居斯塔夫·库尔贝Gustave Courbet

居斯塔夫·库尔贝(Gustave Courbet,1819--1877)法国画家,写实主义美术的代表。 自幼天赋聪颖、相貌出众,既高傲自大、自命不凡,又热情奔放、慷慨大方,从中学时代就成为同龄朋友们心悦诚服的领袖。

人物关系
  • 中文名居斯塔夫·库尔贝
  • 外文名Gustave Courbet
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 民族法兰西族
  • 出生地法国奥尔南市
  • 出生日期1819年6月10日
  • 逝世日期1877年12月31日
  • 毕业院校皇家美术学院和贝桑松美术学院
  • 主要成就写实主义美术的代表
  • 代表作品《戴贝雷帽系红领带的库尔贝》《世界的起源》
中文介绍

传记

 

L’homme la管道(自画像,男人管),1848 - 49,法布尔博物馆,蒙彼利埃

 

Les蓑羽鹤du巷道de la塞纳河,1856,小殿巴黎:及库尔贝的最著名的作品之一。“不妥协的强调密度和重量”[2]

古斯塔夫·及库尔贝出生于1819年,瑞吉斯和西尔维Oudot及库尔贝在耶布斯人阿珥楠(杜省部门)。作为一个富裕的农民家庭,anti-monarchical盛行的家庭的感受。(他的外祖父参加过法国大革命)。库尔贝的姐妹,佐伊,Zelie和朱丽叶,他首先对绘画模型。搬到巴黎后,他经常回家阿珥楠打猎,鱼和寻找灵感。[3]

他去了巴黎在1839年和在Steuben和黑森州的工作室工作。一个独立的精神,他很快就离开,而是喜欢自己学习绘画风格的西班牙语,弗兰德和法国的硕士学位罗浮宫绘画,他们的作品。

他的第一个作品宫女写作的灵感维克多。雨果莱利亚说明乔治·沙,但他很快放弃了文学的影响,选择他的画作基于观察现实。在他的画作1840年代初期的几种自画像在构思上,浪漫,艺术家描绘在各种角色。这些包括与黑狗自画像(c。1842 - 44,接受展览在1844年巴黎沙龙),也称为绝望的戏剧自画像(c。1843 - 45),情侣在农村(1844年美术博物馆,里昂),雕塑家(1845),伤员(1844 - 54岁奥赛博物馆,巴黎),大提琴演奏家,自画像(1847Nationalmuseum,斯德哥尔摩在1848年沙龙)所示,和男人管(1848 - 49,法布尔博物馆蒙彼利埃)。[4]

荷兰和比利时在1846 - 47加强及库尔贝认为画家应该描绘周围的生活,伦布兰特,哈尔斯和其他荷兰大师了。到1848年,他获得了支持者在年轻的批评者,Neo-romantics和现实义者,特别是Champfleury.[5]

库尔贝在1849年取得了他的第一次沙龙的成功与他的绘画在耶布斯人阿珥楠晚饭后。工作,让人想起夏丹勒拿,及库尔贝赢得了金牌,并购买了。[6]金牌意味着他的作品将不再需要陪审团批准在沙龙展览[7]——豁免及库尔贝喜欢直到1857年(规则改变时)。[8]

在1849 - 50岁及库尔贝画Stone-Breakers(摧毁盟军轰炸德累斯顿1945年)蒲鲁东农民生活的欣赏作为一个图标,它被称为“第一个伟大的作品”。[9]这幅画的灵感来源于一个场景及库尔贝在路边。他后来解释Champfleury和作家弗朗西斯·韦:“这可不是常有的事,一遇到贫困所以的完整表达式,并在现场就我一幅画的想法。我告诉他们第二天早上来我的工作室。”[9]

现实主义

 

