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爱德华.马奈Édouard Manet

爱德华.马奈Édouard Manet(1832年1月23日——1883年4月30日),法国画家。

人物关系
  • 中文名爱德华.马奈
  • 外文名Édouard Manet
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生地巴黎
  • 出生日期1832年1月23日
  • 逝世日期1883年4月30日
  • 职业画家
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从马奈画中走出的裸女

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

维多琳·默兰,作为印象派画家马奈及其同时代画家的模特,也许是19世纪最著名的面孔和身体。在马奈的画作《奥林匹亚》、《草地上的午餐》中,默兰或裸身躺在床上,或裸身坐在两个男人之间,目光...
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中文介绍

早期的生活

 

马奈的画像Fantin-Latour

马奈生于1832年1月23日在巴黎的祖先酒店particulier(大厦)街小印行(现在波拿巴街一个富裕和人脉广泛的家庭。Eugenie-Desiree弗尔涅,他的母亲是一位外交官的女儿,瑞典王储的教女查尔斯·贝纳,从瑞典君主是谁的后代。古斯特·莫奈,他的父亲是一位法国法官将爱德华追求他的律师生涯。他的叔叔,爱德蒙弗尔涅,鼓励他追求绘画和年轻马奈罗浮宫.1841年他进入中学,大学转入1845年,在他叔叔的建议,马奈绘画,他参加一个特殊的课程安东尼普鲁斯特美术,未来的部长和随后的终身朋友。

在父亲的建议,1848年,他乘坐一艘训练船里约热内卢他两次考试不及格后加入海军,他的父亲妥协他的愿望追求一种艺术教育。从1850年到1856年,马奈在学术研究画家托马斯时装在业余时间,马奈复制大师在卢浮宫。

从1853年到1856年,马奈访问德国、意大利和荷兰,在此期间,他受到了荷兰画家弗朗斯·哈尔斯,和西班牙艺术家维拉斯奎兹旧金山何塞•德•戈雅.

职业生涯

1856年,马奈开了一个工作室。他的风格在这一时期的特点是宽松的笔触,简化细节和压制过渡的音调。采用当前的风格现实主义古斯塔夫·及库尔贝,他画了苦艾酒的酒鬼(1858 - 59)和其他当代学科如乞丐,歌手,吉普赛人,人们在咖啡馆,斗牛。在他职业生涯早期,他很少描绘宗教,神话,或历史主题;基督的例子包括他的嘲笑,现在芝加哥艺术学院,与天使,和基督大都会艺术博物馆,纽约。马奈有两个画布接受1861年的沙龙。他的母亲和父亲的肖像,他当时被中风瘫痪和抢劫的言论,生病受到批评。西班牙歌手,另一个是钦佩讯息Gautier,放置在一个更明显的位置与Salon-goers由于它的受欢迎程度。马奈的作品,出现“略显草率的”相比,其他很多沙龙的细致的风格画,好奇一些年轻艺术家。西班牙歌手,画在一个“奇怪的新时尚[-]导致许多画家的眼睛开放和他们的下巴下降。”

 

 

音乐在杜伊勒里宫

 

 

音乐在杜伊勒里宫,1862年

音乐的杜伊勒里宫是一个早期的例子马奈的绘画风格。灵感来自哈尔斯委拉斯凯兹,这是一个终其一生的的主题休闲兴趣的先兆。

虽然被认为是未完成的一些照片,建议大气传授一种当时的杜伊勒里宫花园就像什么;你可以想象音乐和谈话。

这里,马奈描绘了他的朋友,艺术家,作家,音乐家参加,包括受试者的自画像。

在草地上午餐(Le早餐在草地上)

 

 

在草地上午餐(Le早餐在草地上),1863

主要的早期作品草地上午餐(Le早餐在草地上)巴黎沙龙拒绝在1863年展览但马奈在展出沙龙des拒绝拒绝(沙龙)在今年晚些时候。皇帝拿破仑三世发起了沙龙des拒绝在巴黎沙龙在2783年拒绝了2783幅画。马奈使用模型毛皮披肩Meurent,他的妻子苏珊,未来姐夫费迪南德Leenhoff,和他的一个兄弟。Meurent也提出了几个重要的马奈绘画包括奥林匹亚;到1870年代中期,她成为一个成功的画家在她自己的权利。

这幅画并列穿戴整齐的男人和一个裸体女人是有争议的,是它的缩写,sketch-like处理,及库尔贝的创新杰出马奈。同时,马奈的大师的成分显示了他的研究,作为主要人物的性来源于马可安东尼奥•莱蒙蒂雕刻帕里斯的评判(c . 1515)根据图纸拉斐尔.

两个额外的学者引用的作品作为重要的先例Le早餐苏尔草地上田园音乐会1510年(c。卢浮宫),《暴风雨》 (Gallerie戴尔'Accademia威尼斯),这两个是由于不同的意大利文艺复兴时期的大师乔尔乔内提香.《暴风雨》是一个神秘的绘画有一个穿戴整齐的男人和一个裸体女人在农村环境。男人站在左边,注视到一边,显然在女人,谁坐在和母乳喂养婴儿;两个数字之间的关系尚不清楚。[6]在田园音乐会,两个男人和一个裸体女人衣服坐在草地上,从事音乐创作,而第二个裸体女人站在他们旁边。

 

 

奥林匹亚

 

奥林匹亚,1863年

 

