亚当·埃尔斯海默Adam Elsheimer

    亚当·埃尔斯海默1578年生于法兰克福,3月18日受洗,1610年12月11日卒于罗马,17世纪德国著名画家。

      对画面明暗关系的处理有独到之处,努力将现实人生和自然的人文主义精神融入绘画之中。创作多取材于宗教、神话和自然风光,尤精于铜版风景画,尺幅不大,却十分精致,充满诗意。

    代表作是《流亡埃及》(现藏慕尼黑老绘画陈列馆),具有早期理想主义的特点。

  • 中文名亚当·埃尔斯海默
  • 外文名Adam Elsheimer
  • 性别
  • 国籍德国
  • 出生地法兰克福
  • 出生日期1578年3月18日
  • 逝世日期1610年12月11日
  • 职业画家
  • 代表作品《流亡埃及》
中文介绍

生活和工作

 

木星和水星在腓利门的房子和博西斯,c。1608年,德累斯顿,17 x 22厘米

Elsheimer出生在法兰克福十个孩子和一个裁缝大师的儿子。他父亲的房子(活了下来,直到1944年被盟军的炸弹摧毁)是几米的教堂Albrecht Durer海勒的祭坛的装饰品被显示出来。他是艺术家的学徒菲利普Uffenbach他可能去斯特拉斯堡在1596年。二十岁时,他前往意大利通过慕尼黑在1598年,他在哪里记录。[2]

他呆在威尼斯是非法,但对他的风格的影响是显而易见的。他可能担任助理约翰·Rottenhammer,一些的图纸他拥有。Rottenhammer是德国曾在意大利生活了一些年,并且第一个德国画家专攻内阁的绘画Uffenbach有专业大圣坛雕刻,尽管Elsheimer铜似乎可以追溯到最早的小画在他来到意大利之前,Rottenhammer成熟作品的影响力是清楚的。[2]

Elsheimer被认为是产生一些重要的作品在威尼斯,如基督的洗礼(伦敦国家美术馆)和圣家庭(Gemaldegalerie,柏林),显示威尼斯画家的影响丁托列托保罗·委罗内塞,以及Rottenhammer。

 

特洛伊的燃烧,c。1604年,Alte Pinakothek,36 x 50厘米

罗马

1600年初,Elsheimer抵达罗马并迅速的朋友和联系人Rottenhammer,特别是乔凡尼伯尔,教皇的医生,植物学家和收集器来自班贝克他是馆长梵蒂冈的植物园,的一员学院一Lincei,一个小智力集团成立于1603年,主要关注自然科学。

另一个朋友Rottenhammer佛兰德风景画家保罗成Bril,已经建立了在罗马(Faber)Elsheimer的婚姻的见证,画了一幅画(现在和他在一起就是查),是他欠钱的在他的死亡。像费伯,成Bril是一位长期居住在罗马的转换路德教教义天主教,以后Elsheimer一样。

Faber和成Bril知道鲁本斯,他是在罗马1601年,成为另一个朋友,后来抨击Elsheimer没有产生更多的工作。他知道大卫Teniers老最近鲁本斯的小学生,有证据表明,他们住在一起。1604年卡雷尔·曼德最近,荷兰人从罗马回来,出版了他的Schilder-Boeck称赞Elsheimer的工作,称他是slow-working并使一些图纸。他也花了很多时间在教堂,学习大师的作品。其他作家提他的杰出的视觉记忆,他的忧郁,他的善良。在他死后的信中,鲁本斯写道:“他没有相等的小数字,风景,和许多其他科目……从他可能期望一件事一个从未见过的,永远不会看到的。”

 

神圣家族与圣施洗约翰,37.5 x 24厘米,柏林-

1606年,Elsheimer结婚卡罗安东尼娅Stuarda da Francoforte斯图尔特(例如法兰克福——她是苏格兰血统的法兰克福香肠),1609年,他们有了一个儿子。人口普查中提到的儿子不是一年后,可能(Klessman乐观地说),因为他已经被扑灭悉心照顾她最近的遗孀艺术家Nicolas de Breul(出生在凡尔登)和Elsheimer死后再婚一位意大利艺术家,Ascanio Quercia,在一年之内他的死亡。1608年Elsheimer皈依了天主教(可能是1606年)。他是承认的学院迪圣卢卡,罗马画家”公会1606年,给他们一个自画像(他唯一的画像,只有画在画布上)现在乌菲兹尽管他的名声和天赋,他似乎都生活和死于困难的财政状况。

Elsheimer托拜厄斯的绘画和天使(1602 - 1603)(“小”托拜厄斯-现在在法兰克福)尤其受欢迎,因为它风景的新概念。这张照片是由数刻亨德里克Goudt结果发表在欧洲。然而,他与Goudt协会,住宿和训练他好几年了,是很困难的。Goudt Elsheimer似乎已经借来的钱,根据一个帐户导致他的短暂入狱债务人监狱在罗马Elsheimer早期的1610年去世后,Goudt拥有他的几个图片。Goudt了七雕刻Elsheimer的画作,关键在传播他的影响力,他的画作是可视的很少甚至艺术家;内阁的绘画他们大多是在小和非常私人的房间。

