世,然后1842年他的父亲。

作品

参见:画作福特Madox布朗的列表

 

最后的英格兰描绘一个移民夫妇,1855年

泰特美术馆拥有棕色的早期例子的工作,他父亲的画像。[2]他在1840年第一次在皇家美术学院展出,受到启发拜伦勋爵的诗异端的(现在失去了),然后完成一个版本执行的玛丽,苏格兰女王,他的表弟和未来的妻子伊丽莎白布罗姆利作为他的一个模型。他住在蒙马特1841年和他的新妻子和衰老的父亲。他画曼弗雷德在少女峰,灵感来自于拜伦的诗曼弗雷德当他在巴黎。

1843年,他向议会提交工作卡通竞争,新作品来装饰威斯敏斯特宫他的条目,哈罗德在威廉的身体,没有成功。他的早期作品,然而,很崇拜他的年轻人但丁加布里埃尔·罗塞蒂,谁让他成为他的导师。通过罗赛蒂,布朗接触到艺术家组成拉菲尔前派的兄弟会尽管他们紧密相连,他从来没有真正兄弟会的成员本身,但采用鲜艳的颜色和现实的风格威廉·霍尔曼狩猎约翰•埃弗雷特莱斯他的作品也深受荷,他看到在1845年巴塞尔协议,里德里希编选彼得·科尼利厄斯1845年,他在罗马- 46。

布朗竭力使他在1850年代,他的画作未能找到买家,他认为印度移民。1852年,他开始在他的两个最重要的作品。

他最著名的照片之一最后的英格兰,从1852年到1855年,在1859年3月销售1859金币[3](2010:£26700)。它描绘了一对受损的移民,因为他们扬帆的船永远把他们从英国。它的设计灵感来自于离职的拉菲尔前派的雕刻家托马斯Woolner,他去了澳大利亚。在一个不同寻常的圆形浮雕格式,这幅画的结构与布朗的线性能量特征,并强调显然怪诞和平凡的细节,如卷心菜挂在船的一边。丈夫和妻子是布朗和他的第二任妻子艾玛的肖像。

 

布朗的雅各布和苋菜博物馆德·德·庞塞,庞塞波多黎各,

布朗最重要的绘画工作在汉普斯特德(1852 - 1865),开始在1852年和1865年他在回顾展览展示。托马斯操练椅先进的资金使布朗完成工作,预期获得完成的画,但于1861年去世之前,这幅画已经完成。[4]在这幅画里,布朗试图描绘中期的整体维多利亚时代社会经验在一个单一的形象,描绘的挖土机挖一条路(在伦敦汉普斯特德希斯街)和破坏旧的社会等级制度。图像爆发成增殖的动态中心行动细节,当工人们撕开一个洞在路上,象征性的,在社会结构中。每个字符代表一个特定的社会阶级和现代城市环境的作用。布朗写了一个陪的特殊展览工作目录。这份出版物包括一个广泛的解释工作,但是还有很多问题没有解决。布朗的关注社会问题解决的工作促使他打开汤厨房曼彻斯特的饥饿,并试图帮助城市的失业找工作通过建立劳动力交换。[5][6]

布朗发现顾客在英格兰北部,包括操练椅,乔治。雷从改造,[7]约翰米勒从利物浦,詹姆斯Leathart从纽卡斯尔。到1850年代末,他与穷人失去了耐心接待他收到了皇家学院和停止展示他的作品,从米莱拒绝报价支持他成为一个准会员。在1858年他成立了贺加斯俱乐部,威廉•莫里斯,爱德华·伯恩-琼斯,和他的前学生罗赛蒂。成功后的几年内,俱乐部达到超过80的会员,包括一些著名的皇家艺术学院的成员,但布朗1860年辞职,俱乐部于1861年崩溃。

从1860年代,布朗还设计家具和彩色玻璃。他是一个创始人的合作伙伴威廉•莫里斯的设计公司,莫里斯,马歇尔,福克纳& Co。1861年,于1874年解散与莫里斯继续自己的。他是一个风景画家的密友亨利·马克安东尼.

下班后布朗的主要成就是“曼彻斯特的壁画”,一个周期的十二画在人民大会堂曼彻斯特市政厅描绘这座城市的历史。布朗将是72年的时候他完成了壁画。总的来说,他花了六年时间完善壁画,这是他的最后一个主要的工作。

English Introduction

Early life

Brown was the grandson of the medical theorist John Brown, founder of the Brunonian system of medicine. His great grandfather was a Scottish labourer. His father Ford Brown served as a purser in the Royal Navy, including a period serving under Sir Isaac Coffin and a period on HMS Arethusa. He left the Navy after the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1818, Ford Brown married Caroline Madox, of an old Kentish family, from which his middle name was taken.  Brown's parents had limited financial resources, and they moved to Calais to seek cheaper lodgings, where their daughter Elizabeth Coffin was born in 1819 and their son Ford Madox Brown in 1821.