他在草地上午餐,马奈再转述一位受人尊敬的工作由文艺复兴时期的艺术家绘画奥林匹亚(1863),一个裸体的描绘在早期工作室的风格让人联想到照片,但其构成是基于提香乌尔比诺的维纳斯(1538)。这幅画也让人想起弗朗西斯科戈雅的绘画裸体穿着俗艳的美女(1800)。

马奈开始挑战给沙龙后在画布上显示一幅裸体画。他独特的自信的接受了妓女的弗兰克描绘1865年巴黎沙龙,在那里创建了一个丑闻。根据安东尼普鲁斯特:“只有政府采取的预防措施防止这幅画被戳破了,撕裂”冒犯了观众。这幅画是有争议的部分原因是裸体穿一些小件的衣物,如兰花在她的头发,一个手镯,一个丝带,和mule拖鞋,这些都加重了她的下体,性,和舒适的情妇的生活方式。兰花,向上弯曲的头发,黑色的猫,束鲜花都公认性的象征。这个现代维纳斯的身体是瘦,与现行标准;这幅画缺乏理想主义让观众。绘画的平面度,受到启发日本木刻艺术,是裸体更人性化和更少的性感。一个全黑的仆人是特色,利用开采理论,黑人被hyper-sexed)。她穿着仆人的衣服妓女在这里进一步的性张力。

奥林匹亚的身体以及她的目光不加掩饰地对抗。她公然看起来像仆人提供鲜花从她的一个男性追求者。虽然她的手取决于她的腿,隐藏她的阴毛,参考传统女性美德是讽刺;谦虚的概念是出了名的缺席在这个工作。当代评论家谴责奥林匹亚的“无耻地弯曲”的左手,似乎他的放松,屏蔽手提香的金星。同样,警报黑猫脚下的床罢工性叛逆的注意与睡觉的狗在提香的刻画在他的乌尔比诺的维纳斯女神。

“奥林匹亚”在大众媒体漫画的主题,但得到了一位法国先锋派社区,和绘画的意义被艺术家欣赏古斯塔夫·及库尔贝,保罗塞尚,克劳德·莫奈,后来保罗高更.

在草地上午餐,这幅画提出卖淫问题在当代法国和女性在社会的角色。

生命和时间

 

Berthe Morisot一束紫罗兰,1872年

他父亲死后1862年,马奈结婚了苏珊娜Leenhoff在1863年。Leenhoff是马奈的荷兰人钢琴教师的年龄与他相恋了大约十年。Leenhoff最初曾受雇于马奈的父亲,奥古斯特,教钢琴马奈和他的弟弟。她也可能是奥古斯特的情妇。Leenhoff生在1852年,非婚生子女,一个儿子,莱昂Koella Leenhoff。马奈画他的妻子阅读等作品。

11岁的莱昂Leenhoff,他的父亲可能是马奈的构成通常马奈。最著名的就是他的主题男孩带着一把剑1861(纽约大都会艺术博物馆)。他还表现为小男孩拿着一个托盘的背景中阳台.

与他成为朋友印象派画家埃德加德加,克劳德·莫奈,皮埃尔·奥古斯特·雷诺阿,阿尔弗雷德·西斯利,保罗塞尚卡米尔毕沙罗通过另一个画家,Berthe Morisot,他是一个组的成员,拉他到他们的活动。大侄女的画家派福,Morisot她第一次画接受巴黎沙龙1864年,她继续在未来十年的沙龙。

马奈的朋友和同事Berthe Morisot在1868年。她被说服马奈尝试练习油画,她一直练习因为她被介绍给她的另一个朋友,卡米尔·柯罗他们有一个往复关系和马奈整合进他的画她的一些技术。1874年,她成为他的嫂子当她嫁给了他的弟弟,尤金.

 

自画像与面板,1879年

不像印象派的核心集团,马奈认为现代艺术家应该寻求展出巴黎沙龙而不是放弃支持独立的展览。不过,当马奈被排除在1867年的国际展览,他建立了自己的展览。他的母亲担心他会浪费他所有的遗产在这个项目,这是非常昂贵的。而展览获得可怜的评论的主要批评,这也提供了他第一次接触几个未来的印象派画家,包括德加。

虽然自己的工作和预期印象派风格的影响,他拒绝参与印象派展览,部分原因是他不愿被视为一组的代表的身份,还有部分原因是他宁愿在沙龙展览。伊娃冈萨雷斯,一个小说家的女儿伊曼纽尔冈萨雷斯,是他唯一的正式学生。

他是印象派画家的影响,尤其是莫奈和Morisot。他们的影响力在马奈的使用更轻的颜色:在1870年代初他少了使用黑暗的背景,但保留其独特的使用黑色,典型的印象派绘画。他画了许多户外(练习),但总是回到他所认为的严重的工作室工作。

马奈与作曲家密切友谊伊曼纽尔Chabrier、绘画两个他的肖像,马奈的绘画和专用的音乐家拥有14他即兴马奈的妻子。

终其一生,尽管遭到艺术评论家,马奈可以作为他的冠军数量埃米尔·左拉媒体公开支持他,史蒂芬·马拉美,查尔斯。波德莱尔挑战他,描绘生活。反过来,马奈画或画。

咖啡馆的场景

 

咖啡馆的演唱会,1878年。场景设置在大道上的歌舞表演de Reichshoffen Rochechouart,妇女在社会边缘的自由与富有的先生们混在一起的。[11]沃尔特斯艺术博物馆。

马奈的绘画咖啡馆的场景的观察社会生活在19世纪的巴黎。人们描述喝啤酒、听音乐,调情,阅读,或等待。这些画是基于草图当场处决。他经常参观了啤酒店Reichshoffen Rochechourt大道,在他1878年在咖啡馆。几个人在酒吧里,一个女人面对观众而其他人等。这样的描述代表了画的杂志上浪荡子这些画在一个宽松的风格,引用哈尔斯委拉斯凯兹,但他们捕捉巴黎夜生活的情绪和感觉。他们画的快照波西米亚主义、城市劳动人民,以及一些的资产阶级.