Elsheimer有一个明确的偏好选择罕见或原始主题,都为他的神话和宗教绘画。木星在房子里的腓利门和博西斯现在,(c。1608德累斯顿)是基于一集维德以前,从来没有画。的嘲笑刻瑞斯 (安大略金斯顿,存在于一个副本普拉多博物馆),阿波罗Coronis(利物浦),Il师范学院(爱丁堡)一样新。他的一些宗教场景更传统,但他选择的描述,如圣罗伦斯准备牺牲(伦敦),通常是不寻常的。

影响

 

复制后大托拜厄斯和天使,伦敦国家美术馆19×28厘米

 

从法兰克福帐幕十字架的提高,c。1605年,48×35厘米

他的完美主义,一个明显的倾向于抑郁,导致小的总产出,尽管他所有的小尺寸图片。在所有40画现在普遍认为由他(见下面的Kressmann)。他做了一些蚀刻画,不是很成功。然而,他的工作是高度被其他艺术家和一些重要的收藏家的质量。他有一个清晰和直接影响等艺术家在罗马北部保罗成Bril,Jan Pynas,Leonaert布拉姆Pieter Lastman,后来伦布兰特的主人,谁可能是于1605年在罗马。伦勃朗的第一次约会工作是一个石刑的圣斯蒂芬似乎是回应Elsheimer绘画的主题,现在在爱丁堡。一些来自意大利艺术家的作品,如6的照片维德通过卡洛Saraceni现在在博物馆di Capodimonte,那不勒斯,也显示Elsheimer很明显的影响。鲁本斯,拥有至少四个他的作品,知道Elsheimer在罗马,在他死后高度赞扬他一封信。

在更广泛的意义上,他是影响三个方面。首先他的夜景是非常原始。他在一般灯光效果是非常微妙的,不同于那些的卡拉瓦乔他经常使用多达五种不同的光源,和毕业生光线相对较轻,不太明亮的部分通常包含重要组成部分。

其次,他的诗歌景观于一体的大型前台数据给出了景观突出意大利文艺复兴早期以来很少。他的风景并不总是特性广泛视图;通常的青春植被关闭。他们更真实,但没有诗意,比成Bril或1月布鲁盖尔,参与形成的普桑克劳德。他治疗的大型数字景观背景下期待,通过鲁本斯戴克在十八世纪英国肖像。他死后不久,他变得非常流行用英语收藏家,特别是英格兰国王查理一世,阿伦德尔伯爵,1日,乔治-维利尔斯白金汉公爵,超过他的画已经在英语集合在一段时间(近三分之一仍在英国)。

第三,他与德国传统的意大利风格的集成训练他可能是更有效的比任何画家丢勒以来北部(除了他的朋友鲁本斯)。他的作品倾向于淡化戏剧事件的描述(在鲁本斯的明显对比),但通常显示转换的时刻的开始。他的数据是相对较短而粗壮,反映了古典的小理想。unflamboyant,姿势和手势和面部表情像那些在早期荷兰绘画而不是漂亮外表意大利文艺复兴时期的大部分工作。

English Introduction

Life and work

Elsheimer was born in Frankfurt am Main, one of ten children and the son of a master-tailor. His father's house (which survived until destroyed by Allied bombs in 1944) was a few metres from the church where Albrecht Dürer's Heller Altarpiece was then displayed. He was apprenticed to the artist Philipp Uffenbach. He probably visited Strasbourg in 1596. At the age of twenty, he travelled to Italy via Munich, where he is documented in 1598.[2]

His stay in Venice is undocumented, but the influence on his style is clear. He probably worked as an assistant to Johann Rottenhammer, some of whose drawings he owned. Rottenhammer was a German who had been living in Italy for some years, and was the first German painter to specialize in cabinet paintings. Uffenbach had specialized in large altarpieces, and although Elsheimer's earliest small paintings on copper seem to date from before he arrived in Italy, Rottenhammer's influence is clear on his mature work.[2]

Elsheimer is believed to have produced some significant works in Venice, such as The Baptism of Christ (National Gallery, London) and The Holy Family (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin) which show the influence of the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese, as well as Rottenhammer.

Rome

In early 1600, Elsheimer arrived in Rome and quickly made friends with contacts of Rottenhammer, notably Giovanni Faber, a Papal doctor, botanist and collector originally from Bamberg. He was Curator of the Vatican Botanical Garden, and a member of theAccademia dei Lincei, a small intellectual coterie founded in 1603, and mainly concerned with the natural sciences.

Another friend of Rottenhammer was the Flemish landscape painter Paul Bril, already established in Rome, who was (with Faber) a witness at Elsheimer's marriage, painted a picture together with him (now Chatsworth House), and was owed money by him at his death. Like Faber, Bril was a long-term resident in Rome who had converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism, as Elsheimer did later.

