当前位置:首页 > 美术百科网 > 世界美术家网 > 国外油画家网

爱德华·蒙克Edvard Munch

爱德华·蒙克(Edvard Munch),生于1863年12月12日,逝于1944年1月23日,是挪威表现主义画家和版画复制匠,挪威画家,现代表现主义绘画的先驱。爱德华·蒙克绘画带有强烈的主观性和悲伤压抑的情调。他对心理苦闷的强烈的,呼唤式的处理手法对20世纪初德国表现主义的成长起了主要的影响,其主要作品有《呐喊》,《生命之舞》,《卡尔约翰街的夜晚》。

人物关系
  • 中文名爱德华·蒙克
  • 外文名Edvard Munch
  • 性别
  • 国籍挪威
  • 出生地挪威勒滕
  • 出生日期1863年12月12日
  • 逝世日期1944年1月23日
  • 信仰基督教
  • 职业画家
  • 毕业院校奥斯陆皇家艺术和设计学院
  • 主要成就挪威表现主义画家和版画复制匠。
  • 代表作品《呐喊》,《生命之舞》,《卡尔约翰街的夜晚》
最新新闻更多
蒙克《呐喊》买家坐拥34亿美元身家

中国美术网 09-17 浏览

2个月前,挪威艺术大师爱德华·蒙克的旷世经典之作《呐喊》在纽约苏富比(微博)拍卖行以1.199亿美元成交,创艺术品公开拍卖的最高纪录。几天前《华尔街日报》曝光了《呐喊》的新主——纽约资本家...
相关作品更多
中文介绍

柏林

 

1902年爱德华蒙克

到1892年,蒙克制定他的特点,,Synthetist审美,如忧郁(1891),颜色是名字的元素。认为艺术家和记者基督教Krohg作为第一个象征主义挪威艺术家的绘画,忧郁是在1891年秋季在奥斯陆展览展出。在1892年,Adelsteen Normann代表柏林艺术家联盟的邀请蒙克在11月份的展览,展览社会的第一次个人展览。然而,他的画作诱发激烈争议(被称为“蒙克事件”),之后一个星期展览关闭。[39]蒙克满意“大混乱”,并在信中写道:“我从未有过这样一个有趣的时光——这是不可思议的事情一样无辜的画应该创建这样一个搅拌。”

在柏林,蒙克成为参与国际循环的作家,艺术家和评论家,包括瑞典的剧作家和领先的知识8月斯特林堡在1892年,他画。在他四年在柏林,蒙克草拟了大部分的思想,包括他的主要工作,生命的带状物,设计的第一本书插图但后来表达绘画。他卖的很少,做了一些收取门票收入来查看他的有争议的作品。蒙克是显示已经不愿舍弃他的画作,他称为他的“孩子”。

他的其他作品,包括赌场场景,展示一个简化的形式和细节他早期成熟的风格。蒙克也开始支持一个浅图像空间和最小的背景下额数据。因为姿势选择产生最具说服力的心态和心理条件,如灰烬,数据传递的,静态的质量。蒙克的数据出现在戏剧舞台上扮演的角色(住院病人的死亡),哑剧的固定姿势表示各种情绪;因为每个角色体现了一个心理维度,在尖叫,蒙克的男性和女性开始出现象征意义大于现实。他写道,“不再内部应该画,人们阅读和女性针织:会有生活的人,呼吸和感觉,痛苦和爱。”

 

 

尖叫

 

 

尖叫(1893)

尖叫存在于四个版本:两个彩笔(1893和1895)和两个绘画(1893和1910)。还有几个石版画的尖叫(1895年之后)。

1895彩色拍卖2012年5月2日为119922500美元,包括佣金。最五彩缤纷的版本和独特的背景人物的向下方向的立场。它也是唯一版本不是由挪威博物馆举行。

1893版(如图所示)被盗在奥斯陆国家美术馆,1994年恢复。1910年的画被偷了2004年奥斯陆的蒙克博物馆,但2006年有限的破坏中恢复过来。

尖叫是蒙克最著名的作品,其中最知名的绘画艺术。它被广泛解读为代表了现代人的普遍焦虑。涂上大乐队的花哨的颜色和高度简化的形式,并采用高观点,它减少了图的装束头骨痛苦挣扎的情感危机。