音乐会在咖啡馆的角落里,一个人吸烟,而身后的服务生饮料。啤酒的啤酒消费者一个女人喜欢她的一个朋友。在咖啡厅音乐会,如右图所示,一个成熟的绅士坐在酒吧当服务员站在后台坚决,喝着饮料。服务员,服务女人停顿一会儿坐在后面客户吸烟管道,而一个芭蕾舞演员,与武器扩展她转,背景是在舞台上。

马奈也坐在餐厅克利希大道叫做Lathuille神甫,除了餐厅有一个花园。画的他是在le pere Lathuille(pere Lathuille的),在一个人显示他附近的一个女人吃饭的兴趣。

在Le Bon烈性黑啤酒(1873),一个大型的、开朗,有胡子的男人坐管的一只手和一杯啤酒,直视观众。

绘画的社会活动

 

比赛在隆尚,1864年

莫奈上层阶级享受更加正式的社交活动。在化装舞会的歌剧,马奈展示了一个生动的群人享受聚会。男人站在礼帽和黑色西装而与女性面具和服装。他在这张照片包括他的朋友的肖像。

他1868年的绘画午餐在餐厅里摆的Manet的房子。

马奈描述其他受欢迎的活动在他的作品中。在比赛在隆尚,一个不寻常的角度是用来强调赛马的狂暴能量,急急忙忙地向观众。在滑冰,马奈在前台显示了一个穿着得很好的女人,当别人溜冰。城市生活总是有积极的感觉继续后面的话题,扩展框架以外的画布。

针对国际展览,士兵们放松,坐着、站着,繁荣夫妇说。有一个园丁,一个男孩和一条狗,一个女人在horseback-in短,样本的类和巴黎人民的年龄。

战争

 

皇帝马克西米利安的执行,1867年。波士顿美术博物馆至少完成三大画布的执行马克西米利安我的墨西哥.

 

街垒(南北战争),1871年,墨水、水彩,水粉颜料在纸上,美术博物馆(布达佩斯)

马奈的应对现代生活包括工作投入战争,对象可能被视为更新的解释“历史绘画”的类型。第一个这样的工作是基尔萨奇号和阿拉巴马州之战(1864),一个海上冲突称为瑟堡战役美国内战发生在法国海岸,可能已经见证了艺术家。

感兴趣的下一个是法国干预在墨西哥;从1867年到1869年莫奈三个版本的执行皇帝马克西米利安,一个事件引发了对法国外交和国内政策的担忧,几个版本的执行是最大马奈的绘画,这表明画家的主题是一个被视为最重要的。其主题是由墨西哥的行刑队执行哈布斯堡皇帝已经安装拿破仑三世无论是绘画还是一个平版印刷的主题被允许在法国。作为正式的控诉这些画回顾戈雅,和预测毕加索格尔尼卡.

1871年1月,马奈前往Oloron-Sainte-Marie庇里牛斯山他不在时他的朋友他的名字添加到“des艺人联合会”(见:库尔贝)的巴黎公社马奈远离巴黎,也许直到semaine sanglante:信Berthe Morisot瑟堡(1871年6月10日)他写道,“我们几天前回到巴黎…5月28日”(semaine sanglante结束)。

的照片和绘画收藏美术博物馆(布达佩斯)有一个水彩画/水粉画马奈,街垒,描绘的执行要公社社员基于一个凡尔赛军队平版印刷执行的马克西米利安。类似的作品,街垒胶合板(石油),是由一位私人收藏家。

1871年3月18日,他写信给他的朋友(邦联)Felix Bracquemond在巴黎他的访问波尔多,法国国民议会的临时的座位第三个法兰西共和国在哪里埃米尔·左拉介绍了他的网站:“我从未想到法国可以由这样的老态龙钟的老傻瓜,连那个小笨蛋也不例外梯也尔..."[17]如果这可以解释为支持的公社,一个后写给Bracquemond(1871年3月21日)更清楚地表达了他的想法:“只有政客以及雄心勃勃的,这世界的亨利在公吨的高跟鞋后,怪诞的模仿者公社1793…”他知道公社社员吕西安亨利是一个画家的模型和Milliere,前一个保险代理人。“艺术的鼓励这些嗜血的喊着!但至少有一个安慰我们的不幸:我们不是政治家和无意当选代表”。

巴黎

马奈描绘巴黎街头的许多场景在他的作品中。街Mosnier装饰着旗帜描绘的是红色,白色,和蓝色的锦旗覆盖建筑街道的两边;另一幅同名特征一条腿的男人用拐杖走路。再次描述相同的街道,但这一次在不同的背景下,与铺路石Mosnier街,男性修复巷道而人和马移动过去。

 

1873年铁路

这条铁路,广泛被称为码头出游,绘于1873年。设置城市景观19世纪末的巴黎。用他最喜欢的模型最后她的画,一位画家,毛皮披肩Meurent奥林匹亚,模型和草地上午餐,坐在铁篱笆前拿着睡觉的小狗和一个开放的书在她的大腿上。她旁边是一个小女孩与她的画家,看着脚下一列火车通过。