1869年波(La模糊),油画,66 x 90厘米,里昂美术博物馆

库尔贝的工作既不属于主流浪漫的也不新古典主义学校。历史画,巴黎沙龙尊敬作为一个画家最高的召唤,他没有兴趣,因为他认为,“一个世纪的艺术家[是]基本上无法复制过去或未来世纪的方面……”[10]相反,他坚持认为,唯一可能的来源生活艺术是艺术家自己的经验。[10]他和让小米会找到灵感画农民和工人的生活。[11]

库尔贝画具象作品,风景,海景,静物画。他引发了争议解决社会问题的工作,并通过绘画题材,被认为是粗俗的,如农村资产阶级、农民和穷人的工作条件。他的工作,还有的欧诺瑞Daumier小米,被称为现实主义库尔贝现实主义不是处理完美的线条和形式,但需要自发的和野蛮装卸的油漆,建议直接观察的艺术家而描绘的违规行为自然他描绘生活中的严酷,这样挑战当代学术思想的艺术。

葬礼在耶布斯人阿珥楠

主要文章:葬礼在耶布斯人阿珥楠

 

古斯塔夫·及库尔贝,葬礼在耶布斯人阿珥楠,1849 - 50,油画,314 x 663厘米(123.6 x 261英寸),奥赛博物馆、巴黎。展览在1850 - 1851巴黎沙龙创建了一个“爆炸反应”和带及库尔贝即时的名声。[12]

1850 - 1851年的沙龙[13]发现他胜利的石头断路器,Flagey和埋葬在耶布斯人阿珥楠的农民。埋葬,及库尔贝最重要的作品之一,记录他的大叔叔的葬礼[14]他参加了1848年9月。参加葬礼的人画的模型。以前,模型在历史叙事作为演员,但在葬礼及库尔贝说他“画的人出席了葬礼,所有市民”。结果是一个现实的他们,在耶布斯人阿珥楠的生活。

绝大画它10×22英尺(3.1,6.6米)吸引了赞扬和批评人士的强烈谴责和公众,部分是因为它沮丧公约通过描绘一个平淡无奇的仪式规模将之前已经保留了一个宗教或皇家的话题。

据艺术历史学家莎拉Faunce”,在巴黎的葬礼被判断为工作把自己推到历史的伟大传统绘画,像一个暴发户在脏靴子破坏了上流社会的聚会,和这一传统当然希望找到。”[15]这幅画缺乏情感修辞,预计类型的工作:及库尔贝的悲痛哀悼者毫无夸张的手势,和他们的脸似乎更比授爵的讽刺。批评者指责及库尔贝丑陋的刻意追求。[15]

最终,公众越来越感兴趣的新现实主义的方法,和奢华,颓废的幻想浪漫主义失去了人气。艺术家充分理解这幅画的重要性。库尔贝说,“埋葬在耶布斯人阿珥楠在现实中浪漫主义的葬礼。”

库尔贝成了名人,口语是一个天才,一个“可怕的社会主义”和“野蛮”。[16]他积极鼓励公众的感知作为一个文盲农民,而他的野心,他的记者大胆的声明,他坚持描绘自己的生命在他的艺术给他肆无忌惮的虚荣。[17]

库尔贝有关他的想法的现实主义在艺术与政治无政府主义,获得了观众,他提倡民主和社会主义思想政治动机的论文和论文写作。他熟悉的面容是频繁的在受欢迎的法国媒体漫画的对象。

1850年,他写信给朋友:

文明社会在我们非常有必要对我的生活的野蛮人。我甚至必须自由的政府。我同情的人,我必须解决我自己直接给他们。[18]

在1850年代,及库尔贝画许多具象作品使用普通人和朋友作为他的臣民,如村美人(1852),《摔跤手》(1853),游泳者(1853),熟睡的微调器(1853),和小麦筛(1854)。

艺术家的工作室

 

艺术家的工作室(L ' atelier du peintre):一个真正的七年阶段的寓言艺术和道德生活、1855、359×598厘米(141.33×235.43英寸),油画,奥赛博物馆、巴黎