这幅画,蒙克遇到了他的既定目标”研究的灵魂,也就是说我自己”的研究。蒙克的绘画被写道:“我和两个朋友走在路上当太阳落山;突然,天空红如血。我停下来靠在篱笆上,感觉无法形容累。舌头的火和血拉伸蓝色黑色峡湾。我的朋友继续走路,当我落后于害怕地颤抖着。然后我听到了巨大的,大自然的无限尖叫。”后来他描述这幅画背后的个人痛苦,“好几年我几乎是疯了…你知道我的画,”尖叫?“我是拉伸limit-nature尖叫着在我的血液…之后,我放弃了希望再次能够爱。”

在总结绘画的效果,作者玛莎·泰德斯说:“惠斯勒的母亲、木材的美国哥特式,列奥纳多·达·芬奇蒙娜丽莎和爱德华·蒙克的尖叫都实现了大多数paintings-regardless艺术历史重要性的东西,美丽,或货币值不是:他们几乎立即传达特定的含义,几乎每一个观众。这几个作品成功的从博物馆参观者的精英领域过渡到流行文化的巨大场地。”

 

弗里兹——关于生活的诗,爱和死亡

1893年12月,unt窝林登在柏林的位置是蒙克的作品,展览展示,其他作品,六幅题为研究系列:爱。这个开始循环他后来的Frieze导向的关于生活的诗,爱和死亡。“弗里兹的生活”主题,如暴风雨和月光,沉浸在氛围。其他图案照亮夜行的爱,如玫瑰,天使爱美丽和吸血鬼。在病房中死亡,他的姐姐索菲的主题是死亡,他应在许多未来的变化。这幅画的引人注目的焦点,描绘他的整个家庭,分散在单独的悲伤和断开连接的数据。1894年,他放大的光谱图案通过增加焦虑,灰烬,麦当娜和女人在三个阶段(从天真烂漫的年龄)。

在20世纪初,蒙克工作完成“弗里兹”。他画的图片,他们中的一些人在较的格式和某种程度上的新艺术派美学的时间。他做了一个木制框架雕刻浮雕为大型绘画新陈代谢(1898年),最初被称为亚当和夏娃。这项工作揭示了蒙克的关注“的人”,他的悲观哲学的爱。图案如空,各各(c。1900)反映了形而上学的取向,也反映了蒙克的虔诚的教养。整个壁画本该首次展示的分裂1902年在柏林展览。

“生活”的Frieze主题贯穿蒙克的作品,但他特别专注于1890年代中期。在素描、油画、彩笔和打印,他利用他的感情的深度检查他的主要主题:生命的阶段,美女,爱的绝望,焦虑,不忠,嫉妒,分离性羞辱,在生活和死亡。这些主题表达绘画等这个生病的孩子(1885)爱与疼痛(《吸血鬼;1893 - 1893年),灰(1894),和桥。后者显示了疲软的数据与无特色的或隐藏的面孔,在织机威胁重树的形状和沉思的房子。蒙克描绘女性要么是虚弱,无辜的患者(见青春期和爱和痛苦)或事业的伟大的渴望,嫉妒和绝望(看到分离,嫉妒,灰烬)。

蒙克经常使用阴影和戒指的颜色在他的数据来强调恐惧的光环,威胁,焦虑,或性强度。这些画被解释为反映艺术家的性焦虑,虽然它也可以认为它们代表他的动荡与爱情本身和他的悲观主义关于人类存在。这些画的素描和油画是在几个版本,如麦当娜、手和青春期,也转录木版的打印和石版画。蒙克恨的他的画,因为他认为他的工作是一个身体的表达式。所以利用他的生产和做一些收入,他转向平面艺术复制的许多最著名的画作,其中包括在本系列。蒙克承认他的工作但是他的个人目标也提出他的艺术更广泛的目的,“我的艺术是一个自愿认罪和试图解释自己我的关系——是,因此,实际上一种利己主义的,但我一直希望通过这次我能帮助别人实现清晰。”

而吸引强烈负面反应,在1890年代蒙克开始收到一些理解他的艺术目标,作为一个评论家写道,“以无情的鄙视形式、清晰、典雅、整体性,现实主义,他把直觉的力量的人才最微妙的灵魂”的景象。他的一个伟大的支持者在柏林沃尔特Rathenau后来,德国外交部长,世卫组织强烈导致了他的成功。

