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克劳德·莫奈 Claude Monet

克劳德·莫奈(Claude Monet,1840年11月14日-1926年12月5日),法国画家,被誉为“印象派领导者”,是印象派代表人物和创始人之一。
莫奈是法国最重要的画家之一,印象派的理论和实践大部分都有他的推广。莫奈擅长光与影的实验与表现技法。他最重要的风格是改变了阴影和轮廓线的画法,在莫奈的画作中看不到非常明确的阴影,也看不到突显或平涂式的轮廓线。光和影的色彩描绘是莫奈绘画的最大特色。

  • 中文名克劳德·莫奈
  • 外文名Claude Monet
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生地巴黎
  • 出生日期1840年11月14日
  • 逝世日期1926年12月5日
  • 主要成就印象派代表人物和创始人之一
  • 代表作品《日出·印象》《卢昂大教堂》《维特尼附近的罂粟花田》《睡莲》《干草堆》
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莫奈笔下的世博会盛况  作者:郭奕华

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1878年的巴黎世博会盛况空前,在这届世博会上贝尔发明的电话、爱迪生发明的留声机等先进的科技产品格外引人注目。19世纪70年代,印象派正在通过他们的宣言、创作和展览向世人展示他们的艺术观念...
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中文介绍

莫奈和印象派

 

日出印象(印象,soleil黎凡特),1872;给它的名字的绘画风格。Marmottan莫奈博物馆、巴黎

第一个“印象派”展览

从1860年代末,莫奈和其他志同道合的艺术家会见了保守的拒绝Academie美术举行了一年一度的展览巴黎沙龙在1873年后期,莫奈皮埃尔·奥古斯特·雷诺阿,卡米尔毕沙罗,阿尔弗雷德·西斯组织了法国anonyme des艺人peintres sculpteurs graveurs(匿名社会的画家、雕塑家和雕刻)独立展示他们的作品。举行第一次展览,1874年4月,莫奈展出的作品是给其持久的名称。他的灵感来自于前现代画家的风格和主题卡米尔毕沙罗马奈

日出印象创作于1872年,描绘勒阿弗尔港口风景。从这幅画的标题艺术评论家路易斯·勒罗伊在他的评论,“L 'Exposition des Impressionnistes”出现在Le喧闹的庆祝这个词,印象主义".它是轻蔑但印象派画家将自己这种说法。

传记

出生和童年

克劳德·莫奈生于1840年11月14日的五楼45拉菲特街,在巴黎第九区.[7]他的第二个儿子克劳德·阿道夫·莫奈和路易丝贾斯汀Aubree莫奈,他们两人第二代巴黎人。1841年5月20日,他在当地的教区教堂受洗,Notre-Dame-de-LoretteOscar-Claude,但他的父母叫他简单的奥斯卡。他签署少年读物“O.Monet”。)尽管天主教洗礼,莫奈后来成为一个无神论者。

1845年,他的家人搬到勒阿弗尔在诺曼底。他的父亲想让他进入家庭购物业务,但莫奈想成为一个艺术家。他的母亲是一名歌手。

1851年4月1日,莫奈进入勒阿弗尔中学的艺术。当地人知道他对木炭的漫画,他会卖10到20法郎莫奈也进行了他的第一个借鉴Jacques-Francois Ochard以前的学生雅克大卫在诺曼底海滩大约1856他遇到的艺术家尤金石香肠成为他的导师,教他使用油画颜料。石香肠教莫奈”在练习”(户外)绘画的技术。都收到了影响约翰Barthold Jongkind.

1857年1月28日,他的母亲去世。16岁时,他离开学校,去接受他的寡妇,没有孩子的阿姨,Marie-Jeanne Lecadre。

 

绿色衣服的女人,卡米尔Doncieux,1866,Kunsthalle不来梅

巴黎和阿尔及利亚

当莫奈前往巴黎参观罗浮宫,他目睹了画家复制从旧主人。让他的颜料和其他工具,他将去坐在一个窗口,画他所看到的一切。莫奈在巴黎好几年,遇见了其他年轻画家,包括爱德华马奈和其他人成为朋友和同伴印象派画。