而不是选择传统的自然观点作为室外场景的背景,马奈选择铁栅的“大胆横跨画布”唯一的证据火车蒸汽的白云。在远处,现代化的公寓。这种安排前台压缩成一个狭窄的焦点。传统的深太空公约将被忽略。

历史学家伊莎贝尔Dervaux这幅画描述了招待会时收到第一次的官方巴黎沙龙展出1874年:“游客和评论家发现令人困惑的主题,其成分语无伦次,及其执行的。漫画家嘲笑马奈的画,只有少数公认的今天它已成为现代化的象征”。目前的这幅画国家美术馆的艺术华盛顿特区

1874年莫奈几个划船科目。划船,在大都会艺术博物馆,是其简洁性马奈的教训从日本版画,突然出现,船和帆的框架增加了图像的即时性。

1875年,法国版的学识渊博埃德加·爱伦·坡“s”乌鸦马拉美”包括了Manet的石版画和翻译。

1881年,来自他的朋友的压力安东尼普鲁斯特,法国政府授予马奈军团肯.

 

在folies bergere酒吧(联合国栏辅助folies bergere),1882,科陶德画廊,伦敦

后期的作品

四十马奈的健康恶化,他开发了剧痛,两腿部分瘫痪。1879年,他开始接受水疗治疗旨在改善什么他相信是一个循环的问题,但在现实中他得了脊髓痨,一个已知的副作用梅毒.

在他最后几年马奈画许多小规模的静物画的水果和蔬菜,如堆芦笋和柠檬(1880年)。他完成了他的最后一个主要工作,在folies bergere酒吧(联合国栏辅助folies bergere)在1882年,它挂在沙龙。后来他有限的小格式。他最后的作品是在玻璃花瓶的花。

死亡

1883年4月,他的左脚截肢因为坏疽,他在巴黎11天后死亡。他是埋在帕西公墓在城市。

遗产

马奈的公共生涯从1861年持续,他第一次参加沙龙,直到他1883年去世。现存作品,1975年由丹尼斯Rouart编目和丹尼尔·威尔德斯坦,组成430油画,89彩笔,超过400人在纸上工作。

 

在帕西马奈的坟墓

虽然严厉谴责批评人士谴责缺乏传统的完成,马奈的工作从开始的崇拜者。一个是埃米尔·左拉,谁在1867年写道:“我们不习惯看到这样简单的现实和直接的翻译。然后,就像我说的,有这样一个惊人的优雅的尴尬……这是一个真正迷人的体验考虑这发光的和严重的绘画解释自然,有着温柔的暴行。”

大致画风格和摄影照明在马奈的绘画被视为特别现代的,文艺复兴时期的作品作为一个挑战他复制或作为原料。他拒绝了技术学习的工作室托马斯时装——一幅画了使用连续层油漆dark-toned地基的直接,真主安拉的方法使用不透明的油漆地面上一盏灯。小说在当时,这种方法成为可能的完成一幅画在一个坐着。通过的印象派画家,成为了流行的绘画在随后几代人油方法。马奈的作品被认为是“近代”,部分因为他不透明的平坦的表面,频繁的素描的段落,和黑色列出数据,所有这些关注投影面和材料的表面油漆质量。

艺术历史学家比阿特丽斯法韦尔说马奈”已经普遍被视为现代主义之父。及库尔贝他是最早把严重的风险与公众的支持他,第一个让真主安拉的画油画的标准技术和第一个与文艺复兴时期的视角和自由提供的纯绘画的审美享受。他是一个先锋,再与及库尔贝、人文和历史主题的排斥,与德加共享建立现代城市生活为高雅艺术接受的材料。”

画廊

English Introduction

Early life

Édouard Manet was born in Paris on 23 January 1832, in the ancestral hôtel particulier (mansion) on the rue des Petits Augustins (now rue Bonaparte) to an affluent and well-connected family.[1]His mother, Eugénie-Desirée Fournier, was the daughter of a diplomat and goddaughter of the Swedish crown prince Charles Bernadotte, from whom the Swedish monarchs are descended. His father, Auguste Manet, was a French judge who expected Édouard to pursue a career in law. His uncle, Edmond Fournier, encouraged him to pursue painting and took young Manet to the Louvre.In 1841 he enrolled at secondary school, the Collège Rollin. In 1845, at the advice of his uncle, Manet enrolled in a special course of drawing where he met Antonin Proust, future Minister of Fine Arts and subsequent lifelong friend.

At his father's suggestion, in 1848 he sailed on a training vessel to Rio de Janeiro. After he twice failed the examination to join the Navy, his father relented to his wishes to pursue an art education. From 1850 to 1856, Manet studied under the academic painter Thomas Couture. In his spare time, Manet copied the Old Masters in the Louvre.

From 1853 to 1856, Manet visited Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands, during which time he was influenced by the Dutch painterFrans Hals, and the Spanish artists Diego Velázquez and Francisco José de Goya.

Career

In 1856, Manet opened a studio. His style in this period was characterized by loose brush strokes, simplification of details and the suppression of transitional tones. Adopting the current style of realism initiated by Gustave Courbet, he painted The Absinthe Drinker (1858–59) and other contemporary subjects such as beggars, singers, Gypsies, people in cafés, and bullfights. After his early career, he rarely painted religious, mythological, or historical subjects; examples include hisChrist Mocked, now in the Art Institute of Chicago, and Christ with Angels, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Manet had two canvases accepted at the Salon in 1861. A portrait of his mother and father, who at the time was paralysed and robbed of speech by a stroke, was ill received by critics. The other, The Spanish Singer, was admired by Theophile Gautier, and placed in a more conspicuous location as a result of its popularity with Salon-goers. Manet's work, which appeared "slightly slapdash" when compared with the meticulous style of so many other Salon paintings, intrigued some young artists. The Spanish Singer, painted in a "strange new fashion [-] caused many painters' eyes to open and their jaws to drop."