巴黎、柏林和Kristiania

 

这个生病的孩子(1907)

1896年,蒙克搬到巴黎,在那里他关注图形表示,“弗雷兹的生活”的主题。他的木刻和光刻技术进一步发展。Munch与骨架的自画像臂(1895)都是用一个蚀刻needle-and-ink方法也使用保罗克利.蒙克还生产彩色版本的“生病的孩子”畅销,以及几个裸体和多个版本的吻(1892)巴黎的许多批评人士仍然认为蒙克的作品“暴力和残忍”,但他的展览受到严重关注和良好的出勤率。他的财务状况大为好转,1897年,蒙克给自己买了一个夏天的房子面临Kristiania的峡湾,小渔夫的小屋建于18世纪末期,在小镇Asgardstrand在挪威。他把这个家称为“快乐屋”并返回这里几乎每年夏天在接下来的20年。这个地方他错过了,当他在国外时,他感到沮丧和疲惫。“在Asgardstrand行走就像行走在我让paintings-I画画当我在这里”。

 

哈拉尔德Nørregaard(画的蒙克1899年,国家美术馆)是蒙克最亲密的朋友之一因为青春期,顾问和律师[62]

1897年蒙克回到Kristiania,他还获得了勉强acceptance-one评论家写道,“相当多的这些照片之前展出。在我看来这些改进熟人。”1899年,蒙克开始与Tulla拉森一种亲密的关系,一个“解放”上流社会的女人。他们一起前往意大利,返回后,蒙克开始另一个肥沃的时期他的艺术,其中包括景观和他最后的“生活”的Frieze系列绘画中,生命之舞(1899)。拉森是渴望婚姻,蒙克恳求。饮酒和健康增强他的恐惧,因为他以第三人称写道:“自从他还是个孩子的时候他讨厌婚姻。病和神经的家中给他的感觉,他没有权利结婚吧。”蒙克几乎给Tulla,但逃离她的1900年,也从她的巨大的财富,搬到柏林。他的女孩在码头,18个不同版本中创建的,展示了女性青春的主题没有消极的含义。1902年,他显示他的作品主题的大厅柏林分裂,产生“交响性的影响做出了很大搅拌很多抵触的批准。”柏林批评家开始欣赏蒙克的作品虽然公众仍然发现外星人和奇怪。

好的新闻报道了蒙克的注意有影响力的顾客艾伯特Kollman和马克斯·林德他描述的事件在他的日记里,“经过20年的斗争和苦难的力量最后来帮助我在德国一个明亮的门为我打开。”然而,尽管这种积极变化,蒙克的自我毁灭和古怪的行为涉及到与另一个艺术家,他首先是一个暴力的争吵然后意外枪击事件Tulla拉森的存在,返回一个简短的和解,这两个手指受伤。她终于离开了他,嫁给了一个年轻的同事蒙克。吃了这是一种背叛,他居住在羞辱了一段时间,将一些苦涩到新的绘画。他的画静物(女杀手)和马拉的死我,做在1906 - 7,显然参考后的枪击事件和情感效果。

在1903 - 4,蒙克在巴黎展出,未来野兽派的,大胆闻名假颜色,看到他的作品,很可能已经找到了灵感。1906年Fauves举行自己的展览时,蒙克和他们的邀请并显示他的作品。在研究的雕塑罗丹,蒙克可能尝试用橡皮泥帮助设计,但他制作的小雕塑。在这段时间里,蒙克收到许多肖像委员会和打印改善他通常不稳定的财务状况。1906年,他画的屏幕易卜生在柏林德意志剧院小Kammerspiele剧院,弗里兹的生活被挂。戏剧的导演马克斯·莱因特后来卖了,现在在柏林Nationalgalerie.早期的风景之后,1907年,他把他的注意力再次人物和情况。

故障和恢复

 

蒙克在1912年

 