后画一个低选票数量在1861年3月,莫奈起草到非洲的轻骑兵的第一团(猎人中部)阿尔及利亚对于一个7年的军旅生涯。繁荣的父亲可能购买了莫奈的豁免兵役,但拒绝这样做,当他的儿子拒绝放弃绘画。而在阿尔及利亚莫奈只有少数的草图城堡场景,一个景观,和一些军官的画像,都已经失去了。在Le Temps采访1900然而,他评论说,北非的光和色彩鲜艳的“包含我的未来研究的胚芽”[13]驻防在阿尔及尔大约一年之后,莫奈感染伤寒并简要擅离职守。恢复期后,莫奈的姑姑介入,让他的军队如果他同意完成在一个艺术学校。可能是荷兰画家约翰Barthold Jongkind莫奈,谁知道,可能促使他姑姑在这个问题上。

对传统的艺术在艺术学校任教,1862年莫奈成为一名学生查尔斯Gleyre在巴黎,在那里他遇见了皮埃尔·奥古斯特·雷诺阿,弗雷德里克Bazille阿尔弗雷德·西斯他们一起分享艺术的新方法,绘画光的影响在练习破碎的颜色和快速的笔触,在后来被称为印象主义.

 

Le早餐在草地上(右一节),1865 - 1866年古斯塔夫·及库尔贝,弗雷德里克Bazille卡米尔Doncieux,第一任妻子的艺术家,奥赛博物馆,巴黎[14]

1865年1月莫奈工作勒早餐苏尔草地上一个版本,旨在把它挂在沙龙,拒绝了Manet的Le早餐在草地上两年前。莫奈的绘画非常大,不能及时完成。(后来切碎,部分在不同的画廊。)卡米尔莫奈提交而不是一幅画或绿色衣服的女人(La娇柔的长袍植物香),许多作品使用他未来的妻子之一,卡米尔Doncieux他的模型。这幅画和小景观是挂。第二年莫奈卡米尔用于他的模型女性在花园里,在塞纳河的银行,在1868年Bennecourt。卡米尔就怀孕,生下了他们的第一个孩子,在1867年,莫奈和卡米尔结婚1870年6月28日,就在普法战争爆发之前游览伦敦,样子后,他们搬到一侧,1871年12月。在此期间莫奈画各种现代生活的作品。他和卡米尔大部分时间生活在贫困之中。以下的成功展览一些海上绘画,在勒阿弗尔的赢得银牌,莫奈的画作被债权人收回,从他们买回了航运商人,Gaudibert,也是石香肠的赞助人。

普法战争和阿让特伊

爆发后普法战争(1870年7月19日),莫奈和他的家人在英国避难1870年9月,他的作品研究在哪里吗John Constable约瑟夫•马洛德•威廉•透纳,这两个组织的景观将成为激发莫奈的创新研究的颜色。在1871年的春天,莫奈的作品被拒绝授权包含在皇家艺术学院展览。

1871年5月,他离开伦敦样子,在荷兰,在他二十五绘画(和警察怀疑他的革命活动)。他还首次访问了附近阿姆斯特丹在1871年10月或11月,他回到法国。从1871年12月到1871年他住在阿让特伊,一个村庄的右岸塞纳河巴黎附近的河流,和Sunday-outing胜地巴黎人,他画他的一些最著名的作品。莫奈在1873年购买了一艘小船装备作为一个浮动的工作室。[20]从船上工作室莫奈画风景和马奈和他妻子的肖像,马奈船上莫奈绘画描绘上,伴随着卡米尔,在1874年。1874年,他一度回到荷兰

印象主义

 

夫人莫奈在1875年日本和服,波士顿美术博物馆

第一个印象派展览于1874年举行35大道des卡普辛,巴黎,从4月15日到5月15日。参与者的主要目的与其说是促进一个新风格,但自由本身的约束巴黎沙龙展览,向任何人开放准备支付60法郎,给艺术家有机会展示他们的工作没有陪审团的干扰。