 

Music in the Tuileries

Main article: Music in the Tuileries

Music in the Tuileries is an early example of Manet's painterly style. Inspired by Hals and Velázquez, it is a harbinger of his lifelong interest in the subject of leisure.

While the picture was regarded as unfinished by some,[2] the suggested atmosphere imparts a sense of what the Tuileries gardens were like at the time; one may imagine the music and conversation.

Here, Manet has depicted his friends, artists, authors, and musicians who take part, and he has included a self-portrait among the subjects.

Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe)

Main article: Le déjeuner sur l'herbe

A major early work is The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe). The Paris Salonrejected it for exhibition in 1863 but Manet exhibited it at the Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Rejected) later in the year. Emperor Napoleon III had initiated The Salon des Refusés after the Paris Salon rejected 2,783 paintings in 1863. Manet employed modelVictorine Meurent, his wife Suzanne, future brother-in-law Ferdinand Leenhoff, and one of his brothers to pose. Meurent also posed for several more of Manet's important paintings including Olympia; and by the mid-1870s she became an accomplished painter in her own right.

The painting's juxtaposition of fully dressed men and a nude woman was controversial, as was its abbreviated, sketch-like handling, an innovation that distinguished Manet from Courbet. At the same time, Manet's composition reveals his study of the old masters, as the disposition of the main figures is derived from Marcantonio Raimondi's engraving of the Judgement of Paris (c. 1515) based on a drawing by Raphael.[2]

Two additional works cited by scholars as important precedents for Le déjeuner sur l'herbe are Pastoral Concert (c. 1510, The Louvre) and The Tempest (Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice), both of which are attributed variously to Italian Renaissancemasters Giorgione or Titian.[5] The Tempest is an enigmatic painting featuring a fully dressed man and a nude woman in a rural setting. The man is standing to the left and gazing to the side, apparently at the woman, who is seated and breastfeeding a baby; the relationship between the two figures is unclear.[6] In Pastoral Concert, two clothed men and a nude woman are seated on the grass, engaged in music making, while a second nude woman stands beside them.

 

Olympia

Main article: Olympia (Manet)

As he had in Luncheon on the Grass, Manet again paraphrased a respected work by a Renaissance artist in the painting Olympia (1863), a nude portrayed in a style reminiscent of early studio photographs, but whose pose was based on Titian's Venus of Urbino (1538). The painting is also reminiscent of Francisco Goya's painting The Nude Maja (1800).

Manet embarked on the canvas after being challenged to give the Salon a nude painting to display. His uniquely frank depiction of a self-assured prostitute was accepted by the Paris Salon in 1865, where it created a scandal. According to Antonin Proust, "only the precautions taken by the administration prevented the painting being punctured and torn" by offended viewers.[7] The painting was controversial partly because the nude is wearing some small items of clothing such as an orchid in her hair, a bracelet, a ribbon around her neck, and mule slippers, all of which accentuated her nakedness, sexuality, and comfortable courtesan lifestyle. The orchid, upswept hair, black cat, and bouquet of flowers were all recognized symbols of sexuality at the time. This modern Venus' body is thin, counter to prevailing standards; the painting's lack of idealism rankled viewers. The painting's flatness, inspired by Japanese wood block art, serves to make the nude more human and less voluptuous. A fully dressed black servant is featured, exploiting the then-current theory that black people were hyper-sexed.[2] That she is wearing the clothing of a servant to a courtesan here furthers the sexual tension of the piece.

Olympia's body as well as her gaze is unabashedly confrontational. She defiantly looks out as her servant offers flowers from one of her male suitors. Although her hand rests on her leg, hiding her pubic area, the reference to traditional female virtue is ironic; a notion of modesty is notoriously absent in this work. A contemporary critic denounced Olympia's "shamelessly flexed" left hand, which seemed to him a mockery of the relaxed, shielding hand of Titian's Venus.[8] Likewise, the alert black cat at the foot of the bed strikes a sexually rebellious note in contrast to that of the sleeping dog in Titian's portrayal of the goddess in his Venus of Urbino.

"Olympia" was the subject of caricatures in the popular press, but was championed by the French avant-garde community, and the painting's significance was appreciated by artists such as Gustave Courbet, Paul Cézanne, Claude Monet, and later Paul Gauguin.

As with Luncheon on the Grass, the painting raised the issue of prostitution within contemporary France and the roles of women within society.

Life and times

After the death of his father in 1862, Manet married Suzanne Leenhoff in 1863. Leenhoff was a Dutch-born piano teacher of Manet's age with whom he had been romantically involved for approximately ten years. Leenhoff initially had been employed by Manet's father, Auguste, to teach Manet and his younger brother piano. She also may have been Auguste's mistress. In 1852, Leenhoff gave birth, out of wedlock, to a son, Leon Koella Leenhoff. Manet painted his wife inThe Reading, among other paintings.

Eleven-year-old Leon Leenhoff, whose father may have been either of the Manets, posed often for Manet. Most famously, he is the subject of the Boy Carrying a Sword of 1861 (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). He also appears as the boy carrying a tray in the background of The Balcony.