1908年秋天,蒙克的焦虑,因酗酒、斗殴而加重,已成为急性。他后来写道,“我的条件近乎madness-it摸去。”幻觉和迫害的感觉,他进入了丹尼尔·雅各布森博士的诊所。治疗蒙克收到接下来的八个月包括饮食和“电气化”(一种治疗然后时尚紧张的条件下,不能混淆电休克疗法).蒙克的住院稳定他的个性,1909年回到挪威后,他的作品变得更加绚烂多彩,不悲观。进一步擦亮他的心情,公众Kristiania最后温暖他的工作,和博物馆开始购买他的作品。他是皇家骑士的圣奥拉夫“服务艺术”。他在纽约的美国第一展览是在1912年。

 

作为他的复苏的一部分,雅各布森博士建议蒙克,避免只结交好朋友在公共场合喝酒。蒙克遵循这个建议在这个过程中,产生全身肖像的高质量的几个朋友和patrons-honest描绘没有奉承。他还创立了风景画和人们工作和娱乐,使用一种新的乐观style-broad,宽松的笔触频繁使用空白的鲜艳的颜色和罕见的使用黑色,只有偶尔提到他的病态的主题。更多的收入,蒙克能买几个属性给他新的远景为他的艺术,他终于为他的家人。

 

蒙克在1933年

 

第一次世界大战的爆发发现咀嚼与分裂的忠诚,正如他所说,“我所有的朋友都是德国但是我爱法国。”在1930年代,他的德国顾客,许多犹太人,失去了财富和一些他们的生活在纳粹运动的兴起。蒙克找到挪威打印机代替德国人已经印刷图形工作。考虑到他的健康状况不佳的历史,在1918年蒙克觉得自己幸运,经历了一次的西班牙流感的全球大流行。

 

晚年

蒙克的大部分时间他最后20年孤独在他近在勉强自给自足的庄园,Skøyen奥斯陆。他的晚期作品的许多庆祝农场生活,包括一些他使用他的工作马“卢梭”模型。没有任何努力,蒙克吸引了源源不断的女模特,他画了很多裸体画的主题。他与他们中的一些人可能有性关系。蒙克偶尔离家去漆壁画在委员会,包括那些为完成Freia巧克力工厂。

他生命的最后,蒙克继续油漆毫不留情的自画像,增加他的自我反省循环他的生活和他的坚定的要在他的情感和身体状态。在1940年代和1930年代,纳粹蒙克的作品”堕落艺术”(连同毕加索,保罗克利,马蒂斯,高更和许多其他现代艺术家)和删除他82年从德国博物馆工作。阿道夫•希特勒1937年宣布:“我们都关心,那些史前石器时代文化的野蛮人,art-stutterers可以回到他们祖先的洞穴,那里可以应用们的原始国际抓。”

在1940年,德国人入侵挪威和纳粹党接管了政府。蒙克是76岁。几乎整个集合他的艺术在二楼他的房子,吃住在纳粹没收的恐惧。七十一年的画作之前被纳粹被收藏家回到挪威通过购买(其他十一也未找到),包括尖叫和生病的孩子,他们也被隐藏在纳粹。

 

蒙克的坟墓Var Frelsers gravlund,奥斯陆

蒙克死在他的房子1944年1月23日在奥斯陆附近的补充,大约一个月后他的80岁生日。他Nazi-orchestrated葬礼建议挪威人,他是一个纳粹同情者,一种独立艺术家的拨款。奥斯陆市在1946年买下了蒙克的继承人的弥补房地产;1960年5月他的房子被拆除。

遗产

 

奥斯陆,蒙克博物馆

 

 

奥斯陆,蒙克博物馆

蒙克去世后,他剩下的作品留给奥斯陆市建立了蒙克博馆Tøyen(于1963年)。博物馆拥有一批约1100幅油画,4500的图纸,和18000打印,是世界上最广泛的收藏他的作品。蒙克博物馆作为蒙克的官方房地产,积极应对版权侵权行为,以及清算版权的作品,如外观蒙克的《呐喊》在2006年M&M广告宣传活动。美国版权代表爱德华·蒙克的蒙克博物馆和房地产艺术家权利社会.

