雅各.严峻Jacob Grimmer

雅各.严峻Jacob Grimmer(1526年——1590年),佛兰德画家。雅各严峻出生于安特卫普的小商人尼古拉斯和伊丽莎白警察的儿子。根据早期的佛兰芒的传记作家卡雷尔·曼德,严峻先学习绘画从风景Matthys屌后来从基督教范登Queborn,两者的安特卫普。有没有书面资料,这证实了这些学徒。

  • 中文名雅各.严峻
  • 外文名Jacob Grimmer
  • 性别
  • 国籍佛兰德
  • 出生地安特卫普
  • 出生日期1526年
  • 逝世日期1590年
  • 职业画家
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生活

雅各严峻出生于安特卫普的小商人尼古拉斯和伊丽莎白警察的儿子。根据早期的佛兰芒的传记作家卡雷尔·曼德严峻先学习绘画从风景Matthys屌后来从基督教范登Queborn,两者的安特卫普。有没有书面资料,这证实了这些学徒。

严峻的训练,唯一的书面证据是他在1539年注册的名称Iaques Grimmaer下liggeren安特卫普的圣路加公会加布里埃尔Bouwens的学生。因此,不能肯定,其实是严峻屌Matthys和基督教范登Queborn的学生。严峻成为圣路加安特卫普协会主在1547年。

严峻结婚圣卢西亚范·德Wouwer四月1548脱胎于这场婚姻的四个孩子中的阿贝尔成为一个重要的景观和建筑画家。目前对于是否不严峻前往意大利许多他的艺术家的当代艺术做了历史学家们一些分歧。他在安特卫普市中心,在那里他成立了自己的工作室买了一套房子。他被称为绘画自然安特卫普周围地区之后。

早在1550雅各严峻是由意大利著名美术史家称赞瓦萨里作为他那个时代最好的风景画家之一。卡雷尔·曼德描述严峻为“这样一个杰出的风景画家,在某些方面,我不知道更好的,于是活泼可爱的是他的天空。“严峻的艺术不仅他同时代的同时也得到了下一个世纪的艺术家的赞赏。无论彼得·斯特曼和他著名的学生,伦勃朗,通过严峻拥有景观。1656伦勃朗的库存包括雅各严峻冬天的风景线。

雅各严峻是当地的一名积极成员说辞室 Violieren他在那里庆祝了作为诗人和漫画作品的作者。[10]他可能1590安特卫普前死亡。
 

工作

雅各严峻是主要景观和冬天的场景一个画家,虽然他也画一些宗教为主题的作品,如巴别塔和流派的作品。他经常回到主题四季和十二个月。

他最早日期的工作可追溯到1546和他的最新日期的工作,1589年他的作为是报告的卡雷尔·曼德直接从大自然中的工作是众所周知的。

他的产量大,他在一个大车间,生产规模小的面板以标准化的生产过程中依据。他的儿子亚伯进一步精简这种大规模的生产过程。

他工作的意义
雅各布经常被视为一个模仿者彼得·勃鲁盖尔长老谁重建小板勃鲁盖尔的艺术创新和以低廉的价格提供这些给市场。严峻的风景画那样同时构成了景观流派的进一步发展。严峻脱离了所谓的“早期佛兰德传统走天下山水于1981年启动” 约阿希姆Patinir。术语世界景观艺术历史文献用于景观构成,其中显示了一个虚构的全景景观山区和低地,水,和建筑物从提升的观点,通常包括小规模圣经或历史故事,但包括这个数字叙事元素被他们的环境相形见绌。

在他的最早的山水画在河边查看过朝一村一树覆盖的小山(1573年汉堡美术馆),并在该系列中的画作四季(1577 美术博物馆(布达佩斯)雅各严峻呈偏爱描绘现实平佛兰芒景观与村庄和农舍和农村居民居住。在这些场景的小数字沿着连绵起伏的丘陵向在面板中间的地平线衰退毕业区域设置。这些用数字和小轶事场景的风景呈现在一个自然的方式。严峻抛弃了一代的人为景观的世界,取而代之的是简单性和真实性以前从未见过。

他的风景画从前台到地平线不断发展的风景。他的作品被分解以均匀的颜色大区的相互对比。他选择了更加逼真的色彩比在他的前任的世界山水使用。他为了在组成一个统一到用于构建良好的,大气的值。他有自己的代表树,薄奋起反抗与叶子和单独绘制的每一片叶子备用冠的背景风格。

严峻的工作,它能够提供日常生活的简单而真诚的观点的能力脱颖而出。[7]在这种关注对于农村生活严峻的作品显示了冲高景观平行的小景观大师这是首次围绕1560出版对在农村的现实生活中的参与标志着一个举动从世界景观与宗教场面了。不像彼得Brueghel谁了农民的严峻看法长辈,严峻召开农民生活比没有他的同胞画家更阳光充沛的看法。严峻往往强调农村生活的轻,滑稽的一面在他看到有一个冬天的风景一个村庄,在前景上冰冻的河选手,和猎人(Thyssen-Bornemisza博物馆博物馆),这表明在谁倒了,并揭示了她裸露的臀部冰溜冰者。

虽然他的风格发展仍有点明白了,在他的晚期作品轶事细节明显降低,由景观亲密的观点所取代。这些后期工程预计森林景观类型的新一代艺术家,如做流行大卫Vinckboons和弗兰肯塔尔学校的艺术家。