He became friends with the Impressionists Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir,Alfred Sisley, Paul Cézanne and Camille Pissarro through another painter, Berthe Morisot, who was a member of the group and drew him into their activities. The grand niece of the painter Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Morisot had her first painting accepted in the Salon de Paris in 1864, and she continued to show in the salon for the next ten years.

Manet became the friend and colleague of Berthe Morisot in 1868. She is credited with convincing Manet to attempt plein airpainting, which she had been practicing since she was introduced to it by another friend of hers, Camille Corot. They had a reciprocating relationship and Manet incorporated some of her techniques into his paintings. In 1874, she became his sister-in-law when she married his brother, Eugène.

Unlike the core Impressionist group, Manet maintained that modern artists should seek to exhibit at the Paris Salon rather than abandon it in favor of independent exhibitions. Nevertheless, when Manet was excluded from the International Exhibition of 1867, he set up his own exhibition. His mother worried that he would waste all his inheritance on this project, which was enormously expensive. While the exhibition earned poor reviews from the major critics, it also provided his first contacts with several future Impressionist painters, including Degas.

Although his own work influenced and anticipated the Impressionist style, he resisted involvement in Impressionist exhibitions, partly because he did not wish to be seen as the representative of a group identity, and partly because he preferred to exhibit at the Salon. Eva Gonzalès, a daughter of the novelist Emmanuel Gonzalès, was his only formal student.

He was influenced by the Impressionists, especially Monet and Morisot. Their influence is seen in Manet's use of lighter colors: after the early 1870s he made less use of dark backgrounds but retained his distinctive use of black, uncharacteristic of Impressionist painting. He painted many outdoor (plein air) pieces, but always returned to what he considered the serious work of the studio.

Manet enjoyed a close friendship with composer Emmanuel Chabrier, painting two portraits of him; the musician owned 14 of Manet's paintings and dedicated his Impromptu to Manet's wife.[10]

Throughout his life, although resisted by art critics, Manet could number as his champions Émile Zola, who supported him publicly in the press, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Charles Baudelaire, who challenged him to depict life as it was. Manet, in turn, drew or painted each of them.

Cafe scenes

Manet's paintings of café scenes are observations of social life in 19th-century Paris. People are depicted drinking beer, listening to music, flirting, reading, or waiting. Many of these paintings were based on sketches executed on the spot. He often visited the Brasserie Reichshoffen on boulevard de Rochechourt, upon which he based At the Cafe in 1878. Several people are at the bar, and one woman confronts the viewer while others wait to be served. Such depictions represent the painted journal of a flâneur. These are painted in a style which is loose, referencing Hals and Velázquez, yet they capture the mood and feeling of Parisian night life. They are painted snapshots of bohemianism, urban working people, as well as some of thebourgeoisie.

In Corner of a Cafe Concert, a man smokes while behind him a waitress serves drinks. In The Beer Drinkers a woman enjoys her beer in the company of a friend. In The Cafe Concert, shown at right, a sophisticated gentleman sits at a bar while a waitress stands resolutely in the background, sipping her drink. In The Waitress, a serving woman pauses for a moment behind a seated customer smoking a pipe, while a ballet dancer, with arms extended as she is about to turn, is on stage in the background.

Manet also sat at the restaurant on the Avenue de Clichy called Pere Lathuille's, which had a garden in addition to the dining area. One of the paintings he produced here was Chez le père Lathuille (At Pere Lathuille's), in which a man displays an unrequited interest in a woman dining near him.

In Le Bon Bock (1873), a large, cheerful, bearded man sits with a pipe in one hand and a glass of beer in the other, looking straight at the viewer.

Paintings of social activities

Manet painted the upper class enjoying more formal social activities. In Masked Ball at the Opera, Manet shows a lively crowd of people enjoying a party. Men stand with top hats and long black suits while talking to women with masks and costumes. He included portraits of his friends in this picture.

His 1868 painting The Luncheon was posed in the dining room of the Manet house.

Manet depicted other popular activities in his work. In The Races at Longchamp, an unusual perspective is employed to underscore the furious energy of racehorses as they rush toward the viewer. In Skating, Manet shows a well dressed woman in the foreground, while others skate behind her. Always there is the sense of active urban life continuing behind the subject, extending outside the frame of the canvas.

In View of the International Exhibition, soldiers relax, seated and standing, prosperous couples are talking. There is a gardener, a boy with a dog, a woman on horseback—in short, a sample of the classes and ages of the people of Paris.

War

Manet's response to modern life included works devoted to war, in subjects that may be seen as updated interpretations of the genre of "history painting".The first such work was the Battle of the Kearsarge and Alabama (1864), a sea skirmish known as the Battle of Cherbourg from the American Civil War which took place off the French coast, and may have been witnessed by the artist.

Of interest next was the French intervention in Mexico; from 1867 to 1869 Manet painted three versions of the Execution of Emperor Maximilian, an event which raised concerns regarding French foreign and domestic policy.[14] The several versions of the Execution are among Manet's largest paintings, which suggests that the theme was one which the painter regarded as most important. Its subject is the execution by Mexican firing squad of a Habsburg emperor who had been installed by Napoleon III. Neither the paintings nor alithograph of the subject were permitted to be shown in France.[15] As an indictment of formalized slaughter the paintings look back to Goya,[16] and anticipate Picasso'sGuernica.

In January 1871, Manet traveled to Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Pyrenees. In his absence his friends added his name to the "Fédération des artistes" (see: Courbet) of the Paris Commune. Manet stayed away from Paris, perhaps, until after the semaine sanglante: in a letter to Berthe Morisot at Cherbourg (10 June 1871) he writes, "We came back to Paris a few days ago..." (the semaine sanglante ended on 28 May).