蒙克的艺术是高度个性化的,他并没有教学。他的“私人”象征意义远比其他个人象征主义画家等古斯塔夫·莫罗詹姆斯·恩索蒙克仍具有重要影响,特别是在德国表现主义跟着他的哲学,“我不相信这是艺术而不是强迫人的冲动的结果打开他的心。”他的许多作品,包括尖叫,具有普遍的吸引力除了高度个人意义。

蒙克的作品现在在很多主要的博物馆和画廊代表在挪威和国外。后文化大革命在中华人民共和国结束后,国家美术馆在北京选择蒙克作为第一个西方艺术家的作品展出。他的小屋,“快乐屋”,是1944年Asgardstrand的直辖市;它是一个小蒙克博物馆。库存一直保持他离开一样。

一个版本的尖叫从1994年国家美术馆被偷了。2004年,另一个版本的尖叫,还有一个麦当娜,被盗的蒙克博物馆一个大胆明抢。所有最终被恢复,但绘画被盗2004抢劫遭到严重破坏。他们已经精心恢复和再次展出。从酒店三蒙克的作品被盗Refsnes神;2005年他们恢复不久,虽然其中一个工作是在抢劫受损。

2006年10月,这颜色木刻两个人。孤独(mennesker。De ensomme)创造一个新的纪录为他打印的时候在810万年奥斯陆拍卖出售nokia(127万美元)。这也创下了最高的价格拍卖在挪威。2008年11月3日,这幅画吸血鬼创造了一项新的纪录时他的画卖了3816.2万美元索斯比拍卖行纽约。

蒙克的形象出现在挪威1000克朗注意灵感来自于他的作品,以及图片。

2012年2月,一个主要的蒙克展览,爱德华•蒙克。现代的眼睛,打开的Schirn Kunsthalle法兰克福展览被打开麦特·玛丽特,皇冠公主的挪威.

2012年5月,尖叫售价1.199亿美元,是第二个最昂贵的艺术品出售在一个开放的拍卖。(这是超过2013年11月三个卢西安·弗洛伊德的研究,售价1.424亿美元)。

2013年,四个蒙克的画描绘的一系列的邮票挪威邮政服务,为了纪念2014年诞辰150周年。

大学教室

在1911年的总决赛装饰的大墙壁奥斯陆大学的教室(礼堂)之间蒙克和举行伊曼纽尔维格兰这一事件被称为大学礼堂争议。1914年蒙克终于委托装饰教室和工作于1916年完成。这个专业在挪威的绘画工作包括11画占地223平方米。太阳、历史和母校是关键在这个序列。蒙克宣称:“我想要装饰,形成一个完整的、独立的思想,和我希望他们的视觉表达独特的挪威和普遍的人类。“在2014年,它被建议教室画有至少5亿克朗的价值。

English Introduction

Life

Childhood

Edvard Munch was born in a farmhouse in the village of Ådalsbruk in Løten, Norway, to Laura Catherine Bjølstad and Christian Munch, the son of a priest. Christian was a doctor and medical officer who married Laura, a woman half his age, in 1861. Edvard had an elder sister, Johanne Sophie, and three younger siblings: Peter Andreas, Laura Catherine, and Inger Marie. Both Sophie and Edvard appear to have inherited their artistic talent from their mother. Edvard Munch was related to painter Jacob Munch and historian Peter Andreas Munch.

The family moved to Christiania (renamed Kristiania in 1877, and now Oslo) in 1864 when Christian Munch was appointed medical officer at Akershus Fortress. Edvard's mother died of tuberculosis in 1868, as did Munch's favorite sister Johanne Sophie in 1877.[3] After their mother's death, the Munch siblings were raised by their father and by their aunt Karen. Often ill for much of the winters and kept out of school, Edvard would draw to keep himself occupied. He was tutored by his school mates and his aunt. Christian Munch also instructed his son in history and literature, and entertained the children with vivid ghost-stories and the tales of American writer Edgar Allan Poe.[4]

As Edvard remembered it, Christian's positive behavior toward his children was overshadowed by his morbid pietism. Munch wrote, "My father was temperamentally nervous and obsessively religious—to the point of psychoneurosis. From him I inherited the seeds of madness. The angels of fear, sorrow, and death stood by my side since the day I was born."[5] Christian reprimanded his children by telling them that their mother was looking down from heaven and grieving over their misbehavior. The oppressive religious milieu, plus Edvard's poor health and the vivid ghost stories, helped inspire his macabre visions and nightmares; the boy felt that death was constantly advancing on him.[6] One of Munch's younger sisters, Laura, was diagnosed with mental illness at an early age. Of the five siblings, only Andreas married, but he died a few months after the wedding. Munch would later write, "I inherited two of mankind's most frightful enemies—the heritage of consumption and insanity."[7]