Brown's education was limited, as the family frequently moved between lodgings in the Pas-de-Calais and relatives in Kent, but he showed artistic talent in copying of old master prints. His father initially sought a naval career for his son, writing to his former captain Sir Isaac Coffin. The family moved to Bruges in 1835 so Brown could study at the academy under Albert Gregorius. Brown moved to Ghent in 1836 to continue his studies under Pieter van Hanselaere. He moved to Antwerp in 1837 to study under Gustaf Wappers. He continued to study in Antwerp after his mother's death in 1839. His sister died in 1840, and then his father in 1842.

Works

See also: List of paintings by Ford Madox Brown

The Tate Gallery holds an early example of Brown's work, a portrait of his father.[2] He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1840, a work inspired by Lord Byron's poem The Giaour (now lost) and then completed a version of The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, with his cousin and future wife Elisabeth Bromley as one of his models. He lived in Montmartre with his new wife and aging father in 1841. He painted Manfred on the Jungfrau, inspired by Lord Byron's poem Manfred while he was in Paris.

In 1843 he submitted work to the Westminster Cartoon Competition, for compositions to decorate the new Palace of Westminster. His entry,The Body of Harold Brought before William, was not successful. His early works were, however, greatly admired by the young Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who asked him to become his tutor. Through Rossetti, Brown came into contact with the artists who went on to form the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Though closely linked to them, he was never actually a member of the brotherhood itself, but adopted the bright colours and realistic style of William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. He was also influenced by the works of Holbein that he saw in Basel in 1845, and by Friedrich Overbeck and Peter Cornelius, whom he met in Rome in 1845-46.

Brown struggled to make his mark in the 1850s, with his paintings failing to find buyers, and he considered emigrating to India. In 1852 he started work on two of his most significant works.

One of his most famous images is The Last of England, painted from 1852 to 1855, which was sold in March 1859 for 325 Guineas[3] (2010: £26,700). It depicts a pair of stricken emigrants as they sail away on the ship that will take them from England forever. It was inspired by the departure of the Pre-Raphaelite sculptor Thomas Woolner, who had left for Australia. In an unusual tondo format, the painting is structured with Brown's characteristic linear energy, and emphasis on apparently grotesque and banal details, such as the cabbages hanging from the ship's side. The husband and wife are portraits of Brown and his second wife Emma.

Brown's most important painting was Work (1852–1865), begun in Hampstead in 1852 and which he showed at his retrospective exhibition in 1865. Thomas Plint advanced funds to enable Brown to complete the work, in anticipation of obtaining the finished painting, but died in 1861 before the painting had been completed.[4] In this painting, Brown attempted to depict the totality of the mid-Victorian social experience in a single image, depicting 'navvies' digging up a road (Heath Street in Hampstead, London) and disrupting the old social hierarchies as they did so. The image erupts into proliferating details from the dynamic centre of the action, as the workers tear a hole in the road – and, symbolically, in the social fabric. Each character represents a particular social class and role in the modern urban environment. Brown wrote a catalogue to accompany the special exhibition ofWork. This publication included an extensive explanation of Work that nevertheless leaves many questions unanswered. Brown's concern with the social issues addressed in Work prompted him to open a soup kitchen for Manchester's hungry, and to attempt to aid the city's unemployed to find work by founding a labour exchange.[5][6]

Brown found patrons in the north of England, including Plint, George Rae from Birkenhead,[7] John Miller from Liverpool, and James Leathart from Newcastle. By the late 1850s he had lost patience with the poor reception he received at the Royal Academy and ceased to show his works there, rejecting an offer from Millais to support his becoming an associate member. He founded the Hogarth Club in 1858, with William Morris, Edward Burne-Jones, and his former pupil Rossetti. After a successful period of a few years, the club reached over 80 members, including several prominent members of the Royal Academy, but Brown resigned in 1860, and the club collapsed in 1861.

From the 1860s, Brown also designed furniture and stained glass. He was a founder partner of William Morris's design company, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co., in 1861, which dissolved in 1874 with Morris continuing on his own. He was a close friend of the landscape artist Henry Mark Anthony.

Brown's major achievement after Work was "The Manchester Murals", a cycle of twelve paintings in the Great Hall of Manchester Town Hall depicting the history of the city. Brown would be 72 by the time he finished the murals. In total, he took six years perfecting the murals, which were his last major work.[8]

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