The prints and drawings collection of the Museum of Fine Arts (Budapest) has awatercolour/gouache by Manet, The Barricade, depicting a summary execution of Communards by Versailles troops based on a lithograph of the execution of Maximilian. A similar piece, The Barricade (oil on plywood), is held by a private collector.

On 18 March 1871, he wrote to his (confederate) friend Félix Bracquemond in Paris about his visit to Bordeaux, the provisory seat of the French National Assembly of the Third French Republicwhere Émile Zola introduced him to the sites: "I never imagined that France could be represented by such doddering old fools, not excepting that little twit Thiers..."[17] If this could be interpreted as support of the Commune, a following letter to Bracquemond (21 March 1871) expressed his idea more clearly: "Only party hacks and the ambitious, the Henrys of this world following on the heels of the Milliéres, the grotesque imitators of the Commune of 1793..." He knew the communard Lucien Henry to have been a former painter's model and Millière, an insurance agent. "What an encouragement all these bloodthirsty caperings are for the arts! But there is at least one consolation in our misfortunes: that we're not politicians and have no desire to be elected as deputies".

Paris

Manet depicted many scenes of the streets of Paris in his works. The Rue Mosnier Decked with Flags depicts red, white, and blue pennants covering buildings on either side of the street; another painting of the same title features a one-legged man walking with crutches. Again depicting the same street, but this time in a different context, is Rue Mosnier with Pavers, in which men repair the roadway while people and horses move past.

The Railway, widely known as The Gare Saint-Lazare, was painted in 1873. The setting is the urban landscape of Paris in the late 19th century. Using his favorite model in his last painting of her, a fellow painter, Victorine Meurent, also the model for Olympia and the Luncheon on the Grass, sits before an iron fence holding a sleeping puppy and an open book in her lap. Next to her is a little girl with her back to the painter, watching a train pass beneath them.

Instead of choosing the traditional natural view as background for an outdoor scene, Manet opts for the iron grating which "boldly stretches across the canvas"[18] The only evidence of the train is its white cloud of steam. In the distance, modern apartment buildings are seen. This arrangement compresses the foreground into a narrow focus. The traditional convention of deep space is ignored.

Historian Isabelle Dervaux has described the reception this painting received when it was first exhibited at the official Paris Salon of 1874: "Visitors and critics found its subject baffling, its composition incoherent, and its execution sketchy.Caricaturists ridiculed Manet's picture, in which only a few recognized the symbol of modernity that it has become today".[19]The painting is currently in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

Manet painted several boating subjects in 1874. Boating, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, exemplifies in its conciseness the lessons Manet learned from Japanese prints, and the abrupt cropping by the frame of the boat and sail adds to the immediacy of the image.

In 1875, a book-length French edition of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven" included lithographs by Manet and translation by Mallarmé.

In 1881, with pressure from his friend Antonin Proust, the French government awarded Manet the Légion d'honneur.

Late works

In his mid-forties Manet's health deteriorated, and he developed severe pain and partial paralysis in his legs. In 1879 he began receiving hydrotherapy treatments intended to improve what he believed was a circulatory problem, but in reality he was suffering fromlocomotor ataxia, a known side-effect of syphilis.[23][24]

In his last years Manet painted many small-scale still lifes of fruits and vegetables, such as Bunch of Asparagus and The Lemon (both 1880).[25] He completed his last major work,A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère), in 1882 and it hung in the Salon that year. Afterwards he limited himself to small formats. His last paintings were of flowers in glass vases.

Death

In April 1883, his left foot was amputated because of gangrene, and he died eleven days later in Paris. He is buried in thePassy Cemetery in the city.

Legacy

Manet's public career lasted from 1861, the year of his first participation in the Salon, until his death in 1883. His extant works, as catalogued in 1975 by Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein, comprise 430 oil paintings, 89 pastels, and more than 400 works on paper.[27]

Although harshly condemned by critics who decried its lack of conventional finish, Manet's work had admirers from the beginning. One was Émile Zola, who wrote in 1867: "We are not accustomed to seeing such simple and direct translations of reality. Then, as I said, there is such a surprisingly elegant awkwardness ... it is a truly charming experience to contemplate this luminous and serious painting which interprets nature with a gentle brutality."

The roughly painted style and photographic lighting in Manet's paintings was seen as specifically modern, and as a challenge to the Renaissance works he copied or used as source material. He rejected the technique he had learned in the studio of Thomas Couture – in which a painting was constructed using successive layers of paint on a dark-toned ground – in favor of a direct, alla prima method using opaque paint on a light ground. Novel at the time, this method made possible the completion of a painting in a single sitting. It was adopted by the Impressionists, and became the prevalent method of painting in oils for generations that followed. Manet's work is considered "early modern", partially because of the opaque flatness of his surfaces, the frequent sketchlike passages, and the black outlining of figures, all of which draw attention to the surface of the picture plane and the material quality of paint.

The art historian Beatrice Farwell says Manet "has been universally regarded as the Father of Modernism. With Courbet he was among the first to take serious risks with the public whose favour he sought, the first to make alla prima painting the standard technique for oil painting and one of the first to take liberties with Renaissance perspective and to offer ‘pure painting’ as a source of aesthetic pleasure. He was a pioneer, again with Courbet, in the rejection of humanistic and historical subject-matter, and shared with Degas the establishment of modern urban life as acceptable material for high art."