Christian Munch's military pay was very low, and his attempts to develop a private side practice failed, keeping his family in genteel but perennial poverty.[3] They moved frequently from one cheap flat to another. Munch's early drawings and watercolors depicted these interiors, and the individual objects, such as medicine bottles and drawing implements, plus some landscapes. By his teens, art dominated Munch's interests.[8] At thirteen, Munch had his first exposure to other artists at the newly formed Art Association, where he admired the work of the Norwegian landscape school. He returned to copy the paintings, and soon he began to paint in oils.[9]

Studies and influences

In 1879, Munch enrolled in a technical college to study engineering, where he excelled in physics, chemistry and math. He learned scaled and perspective drawing, but frequent illnesses interrupted his studies.[10] The following year, much to his father's disappointment, Munch left the college determined to become a painter. His father viewed art as an "unholy trade", and his neighbors reacted bitterly and sent him anonymous letters.[11] In contrast to his father's rabid pietism, Munch adopted an undogmatic stance toward art. He wrote his goal in his diary: "in my art I attempt to explain life and its meaning to myself."

In 1881, Munch enrolled at the Royal School of Art and Design of Kristiania, one of whose founders was his distant relative Jacob Munch. His teachers were sculptor Julius Middelthun and the naturalistic painter Christian Krohg.[12] That year, Munch demonstrated his quick absorption of his figure training at the Academy in his first portraits, including one of his father and his first self-portrait. In 1883, Munch took part in his first public exhibition and shared a studio with other students.[13] His full-length portrait of Karl Jensen-Hjell, a notorious bohemian-about-town, earned a critic's dismissive response: "It is impressionism carried to the extreme. It is a travesty of art."[14] Munch's nude paintings from this period survive only in sketches, except forStanding Nude (1887). They may have been confiscated by his father.[15]

During these early years, Munch experimented with many styles, including Naturalism and Impressionism. Some early works are reminiscent of Manet. Many of these attempts brought him unfavorable criticism from the press and garnered him constant rebukes by his father, who nonetheless provided him with small sums for living expenses.[14] At one point, however, Munch's father, perhaps swayed by the negative opinion of Munch's cousin Edvard Diriks (an established, traditional painter), destroyed at least one painting (likely a nude) and refused to advance any more money for art supplies.[16]

Munch also received his father's ire for his relationship with Hans Jæger, the local nihilist who lived by the code "a passion to destroy is also a creative passion" and who advocated suicide as the ultimate way to freedom.[17] Munch came under his malevolent, anti-establishment spell. "My ideas developed under the influence of the bohemians or rather under Hans Jæger. Many people have mistakenly claimed that my ideas were formed under the influence of Strindberg and the Germans…but that is wrong. They had already been formed by then."[18] At that time, contrary to many of the other bohemians, Munch was still respectful of women, as well as reserved and well-mannered, but he began to give in to the binge drinking and brawling of his circle. He was unsettled by the sexual revolution going on at the time and by the independent women around him. He later turned cynical concerning sexual matters, expressed not only in his behavior and his art, but in his writings as well, an example being a long poem called The City of Free Love.[19] Still dependent on his family for many of his meals, Munch's relationship with his father remained tense over concerns about his bohemian life.

After numerous experiments, Munch concluded that the Impressionist idiom did not allow sufficient expression. He found it superficial and too akin to scientific experimentation. He felt a need to go deeper and explore situations brimming with emotional content and expressive energy. Under Jæger's commandment that Munch should "write his life", meaning that Munch should explore his own emotional and psychological state, the young artist began a period of reflection and self-examination, recording his thoughts in his "soul's diary".[20] This deeper perspective helped move him to a new view of his art. He wrote that his painting The Sick Child (1886), based on his sister's death, was his first "soul painting", his first break from Impressionism. The painting received a negative response from critics and from his family, and caused another "violent outburst of moral indignation" from the community.[21]

Only his friend Christian Krohg defended him:

He paints, or rather regards, things in a way that is different from that of other artists. He sees only the essential, and that, naturally, is all he paints. For this reason Munch's pictures are as a rule "not complete", as people are so delighted to discover for themselves. Oh, yes, they are complete. His complete handiwork. Art is complete once the artist has really said everything that was on his mind, and this is precisely the advantage Munch has over painters of the other generation, that he really knows how to show us what he has felt, and what has gripped him, and to this he subordinates everything else.[22]

Munch continued to employ a variety of brushstroke techniques and color palettes throughout the 1880s and early 1890s, as he struggled to define his style.[23] His idiom continued to veer between naturalistic, as seen in Portrait of Hans Jæger, andimpressionistic, as in Rue Lafayette. His Inger On the Beach (1889), which caused another storm of confusion and controversy, hints at the simplified forms, heavy outlines, sharp contrasts, and emotional content of his mature style to come.[24] He began to carefully calculate his compositions to create tension and emotion. While stylistically influenced by the Post-Impressionists, what evolved was a subject matter which was symbolist in content, depicting a state of mind rather than an external reality. In 1889, Munch presented his first one-man show of nearly all his works to date. The recognition it received led to a two-year state scholarship to study in Paris under French painter Léon Bonnat.[25]

Munch's younger sister Laura was the subject of his 1899 interior Melancholy: Laura. Amanda O'Neill says of the work, "In this heated claustrophobic scene Munch not only portrays Laura's tragedy, but his own dread of the madness he might have inherited."[26]

Paris[edit]

Munch arrived in Paris during the festivities of the Exposition Universelle (1889) and roomed with two fellow Norwegian artists. His picture Morning (1884) was displayed at the Norwegian pavilion.[27] He spent his mornings at Bonnat's busy studio (which included live female models) and afternoons at the exhibition, galleries, and museums (where students were expected to make copies as a way of learning technique and observation).[28] Munch recorded little enthusiasm for Bonnat's drawing lessons—"It tires and bores me—it's numbing"—but enjoyed the master's commentary during museum trips.[29][30]

Munch was enthralled by the vast display of modern European art, including the works of three artists who would prove influential: Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec—all notable for how they used color to convey emotion.[30] Munch was particularly inspired by Gauguin's "reaction against realism" and his credo that "art was human work and not an imitation of Nature", a belief earlier stated by Whistler.[31] As one of his Berlin friends said later of Munch, "he need not make his way to Tahiti to see and experience the primitive in human nature. He carries his own Tahiti within him."[32] Influenced by Gauguin, as well as the etchings of German artist Max Klinger, Munch experimented with prints as a medium to create graphic versions of his works. In 1896 he created his first woodcuts—a medium that proved ideal to Munch's symbolic imagery.[33] Together with his contemporary Nikolai Astrup, Munch is considered an innovator of the woodcut medium in Norway.[34]

In December 1889 his father died, leaving Munch's family destitute. He returned home and arranged a large loan from a wealthy Norwegian collector when wealthy relatives failed to help, and assumed financial responsibility for his family from then on.[35] Christian's death depressed him and he was plagued by suicidal thoughts: "I live with the dead—my mother, my sister, my grandfather, my father…Kill yourself and then it's over. Why live?"[36] Munch's paintings of the following year included sketchy tavern scenes and a series of bright cityscapes in which he experimented with the pointillist style of Georges Seurat.[37]

Berlin

By 1892, Munch formulated his characteristic, and original, Synthetist aesthetic, as seen in Melancholy (1891), in which color is the symbol-laden element. Considered by the artist and journalist Christian Krohg as the first Symbolist painting by a Norwegian artist,Melancholy was exhibited in 1891 at the Autumn Exhibition in Oslo.[38] In 1892, Adelsteen Normann, on behalf of the Union of Berlin Artists, invited Munch to exhibit at its November exhibition,[39] the society's first one-man exhibition. However, his paintings evoked bitter controversy (dubbed "The Munch Affair"), and after one week the exhibition closed.[39] Munch was pleased with the "great commotion", and wrote in a letter: "Never have I had such an amusing time—it's incredible that something as innocent as painting should have created such a stir."[40]

In Berlin, Munch became involved in an international circle of writers, artists and critics, including the Swedish dramatist and leading intellectual August Strindberg, whom he painted in 1892. During his four years in Berlin, Munch sketched out most of the ideas that would comprise his major work, The Frieze of Life, first designed for book illustration but later expressed in paintings.[41] He sold little, but made some income from charging entrance fees to view his controversial paintings.[42] Already, Munch was showing a reluctance to part with his paintings, which he termed his "children".