1855年,及库尔贝提交十四绘画的展览博览会Universelle三被拒绝因为缺乏空间,包括一个埋葬在耶布斯人阿珥楠和他其他的画布艺术家的工作室.[19]拒绝被拒绝,及库尔贝的事情揽在自己手里。他的画作显示四十,包括艺术家的工作室,在他自己的画廊称为现实主义的馆(Pavillon du Realisme)这是一个临时结构,他竖立在官方的隔壁沙龙例如博览会Universelle。[19]

工作及库尔贝的生活寓言作为一个画家,视为英雄,在他旁边的朋友和崇拜者在右边,和挑战,反对了。右边的朋友包括艺术评论家Champfleury,查尔斯。波德莱尔和艺术品收藏家阿尔弗雷德Bruyas左边的数字(牧师,妓女,掘墓人,商人和其他人)代表及库尔贝在写给Champfleury形容这是“另一个世界的琐碎的生活,人民痛苦,贫穷、财富、剥削和剥削者,为生的人死亡。”[20]

在前台的左边是一个男人与狗,他并没有提到Champfleury及库尔贝的信。x射线显示他是画在后面,但他在绘画中的作用是很重要的:他是一个寓言的当前法国皇帝,拿破仑三世,被他著名的狩猎狗和标志性捻胡须。把他在左边,及库尔贝公开表明他对皇帝和描述他是一个罪犯,这表明他的“所有权”的法国是一个非法的。[21]

虽然艺术家们喜欢尤金·德拉克洛瓦热心的冠军是他的努力,公众去展示主要是出于好奇和嘲笑他。出勤和销售令人失望,[22]但法国及库尔贝作为一个英雄的地位前卫的成为保证。他钦佩了美国詹姆斯·麦克尼尔惠斯勒灵感,他成为年轻一代的法国艺术家包括爱德华马奈印象派画家。艺术家的工作室被德拉克洛瓦公认的杰作,波德莱尔,Champfleury,如果不是公众。

现实主义宣言

库尔贝写现实主义宣言:介绍这个独立的目录,个人展览,呼应的语气时期的政治宣言。他断言他的目标作为一个艺术家”翻译海关,想法,我根据我自己的时代的样子估计。”[23]

现实主强加给我的标题就像浪漫的标题是1830年强加于人。冠军从来没有给一个真正的想法的事情:如果是否则,作品将是不必要的。
 

如果不扩大或多或少的准确性没有人的名字,我应该希望,真的可以理解,我将会限制自己的几句话说明为了缩短误解。
 

我有学习古人的艺术和艺术的现代人,避免任何先入为主的系统,没有偏见。我不再想模仿一个比其他复制;而且,此外,这是我的意图实现微不足道的“为艺术而艺术”的目标。不!我只是想画出来,从一个完整的熟悉的传统,认为自己的个性和独立意识。
 

知道为了做什么,这是我的想法。能够翻译海关,想法,我的出现时间,根据我自己的估计,不只有一个画家,但是一个男人,简而言之,创造生活的艺术——这是我的目标。(古斯塔夫·及库尔贝,1855)[24]

名声

 

乔的画像(La belle Irlandaise),1865 - 66,大都会艺术博物馆的一幅画安娜Hiffernan,可能的模型对L’origine du monde和睡眠

1857年沙龙及库尔贝显示6画。其中包括年轻女士的塞纳河(夏天),描绘两个妓女在树下,以及许多狩猎场景及库尔贝的第一是画在他的生活的其余部分:后在雪地里和采石场。[8]

年轻的女士们的塞纳河,创作于1856年,[25]引发了一场丑闻。艺术评论家习惯于传统”,永恒的“裸女在风景震及库尔贝的描述现代女性随意显示他们的内衣。[26]

通过展示轰动的作品与狩猎场景,所带来的那种受欢迎的成功的英国画家埃德温·兰西尔,及库尔贝保证自己“恶名和销售”。[27]在1860年代,及库尔贝画一系列越来越多色情等工作女人熔炼couchee.