Both Faber and Bril knew Rubens, who was in Rome in 1601, and who became another friend, later reproaching Elsheimer for not producing more work. He knew David Teniers the Elder, recently Rubens' pupil, and there is evidence that they lodged together. In 1604 Karel van Mander, a Dutchman recently returned from Rome, published his Schilder-Boeck which praised Elsheimer's work, and described him as slow-working and making few drawings. He also spent much time in churches, studying the works of the masters. Other writers mention his exceptional visual memory, his melancholy and his kind-heartedness. In a letter after his death, Rubens wrote: "he had no equal in small figures, landscapes, and in many other subjects. ...one could have expected things from him that one has never seen before and never will see."

In 1606, Elsheimer married Carola Antonia Stuarda da Francoforte (i.e. Stuart of Frankfurt- she was of Scottish ancestry and a fellow Frankfurter), and in 1609 they had a son. The son was not mentioned in a census a year later, possibly (Klessman says optimistically) because he had been put out to a wet-nurse. She was the recent widow of the artist Nicolas de Breul (born in Verdun) and after Elsheimer's death remarried an Italian artist, Ascanio Quercia, within a year of his death. Elsheimer converted to Catholicism by 1608 (possibly 1606). He was admitted to the Accademia di San Luca, the Roman painters' Guild, in 1606, giving them a self-portrait (his only portrait, and only painting on canvas) now in the Uffizi. In spite of his fame and talents, he appears to have both lived and died in difficult financial circumstances.

Elsheimer's painting of Tobias and the Angel (1602–1603) (the "small" Tobias - now at Frankfurt) was especially well received because of its new conception of landscape. This picture was engraved by Count Hendrick Goudt and as a result was published across Europe. However, his association with Goudt, who lodged and trained with him for several years, was difficult. Elsheimer seems to have borrowed money from Goudt, which according to one account resulted in his brief incarceration in Debtor's prison. After Elsheimer's early death in 1610 in Rome, Goudt owned several of his pictures. Goudt made seven engravings of Elsheimer's paintings, which were crucial in spreading his influence, as very few of his paintings were viewable even by artists; ascabinet paintings they were mostly kept in small and very private rooms.

Elsheimer had a definite preference for choosing rare or original subjects, both for his mythological and religious paintings. Jupiter and Mercury in the house of Philemon and Baucis, (c. 1608, now Dresden) is based on an episode in Ovid, and had never been painted before. The Mocking of Ceres (Kingston, Ontario, a copy exists in the Prado), Apollo and Coronis (Liverpool), and Il Contento (Edinburgh) were equally new. Some of his religious scenes were more conventional, but his selection of the moment to depict, as in St Lawrence prepared for Martyrdom (London), is often unusual.

Influence

His perfectionism, and an apparent tendency to depression, resulted in a small total output, despite the small size of all his pictures. In all about forty paintings are now generally agreed to be by him (see Kressmann below). He made a few etchings, not very successfully. However, his work was highly regarded by other artists and a few important collectors for its quality. He had a clear and direct influence on other Northern artists who were in Rome such as Paul Bril,Jan Pynas, Leonaert Bramer and Pieter Lastman, later Rembrandt's master, who was probably in Rome by 1605. Rembrandt's first dated work is a Stoning of St Stephen which appears to be a response to Elsheimer's painting of the subject, now in Edinburgh. Some works by Italian artists, such as the six pictures from Ovid by Carlo Saraceni now in the Museo di Capodimonte, Naples, also show Elsheimer's clear influence. Rubens, who owned at least four of his works, knew Elsheimer in Rome, and praised him highly in a letter after his death.

In a wider sense, he was influential in three respects. Firstly his night scenes were highly original. His lighting effects in general were very subtle, and very different from those of Caravaggio. He often uses as many as five different sources of light, and graduates the light relatively gently, with the less well-lit parts of the composition often containing important parts of it.

Secondly, his combination of poetic landscape with large foreground figures gives the landscape a prominence that had rarely been seen since the Early Renaissance. His landscapes do not always feature an extensive view; often the lushness of the vegetation closes it off. They are more realistic, but no less poetic, than those of Bril or Jan Brueghel, and play a part in the formation of those of Poussin andClaude. His treatment of large figures with a landscape backdrop looks forward, through Rubens and van Dyck, to the English portrait in the eighteenth century. Soon after his death he became very popular with English collectors, notably King Charles I of England, the Earl of Arundel, and the George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and over half his paintings have been in English collections at some time (nearly one third are still in the UK).

Thirdly, his integration of Italian styles with the German tradition he was trained in is perhaps more effective than that of any Northern painter since Dürer (with the exception of his friend Rubens). His compositions tend to underplay the drama of the events they depict (in noticeable contrast to those of Rubens), but often show the start of moments of transformation. His figures are relatively short and stocky, and reflect little of classical ideals. Their poses and gestures are unflamboyant, and their facial expressions resemble those in Early Netherlandish painting rather than the bella figura of most Italian Renaissance work.

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