雅各布的现存图片显示围绕安特卫普地区明确的连接。他的一些观点安特卫普坚持“城镇和乡村”的格式,一种具有城市景观农村视图的组合。一个例子是他的全景基尔观(1578年皇家美术博物馆安特卫普)所在城市只出现在最右侧的距离。另一个例子是斯海尔德河附近的安特卫普观(1587年,美术安特卫普皇家博物馆),描绘国家的消遣方式有点不同方面。只有在遥远的地平线是安特卫普可见的高楼。

严峻的工作是对下一代佛兰德风景画家的影响力,包括他的儿子亚伯以及吉利斯面包车Coninxloo,扬勃鲁盖尔雅戈尔和扬Wildens。

English Introduction

James Stern was born in Antwerp, the son of Nicholas and the son of a small police officer in the city of Elizabeth. According to early Flemish biographer Karel Mander, stern first learn painting from the scenic Matthys cock later from Christian van den Queborn, both in Antwerp. There is no written information, which confirms these apprentices.
With severe training, the only written evidence he registered in 1539 was the name Iaques Grimmaer under the liggeren St. Luke's Guild of Gabriel Bouwens in Antwerp. So, not sure, is actually a serious cock Matthys and Christian van den Queborn students. A serious St. Luke's Association of Antwerp in 1547.
The grim marriage Lucia van der Wouwer April 1548 out of four children in the marriage of Abel became an important landscape painter and architecture. There is some disagreement among historians about whether or not to go to Italy for the contemporary art of many of his artists. He bought a house in downtown Antwerp, where he set up his own studio. He was known to paint around the area around Antwerp.
As early as 1550 Jacob is severe by Italy famous art historians praised Vasari as one of the best landscape painter of his time. Karel Mander described the grim as "such an outstanding landscape painter, in some ways, I do not know better, so lively and lovely is his sky. "Not only did he not only get the same era of art, but also the artists of the next century. Both Peter Sterman and his famous student, Rembrandt, had a grim landscape. 1656 Rembrandt's inventory includes Jacob's grim winter landscape.
Jacob grim is an active member of the local chamber of rhetoric Violieren author where he celebrated as a poet and comic works. [10] he may die before 1590 Antwerp.

Jacob is the main landscape and severe winter scenes of a painter, although he also painted some religious themed works, such as the tower of Babel and the school work. He often returns to the theme of four seasons and twelve months.
His earliest date of work dates back to 1546 and his latest date of work in 1589, as he was reporting that Karel Mander's work directly from nature is well known.
His production is large, he is in a large workshop, the production of small panels based on the standardization of the production process. His son Abel further streamline this large-scale production process.
The significance of his work
Jacob is often regarded as an imitator of artistic innovation Peter Brugel Bruegel and the elders who rebuild small at low prices to provide the market. Severe landscape painting at the same time constitutes a further development of landscape schools. Serious out of so-called "early Flemish tradition world landscape started in 1981" Joachim Patinir. The term world landscape art historical literature for landscape composition, which shows a fictional panoramic mountain and lowland landscape, water, and enhance the building from point of view, usually including the Bible or historical stories of small scale, but this figure includes narrative elements by their environment to shame.
In his earliest landscape painting in the river view toward the village a tree covered Hill (1573 Hamburg Gallery), and in the series of paintings four (1577 Art Museum (Budapest) is a severe Jacob depict real preference flat landscape and Flemish villages and farmhouses and rural residents. [7] in small numbers of these scenes along the rolling hills in the middle of the panel to the horizon of recession graduate regional settings. [8] these figures and anecdotes of small scenes in a natural way. The grim abandonment of a generation of artificial landscapes of the world, instead of simplicity and authenticity has never been seen before.
His landscape develops from the foreground to the horizon. His works are divided into homogeneous regions of color. He chose a more realistic color than the landscape in his predecessor's world. He in order to form a unified to be used to build a good, atmospheric value. He had his own representative tree, which was thin and raised against the background of a leaf and a separate set of alternate leaves of each crown.
The ability to work hard, it is able to provide a simple and sincere point of view of everyday life. [7] in this concern for rural life serious works show high landscape landscape of small parallel to master this is the first published around 1560 marks a move from the world landscape and religious scenes of real life in rural areas to participate in. Unlike Peter Brueghel who has a grim view of the elders of the peasants, the grim convening of the peasant life is more optimistic than the views of his fellow painters. Severe tend to emphasize the rural life of the light, the funny side of a winter scenery in a village he saw, in the foreground on the frozen river player, and Hunter (Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum), which indicates that the fall in who, and reveals her bare buttocks ice skating.
Although the development of his style is still somewhat clear, the anecdotal details of his later works have been significantly reduced, replaced by an intimate view of the landscape. These latter projects are expected to be a new generation of forest landscape types, such as making popular David Vinckboons and the artist of the Tulsa school.
Jacob's existing images show a clear connection around the Antwerp area. Some of his views Antwerp adhere to the "town and country" format, a combination of urban landscape rural view. An example is the panoramic view of his Kiel (1578 Royal Art Museum of Antwerp city) only appeared in the right side of the distance. Another example is in the vicinity of the Scheldt view on Antwerp (1587, Antwerp Art Museum), depicting the national pastime is a bit different. Only in the distant horizon is the visible high-rise in Antwerp.
Hard work is for the next generation of Flemish landscape painter's influence, including his son Abe and Gillis van Coninxloo, Jan Bruegel and Jan Wildens YOUNGOR.

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