这最终导致世界的起源(L’origine du monde)(1866),描绘了女性生殖器直到1988年才公开展出,[28]睡眠(1866),有两个女人在床上。后者绘画成为一个警察报告的主题时表现出一幅经销商于1872年。[29]

 

裸体的女人和狗(女人熔炼盟狗),c。1861 - 62年,布面油画,65 x 81厘米奥赛博物馆、巴黎

直到1861年,拿破仑政权已经表现出独裁的特征,利用新闻审查制度,以防止扩散的反对,操纵选举,议会剥夺自由辩论的权利或任何真正的权力。然而,在1860年代,拿破仑三世做出更多的让步来安抚他的自由派的对手。这种变化开始通过允许免费在议会辩论和公共议会辩论的报告。新闻审查制度也是放松,最终以自由的任命埃米尔Ollivier以前,拿破仑政权的反对党领袖,1870年作为事实上的总理。绥靖政策的志及库尔贝自由党人欣赏,拿破仑三世任命他荣誉军团勋章在1870年。他的拒绝的十字荣誉勋章激怒了当权者,但他与那些反对非常流行的政权。

English Introduction

Biography

Gustave Courbet was born in 1819 to Régis and Sylvie Oudot Courbet in Ornans (department of Doubs). Being a prosperous farming family, anti-monarchical feelings prevailed in the household. (His maternal grandfather fought in the French Revolution.) Courbet's sisters, Zoé, Zélie and Juliette, were his first models for drawing and painting. After moving to Paris he often returned home to Ornans to hunt, fish and find inspiration.[3]

He went to Paris in 1839 and worked at the studio of Steuben and Hesse. An independent spirit, he soon left, preferring to develop his own style by studying the paintings of Spanish, Flemish and French masters in the Louvre, and painting copies of their work.

His first works were an Odalisque inspired by the writing of Victor Hugo and a Léliaillustrating George Sand, but he soon abandoned literary influences, choosing instead to base his paintings on observed reality. Among his paintings of the early 1840s are several self-portraits, Romantic in conception, in which the artist portrayed himself in various roles. These include Self-Portrait with Black Dog (c. 1842–44, accepted for exhibition at the 1844 Paris Salon), the theatrical Self-Portrait which is also known as Desperate Man (c. 1843–45), Lovers in the Countryside (1844, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyon), The Sculptor (1845), The Wounded Man (1844–54, Musée d'Orsay, Paris),The Cellist, Self-Portrait (1847, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, shown at the 1848 Salon), and Man with a Pipe (1848–49,Musée Fabre, Montpellier).[4]

Trips to the Netherlands and Belgium in 1846–47 strengthened Courbet's belief that painters should portray the life around them, as Rembrandt, Hals and other Dutch masters had. By 1848, he had gained supporters among the younger critics, the Neo-romantics and Realists, notably Champfleury.[5]

Courbet achieved his first Salon success in 1849 with his painting After Dinner at Ornans. The work, reminiscent ofChardin and Le Nain, earned Courbet a gold medal and was purchased by the state.[6] The gold medal meant that his works would no longer require jury approval for exhibition at the Salon[7]—an exemption Courbet enjoyed until 1857 (when the rule changed).[8]

In 1849-50, Courbet painted Stone-Breakers (destroyed in the Allied Bombing of Dresden in 1945), which Proudhon admired as an icon of peasant life; it has been called "the first of his great works".[9] The painting was inspired by a scene Courbet witnessed on the roadside. He later explained to Champfleury and the writer Francis Wey: "It is not often that one encounters so complete an expression of poverty and so, right then and there I got the idea for a painting. I told them to come to my studio the next morning."[9]

Realism

Courbet's work belonged neither to the predominant Romantic nor Neoclassical schools.History painting, which the Paris Salon esteemed as a painter's highest calling, did not interest him, for he believed that "the artists of one century [are] basically incapable of reproducing the aspect of a past or future century ..."[10] Instead, he maintained that the only possible source for living art is the artist's own experience.[10] He and Jean-Francois Millet would find inspiration painting the life of peasants and workers.[11]