雷诺阿挂委员会的主席,和自己做大部分的工作,其他成员没能展现自己。

除了日出印象:(见上图)莫奈提出四个油画和七彩笔。在他展示的作品是午餐(1868),这档节目的特点就是卡米尔Doncieux和让·莫奈,已经拒绝了1870年的巴黎沙龙。在这个展览是一幅题为大道des卡普辛,一幅画的大道做摄影师Nadar的在没有公寓。35。莫奈画主题两次,它是不确定的两个图片,现在普希金博物馆在莫斯科,或在Nelson-Atkins艺术博物馆堪萨斯城是出现在1874年开创性的展览的画,虽然最近莫斯科好看的图片已被青睐。,165年作品在展览中展出,包括4油,2彩笔和3水彩画Morisot;由雷诺阿6油和1淡;10德加的作品;由毕沙罗5;由Guillaumin 3塞尚,和3。一些作品被租借,包括塞尚的现代奥林匹亚Morisot捉迷藏(Manet)旗下和2风景西斯利所购买的杜兰德-鲁埃尔。

总人数估计为3500,一些做销售工作,尽管一些参展商把他们的价格太高了。毕沙罗问1000法郎的果园和莫奈的印象:日出,不卖的。雷诺阿未能获得500法郎的要求La包厢,但后来卖了450法郎的父亲马丁,经销商集团和支持者。

English Introduction

Monet and Impressionism

First "Impressionist" exhibition

From the late 1860s, Monet and other like-minded artists met with rejection from the conservative Académie des Beaux-Arts, which held its annual exhibition at the Salon de Paris. During the latter part of 1873, Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, and Alfred Sisley organized the Société anonyme des artistes peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs (Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers) to exhibit their artworks independently. At their first exhibition, held in April 1874, Monet exhibited the work that was to give the group its lasting name. He was inspired by the style and subject matter of previous modern painters Camille Pissarro and Edouard Manet.

Impression, Sunrise was painted in 1872, depicting a Le Havre port landscape. From the painting's title the art critic Louis Leroy, in his review, "L'Exposition des Impressionnistes," which appeared in Le Charivari, coined the term "Impressionism". It was intended as disparagement but the Impressionists appropriated the term for themselves.

Biography

Birth and childhood

Claude Monet was born on 14 November 1840 on the fifth floor of 45 rue Laffitte, in the 9th arrondissement of Paris.[7] He was the second son of Claude Adolphe Monet and Louise Justine Aubrée Monet, both of them second-generation Parisians. On 20 May 1841, he was baptized in the local parish church, Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, as Oscar-Claude, but his parents called him simply Oscar.(He signed his juvenilia "O. Monet".) Despite being baptized Catholic, Monet later became an atheist.

In 1845, his family moved to Le Havre in Normandy. His father wanted him to go into the family grocery business, but Monet wanted to become an artist. His mother was a singer.

On 1 April 1851, Monet entered Le Havre secondary school of the arts. Locals knew him well for his charcoal caricatures, which he would sell for ten to twenty francs. Monet also undertook his first drawing lessons from Jacques-François Ochard, a former student of Jacques-Louis David. On the beaches of Normandy around 1856 he met fellow artist Eugène Boudin, who became his mentor and taught him to use oil paints. Boudin taught Monet "en plein air" (outdoor) techniques for painting. Both received the influence of Johan Barthold Jongkind.

On 28 January 1857, his mother died. At the age of sixteen, he left school and went to live with his widowed, childless aunt, Marie-Jeanne Lecadre.

Paris and Algeria

When Monet traveled to Paris to visit the Louvre, he witnessed painters copying from the old masters. Having brought his paints and other tools with him, he would instead go and sit by a window and paint what he saw. Monet was in Paris for several years and met other young painters, including Édouard Manet and others who would become friends and fellow Impressionists.

After drawing a low ballot number in March 1861, Monet was drafted into the First Regiment of African Light Cavalry (Chasseurs d'Afrique) in Algeria for a seven-year period of military service. His prosperous father could have purchased Monet's exemption from conscription but declined to do so when his son refused to give up painting. While in Algeria Monet did only a few sketches of casbah scenes, a single landscape, and several portraits of officers, all of which have been lost. In a Le Temps interview of 1900 however he commented that the light and vivid colors of North Africa "contained the germ of my future researches" After about a year of garrison duty in Algiers, Monet contracted typhoid fever and briefly went absent without leave. Following convalescence, Monet's aunt intervened to get him out of the army if he agreed to complete a course at an art school. It is possible that the Dutch painter Johan Barthold Jongkind, whom Monet knew, may have prompted his aunt on this matter.