His other paintings, including casino scenes, show a simplification of form and detail which marked his early mature style.[43] Munch also began to favor a shallow pictorial space and a minimal backdrop for his frontal figures. Since poses were chosen to produce the most convincing images of states of mind and psychological conditions, as in Ashes, the figures impart a monumental, static quality. Munch's figures appear to play roles on a theatre stage (Death in the Sick-Room), whose pantomime of fixed postures signify various emotions; since each character embodies a single psychological dimension, as in The Scream, Munch's men and women began to appear more symbolic than realistic. He wrote, "No longer should interiors be painted, people reading and women knitting: there would be living people, breathing and feeling, suffering and loving."[44]

The Scream

Main article: The Scream

The Scream exists in four versions: two pastels (1893 and 1895) and two paintings (1893 and 1910). There are also several lithographs of The Scream (1895 and later).

The 1895 pastel sold at auction on 2 May 2012 for US$119,922,500, including commission.[45]It is the most colorful of the versions[46] and is distinctive for the downward-looking stance of one of its background figures. It is also the only version not held by a Norwegian museum.

The 1893 version (shown here) was stolen from the National Gallery in Oslo in 1994 and recovered. The 1910 painting was stolen in 2004 from The Munch Museum in Oslo, but recovered in 2006 with limited damage.

The Scream is Munch's most famous work, and one of the most recognizable paintings in all art. It has been widely interpreted as representing the universal anxiety of modern man.[44] Painted with broad bands of garish color and highly simplified forms, and employing a high viewpoint, it reduces the agonized figure to a garbed skull in the throes of an emotional crisis.

With this painting, Munch met his stated goal of "the study of the soul, that is to say the study of my own self".[47] Munch wrote of how the painting came to be: "I was walking down the road with two friends when the sun set; suddenly, the sky turned as red as blood. I stopped and leaned against the fence, feeling unspeakably tired. Tongues of fire and blood stretched over the bluish black fjord. My friends went on walking, while I lagged behind, shivering with fear. Then I heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature."[48] He later described the personal anguish behind the painting, "for several years I was almost mad… You know my picture, 'The Scream?' I was stretched to the limit—nature was screaming in my blood… After that I gave up hope ever of being able to love again."[49]

In summing up the painting's effects, author Martha Tedeschi has stated: "Whistler's Mother, Wood's American Gothic, Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa and Edvard Munch's The Scream have all achieved something that most paintings—regardless of their art historical importance, beauty, or monetary value—have not: they communicate a specific meaning almost immediately to almost every viewer. These few works have successfully made the transition from the elite realm of the museum visitor to the enormous venue of popular culture."[50]

 

美术家百科信息声明创建我的百科档案

1、本站美术家百科信息均来自于美术家自己投稿或网络,本站无法确定每条信息或事件的真伪,信息仅做浏览者参考。

2、只要用户使用本站则意味着该用户以同意《美术网(Meishu.com)注册及使用协议》,否则请勿使用本站任何服务。

3、信息修改或删除请联系美术网客服QQ800015090。

美术家百科推荐
美术百科信息统计与合作
  • 1
  • 2
美术百科参考资料
关于美术网

美术网(www.meishu.com)专注解决美术家网络推广问题,全力打造美术家专属网络经纪人服务,美术网站内设美术搜索,网络美术展,美术报,美术知识库,名家档案,美术视频库,资源库,美术论坛,美术高考网及书画衍生品的加工与分销等为一体的名画库等总共20余个栏目,我们以弘扬中华民族的文化事业为己任,以建设世界一流的美术文化生态系统为目标,诚邀合作共赢。

Copyright (c) 2013-2019 中国美术网 All Rights Reserved 鲁ICP备12031715号-1 法律顾问:杨俊涛律师 客服QQ:800015090 微信①:4081532
会员 客服 名家 我的
复制链接 微信 QQ好友 QQ空间 新浪微博