Courbet painted figurative compositions, landscapes, seascapes, and still lifes. He courted controversy by addressing social issues in his work, and by painting subjects that were considered vulgar, such as the rural bourgeoisie, peasants, and working conditions of the poor. His work, along with that of Honoré Daumier and Jean-François Millet, became known as Realism. For Courbet realism dealt not with the perfection of line and form, but entailed spontaneous and rough handling of paint, suggesting direct observation by the artist while portraying the irregularities in nature. He depicted the harshness in life, and in so doing challenged contemporary academic ideas of art.

A Burial at Ornans

Main article: A Burial At Ornans

The Salon of 1850–1851[13] found him triumphant withThe Stone Breakers, the Peasants of Flagey and A Burial at Ornans. The Burial, one of Courbet's most important works, records the funeral of his grand uncle[14] which he attended in September 1848. People who attended the funeral were the models for the painting. Previously, models had been used as actors in historical narratives, but in Burial Courbet said he "painted the very people who had been present at the interment, all the townspeople". The result is a realistic presentation of them, and of life in Ornans.

The vast painting—it measures 10 by 22 feet (3.1 by 6.6 meters)—drew both praise and fierce denunciations from critics and the public, in part because it upset convention by depicting a prosaic ritual on a scale which would previously have been reserved for a religious or royal subject.

According to the art historian Sarah Faunce, "In Paris the Burial was judged as a work that had thrust itself into the grand tradition of history painting, like an upstart in dirty boots crashing a genteel party, and in terms of that tradition it was of course found wanting."[15] The painting lacks the sentimental rhetoric that was expected in a genre work: Courbet's mourners make no theatrical gestures of grief, and their faces seemed more caricatured than ennobled. The critics accused Courbet of a deliberate pursuit of ugliness.[15]

Eventually, the public grew more interested in the new Realist approach, and the lavish, decadent fantasy of Romanticism lost popularity. The artist well understood the importance of the painting. Courbet said of it, "The Burial at Ornans was in reality the burial of Romanticism."

Courbet became a celebrity, and was spoken of as a genius, a "terrible socialist" and a "savage".[16] He actively encouraged the public's perception of him as an unschooled peasant, while his ambition, his bold pronouncements to journalists, and his insistence on depicting his own life in his art gave him a reputation for unbridled vanity.[17]

Courbet associated his ideas of realism in art with political anarchism, and, having gained an audience, he promoted democratic and socialist ideas by writing politically motivated essays and dissertations. His familiar visage was the object of frequent caricature in the popular French press.

In 1850, he wrote to a friend:

...in our so very civilized society it is necessary for me to live the life of a savage. I must be free even of governments. The people have my sympathies, I must address myself to them directly.[18]

During the 1850s, Courbet painted numerous figurative works using common folk and friends as his subjects, such asVillage Damsels (1852), the Wrestlers (1853), Bathers (1853), The Sleeping Spinner (1853), and The Wheat Sifters (1854).

The Artist's Studio

In 1855, Courbet submitted fourteen paintings for exhibition at theExposition Universelle. Three were rejected for lack of space, includingA Burial at Ornans and his other monumental canvas The Artist's Studio.[19] Refusing to be denied, Courbet took matters into his own hands. He displayed forty of his paintings, including The Artist's Studio, in his own gallery called The Pavilion of Realism (Pavillon du Réalisme) which was a temporary structure that he erected next door to the official Salon-like Exposition Universelle.[19]

The work is an allegory of Courbet's life as a painter, seen as an heroic venture, in which he is flanked by friends and admirers on the right, and challenges and opposition to the left. Friends on the right include theart critics Champfleury, and Charles Baudelaire, and art collector Alfred Bruyas. On the left are figures (priest, prostitute, grave digger, merchant and others) who represent what Courbet described in a letter to Champfleury as "the other world of trivial life, the people, misery, poverty, wealth, the exploited and the exploiters, the people who live off death."[20]