Disillusioned with the traditional art taught at art schools, in 1862 Monet became a student of Charles Gleyre in Paris, where he met Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Frédéric Bazille and Alfred Sisley. Together they shared new approaches to art, painting the effects of light en plein air with broken color and rapid brushstrokes, in what later came to be known as Impressionism.

In January 1865 Monet was working on a version of Le déjeuner sur l'herbe, aiming to present it for hanging at the Salon, which had rejected Manet's Le déjeuner sur l'herbetwo years earlier.[15] Monet's painting was very large and could not be completed in time. (It was later cut up, with parts now in different galleries.) Monet submitted instead a painting of Camille or The Woman in the Green Dress (La femme à la robe verte), one of many works using his future wife, Camille Doncieux, as his model. Both this painting and a small landscape were hung. The following year Monet used Camille for his model inWomen in the Garden, and On the Bank of the Seine, Bennecourt in 1868. Camille became pregnant and gave birth to their first child, Jean, in 1867.Monet and Camille married on 28 June 1870, just before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War,and, after their excursion to London and Zaandam, they moved to Argenteuil, in December 1871. During this time Monet painted various works of modern life. He and Camille lived in poverty for most of this period. Following the successful exhibition of some maritime paintings, and the winning of a silver medal at Le Havre, Monet's paintings were seized by creditors, from whom they were bought back by a shipping merchant, Gaudibert, who was also a patron of Boudin.

Franco-Prussian War and Argenteuil

After the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War (19 July 1870), Monet and his family took refuge in England in September 1870, where he studied the works of John Constable and Joseph Mallord William Turner, both of whose landscapes would serve to inspire Monet's innovations in the study of color. In the spring of 1871, Monet's works were refused authorisation for inclusion in the Royal Academy exhibition.

In May 1871, he left London to live in Zaandam, in the Netherlands,where he made twenty-five paintings (and the police suspected him of revolutionary activities).He also paid a first visit to nearby Amsterdam. In October or November 1871, he returned to France. From December 1871 to 1878 he lived at Argenteuil, a village on the right bank of the Seine river near Paris, and a popular Sunday-outing destination for Parisians, where he painted some of his best-known works. In 1873, Monet purchased a small boat equipped to be used as a floating studio,From the boat studio Monet painted landscapes and also portraits of Édouard Manet and his wife; Manet in turn depicted Monet painting aboard the boat, accompanied by Camille, in 1874. In 1874, he briefly returned to Holland.

Impressionism

The first Impressionist exhibition was held in 1874 at 35 boulevard des Capucines, Paris, from 15 April to 15 May. The primary purpose of the participants was not so much to promote a new style, but to free themselves from the constraints of the Salon de Paris. The exhibition, open to anyone prepared to pay 60 francs, gave artists the opportunity to show their work without the interference of a jury.

Renoir chaired the hanging committee and did most of the work himself, as others members failed to present themselves.

In addition to Impression: Sunrise (pictured above) Monet presented four oil paintings and seven pastels. Among the paintings he displayed was The Luncheon (1868), which features Camille Doncieux and Jean Monet, and which had been rejected by the Paris Salon of 1870.[25] Also in this exhibition was a painting titled Boulevard des Capucines, a painting of the boulevard done from the photographer Nadar's apartment at no. 35. Monet painted the subject twice, and it is uncertain which of the two pictures, that now in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, or that in the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, was the painting that appeared in the groundbreaking 1874 exhibition, though more recently the Moscow picture has been favoured.Altogether, 165 works were exhibited in the exhibition, including 4 oils, 2 pastels and 3 watercolors by Morisot; 6 oils and 1 pastel by Renoir; 10 works by Degas; 5 by Pissarro; 3 by Cézanne; and 3 by Guillaumin. Several works were on loan, including Cézanne's Modern Olympia, Morisot's Hide and Seek (owned by Manet) and 2 landscapes by Sisley that had been purchased by Durand-Ruel.

The total attendance is estimated at 3500, and some works did sell, though some exhibitors had placed their prices too high. Pissarro was asking 1000 francs for The Orchard and Monet the same for Impression: Sunrise, neither of which sold. Renoir failed to obtain the 500 francs he was asking for La Loge, but later sold it for 450 francs to Père Martin, dealer and supporter of the group.

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