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阿尔弗雷德 · 戴德勒Alfred Dedreux
瓦伦丁.卡梅伦.普林斯Valentine Cameron Prinsep
文森特·梵高(凡高)Vincent van Gogh
卡斯特罗.卡斯泰洛Castello, Valerio
莱昂纳多·达·芬奇Leonardo da Vinci
费德里科·亚瑟·布里奇曼Frederick Arthur Bridgman
耶罗尼米斯·博斯
埃托雷.福蒂Ettore Forti
安德烈亚·曼特尼亚Andrea Mantegna
吉恩嘿Jean Hey
弗朗西斯·毕卡比亚Francis Picabia
巴尔纳.锡耶纳Barna da Siena
伊丽莎白·汤普森Thompson, Elizabeth
洛伦佐.韦内齐亚诺Lorenzo Veneziano
科雷乔Correggio
海格力.斯格斯Hercules Seghers
亚当.马纽基Adam Manyoki
朱里诺·罗马诺Giulio Romano
阿里斯蒂德·马约尔Aristide Maillol
阿尔特Gelder, Aert de
艾伯特拉福尔斯Albert Rafols Casamada
迈尔乔·布鲁德拉姆Broederlam, Melchior
文森佐伊罗利Vincenzo Irolli
米哈伊.蒙卡奇Mihály Munkacsy
威廉 • 多布森Dobson, William
安詹姆斯梅西Ann James Massey
詹巴蒂斯塔皮托尼Giambattista Pittoni
卡里亚尼Cariani
纳西斯.维尔吉利奥·迪亚斯Narcisse Virgilio Díaz
马丁·施恩告尔Martin Schongauer
乔治· 迦勒宾George Caleb Bingham
威廉.惠特克William Whitaker
安德烈亚斯Schelfhout, Andreas
埃瓦里斯特Evariste Vital Luminais
本杰明.帕伦西亚Benjamín Palencia
戈登.班尼特Gordon Bennet
埃德温 · 朗斯登长Edwin Longsden Long
博西Hieronymus Bosch
塞缪尔·科尔曼Colman, Samuel
平图里基奥Pinturicchio
卡罗提Carlo Dolci
乔治.修拉Georges Seurat
乔治·罗姆尼George Romney
扬·凯塞尔Jan van Kessel
巴尔托洛梅奥.曼弗雷迪Bartolomeo Manfredi
康拉德韦茨Witz, Konrad
福尔图纳托.德佩罗Fortunato Depero
朱塞佩·西纳瑞尼Guiseppe Signorini
阿尔维斯·维瓦里尼Vivarini, Alvise
约翰·布雷特Brett, John
佩特鲁斯.基督Petrus Christus
施赖尔阿道夫Adolf Schreyer
让·杜布菲Jean Dubuffet
赫尔曼·赫尔佐格Hermann Ottomar Herzog
亨利·帕克Henry Hillier Parker
威廉Koekkoek,Willem Koekkoek
路易Béroud, Louis
阿尔弗雷德 · 汤普森桦树 Alfred Thompson Bricher
保莱蒂Antonio Paoletti
安德烈萨基Andrea Sacchi
伊士曼.约翰逊Eastman Johnson
阿尔特范德内尔Aert van der Neer
托马斯·安德Ender, Thomas
弗兰克·奥尔巴赫Frank Auerbach
朱塞佩德.尼蒂斯Giuseppe de Nittis
安东尼奥 曼奇尼Antonio Mancini
卡雷利.孔萨尔沃Carelli, Consalvo
阿利桑得欧·阿楼瑞Allori, Alessandro
斯特凡诺吉奥瓦尼Stefano di Giovanni
本德雷尔Carme Solé Vendrell
约翰·莱利John Riley
威廉麦格雷戈帕克斯顿William McGregor Paxton
弗里德里希Friedrich Gauermann
安德烈波佐 Andrea Pozzo
皮耶特·埃特森Pieter Aertsen
弗朗西斯科Brunery, François
艾德丽安 塞居尔Adrienne Ségur
王元友
王万成
姚青
杨建侯
董玉龙
张学俭
游丁琳
孙宽
周娜娜
田宏图
一真
刘翔复
刘墉
张璟
冯春生
俎翠林
柴山林
贯会学
杨奕
休伯特·冯Sir Hubert von Herkomer
谢定超
王辉
高亚光
徐操
汪观清
宫建国
阮郜
王盼盼
方琮
韩非
马鲁哈.马洛Maruja Mallo
欧仁·德·布拉阿斯Eugene de Blaas
郭有河
蔡子谔
安性存
关植耘
弗尔南图森特Fernand Toussaint
王祖和
王兵
王沂光
叶如璋
关明新
唐国峻
方李
古斯塔夫·伦哈德·德容Gustave Leonhard de Jonghe
兰立斌
王恪松
万树
唐稚云
李守仝
冉茂魁(朗卓红)
王泽焕
马远东
苏岩声
周藴智
陈敦
亨利·卢梭Henri Rousseau
王邦彦
王超
谢远新
张颜志
王庆淮
尚竑
张云松
鲍文忠
冯国柱
张明
宋玉增
宗守家
官其格
魏鲁安
库尔班塔伊·图尔荪
胡敬修
杨梦龙
道森,蒙塔古Dawson, Montague
孙丹晨
阿尔特范德内尔Aert van der Neer
廖正华
劳康平
阿莱西奥Baldovinetti, Alessio
吕进成
龚景充
祝林恩
陈茂叶
丁立君
黄勇
任广强
何意富
王守业
鲁世锋
王綦
李志信
殷晓溪
王学浩
门龙朋
呈平
黄俭农
徐邦达
俞剑华
吕维超