In the foreground of the left-hand side is a man with dogs, who was not mentioned in Courbet's letter to Champfleury. X-rays show he was painted in later, but his role in the painting is important: he is an allegory of the then current French Emperor, Napoleon III, identified by his famous hunting dogs and iconic twirled moustache. By placing him on the left, Courbet publicly shows his disdain for the emperor and depicts him as a criminal, suggesting that his "ownership" of France is an illegal one.[21]

Although artists like Eugène Delacroix were ardent champions of his effort, the public went to the show mostly out of curiosity and to deride him. Attendance and sales were disappointing,[22] but Courbet's status as a hero to the Frenchavant-garde became assured. He was admired by the American James McNeill Whistler, and he became an inspiration to the younger generation of French artists including Édouard Manet and the Impressionist painters. The Artist's Studio was recognized as a masterpiece by Delacroix, Baudelaire, and Champfleury, if not by the public.

Realist manifesto

Courbet wrote a Realist manifesto for the introduction to the catalogue of this independent, personal exhibition, echoing the tone of the period's political manifestos. In it he asserts his goal as an artist "to translate the customs, the ideas, the appearance of my epoch according to my own estimation."[23]

The title of Realist was thrust upon me just as the title of Romantic was imposed upon the men of 1830. Titles have never given a true idea of things: if it were otherwise, the works would be unnecessary.
 

Without expanding on the greater or lesser accuracy of a name which nobody, I should hope, can really be expected to understand, I will limit myself to a few words of elucidation in order to cut short the misunderstandings.
 

I have studied the art of the ancients and the art of the moderns, avoiding any preconceived system and without prejudice. I no longer wanted to imitate the one than to copy the other; nor, furthermore, was it my intention to attain the trivial goal of "art for art's sake". No! I simply wanted to draw forth, from a complete acquaintance with tradition, the reasoned and independent consciousness of my own individuality.
 

To know in order to do, that was my idea. To be in a position to translate the customs, the ideas, the appearance of my time, according to my own estimation; to be not only a painter, but a man as well; in short, to create living art – this is my goal. (Gustave Courbet, 1855)[24]

Notoriety

In the Salon of 1857 Courbet showed six paintings. These included Young Ladies on the Banks of the Seine (Summer), depicting two prostitutes under a tree, as well as the first of many hunting scenes Courbet was to paint during the remainder of his life: Hind at Bay in the Snow and The Quarry.[8]

Young Ladies on the Banks of the Seine, painted in 1856,[25] provoked a scandal. Art critics accustomed to conventional, "timeless" nude women in landscapes were shocked by Courbet's depiction of modern women casually displaying their undergarments.[26]

By exhibiting sensational works alongside hunting scenes, of the sort that had brought popular success to the English painter Edwin Landseer, Courbet guaranteed himself "both notoriety and sales".[27] During the 1860s, Courbet painted a series of increasingly erotic works such as Femme nue couchée.

This culminated in The Origin of the World (L'Origine du monde) (1866), which depicts female genitalia and was not publicly exhibited until 1988,[28] and Sleep(1866), featuring two women in bed. The latter painting became the subject of a police report when it was exhibited by a picture dealer in 1872.[29]

Until about 1861, Napoléon's regime had exhibited authoritarian characteristics, using press censorship to prevent the spread of opposition, manipulating elections, and depriving Parliament the right to free debate or any real power. In the 1860s, however, Napoléon III made more concessions to placate his liberal opponents. This change began by allowing free debates in Parliament and public reports of parliamentary debates. Press censorship, too, was relaxed and culminated in the appointment of the Liberal Émile Ollivier, previously a leader of the opposition to Napoléon's regime, as the de facto Prime Minister in 1870. As a sign of appeasement to the Liberals who admired Courbet, Napoleon III nominated him to the Legion of Honour in 1870. His refusal of the cross of the Legion of Honour angered those in power but made him immensely popular with those who opposed the prevailing regime.

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