米开朗基罗·博那罗蒂（Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni，1475～1564），意大利文艺复兴时期伟大的绘画家、雕塑家、建筑师和诗人，文艺复兴时期雕塑艺术最高峰的代表。他一生追求艺术的完美，坚持自己的艺术思路。他于 1564 年在罗马去世，他的风格影响了几乎三个世纪的艺术家。
米开朗基罗在1475年3月6日出生的，在卡普雷塞附近的阿雷佐，托斯卡纳（今天被称为卡普雷塞米开朗基罗）。几代人，他的家人已经在小规模的银行家佛罗伦萨，但银行失败了，他的父亲，卢多维科迪莱昂纳多Buonarroti的西蒙尼，简要地采取一个政府职位在卡普雷塞，其中米开朗基罗诞生了。在时间米开朗基罗的出生，他的父亲是司法管理人卡普雷塞小镇和本地管理员的丘西。米开朗基罗的母亲是迪弗朗西斯德尔内里圣米尼亚托锡耶纳。Buonarrotis声称从伯爵夫人下降卡诺萨的玛蒂尔德 ; 这一说法尚未得到证实，但米开朗基罗相信自己吧。米开朗基罗出生几个月后，一家人回到佛罗伦萨，在那里成长。
佛罗伦萨的城市是当时的艺术最伟大的中锋和学习在意大利。艺术是由领主（镇议会）主办，由商人行会和富裕的顾客，如奇和其银行同伙。在文艺复兴时期，续期古典学问和艺术，曾在佛罗伦萨的第一次开花。在15世纪初，建筑师菲利普·布鲁内莱斯基曾就读于罗马的古典建筑的遗迹，并创建了两个教堂，圣洛伦索的和圣灵教堂，这体现了古典戒律。雕塑家洛伦佐吉贝尔蒂已经五十年打造的青铜门吃力洗礼，米开朗基罗是描述为“天堂之门”。的教堂的外观壁龛佛罗伦萨圣弥额尔教堂包含由佛罗伦萨最负盛名的雕塑家作品画廊- 多纳泰罗，吉贝尔蒂，安德烈·韦罗基奥和南尼·迪银行。老教堂的内饰布满了壁画（主要是在晚中世纪，而且在早期文艺复兴风格），由开始乔托和持续马萨乔在布兰卡奇教堂 -两者的他的作品米开朗基罗研究，并在图纸复制在米开朗基罗的童年时代，画家的队伍已经从佛罗伦萨叫梵蒂冈，为了装修西斯廷教堂的墙壁。其中一人是多梅尼科基尔兰达约，在壁画，透视，人物画大师，和人像谁在那个时期有佛罗伦萨最大的车间。
同年，美第奇从佛罗伦萨驱逐作为崛起的结果萨沃纳罗拉。米开朗基罗离开了城市的政治动荡结束前，移动到威尼斯再到博洛尼亚。在博洛尼亚，他被委任雕刻几个最后小数字为完成圣星神殿，在教堂专用于圣人。这时米开朗基罗研究了刻稳健浮雕雅格布德拉Quercia的围绕的主要门户圣佩特罗尼乌斯教堂，包括面板夏娃的创造其组成是重新出现在创世纪。接近年底1494，在佛罗伦萨的政治局势是平静。这个城市，以前在来自法国的威胁，已不再处于危险之中，查理八世遭受了失败。米开朗基罗回到佛罗伦萨，但沃纳罗拉下没有收到佣金新市政府。他回到了就业奇的。在上半年，他在佛罗伦萨度过的，他曾在两个小雕像，一个孩子圣 施洗约翰和睡觉丘比特。据Condivi，洛伦佐DI Pierfrancesco美第奇，对他们来说，米开朗基罗雕刻了圣 施洗约翰，问米开朗基罗“修复它，使它看起来好像它已被埋葬”这样他就可以“发送到罗马......通过[它作为]一个古老的工作，...出售好得多。 “ 无论洛伦佐和米开朗基罗通过中间人进行不知不觉被骗了一块真正的价值。红衣主教拉斐尔Riario，向谁洛伦佐已经卖了它，发现它是一个骗局，但被他邀请艺术家到罗马雕塑的质量印象深刻。。在国外销售他的雕塑这种明显的成功以及保守佛罗伦萨情况可能鼓励米开朗基罗接受主教的邀请。
组成绵延500多平方米的天花板 ，其中包含超过300个数字。在其中心距离九集创世纪的书，分为三组：上帝创造地球的; 上帝创造人类和上帝的恩典他们的过失; 最后，人类的状态表示作为诺亚和他的家人。在支持天花板佩奇纳绘十二个人和女人谁预言耶稣的到来，七先知以色列，五Sibyls，古典世界的预言妇女。在天花板上最著名的画作的创作亚当，亚当和夏娃在伊甸园中，洪水，先知耶利米和Cumaean女巫。
米开朗基罗是一个虔诚的天主教徒的信仰加深了在他生命的尽头。他在他的个人生活有节制，有一次告诉他的徒弟，阿斯卡尼奥Condivi：“不过富人也可能是我的，我一直生活就像一个可怜的的人。“ Condivi说，他无动于衷的食物和饮料，吃”更多的是出于必要，而不是快乐的“ ，他”经常睡在他的衣服和靴子......。“ 他的传记作者保罗·乔维奥说，“他的天性是如此粗糙，粗鲁，他的国内习惯是令人难以置信的肮脏和剥夺谁可能会跟随他的学生的后人。” 他可能不介意，因为他是一个天生的孤独和忧郁的人，bizzarroê思迪，一个人谁“从公司退出男子自己。”
这是不可能确切知道米开朗基罗是否有物理关系（Condivi归因于他“苦行僧般的贞操”）， 但他的性取向的性质在他的诗歌变得显而易见。他写了三百十四行诗和牧歌。显示一个伟大的浪漫主义友谊最长的序列，是写给托马索棣卡瓦列利（约1509至1587年），谁是23岁的时候米开朗基罗1532年遇见了他，在这些57岁弥补诗的第一个大序列在任何现代的舌头谈到了一个人到另一个，早于莎士比亚的十四行诗由五十年来公平青年：卡瓦列里回答说：“我发誓要回报你的爱我从来没有爱过一个人比我更爱你，永远不会有我祝愿友谊比我更想为你的。” 卡瓦列里一直致力于米开朗基罗，直到他去世。
Michelangelo was born on March 6, 1475 in [A] near Arezzo Karp larese, Tuscany  (now known as Kapp Reese Michelangelo). For generations, his family has been in a small Florence banker, but the bank failed, his father, Ludovico Cody Leonardo Buonarroti Simonyi, briefly take a government position in Kapp Reese, where Michelangelo was born.  at the time of Michelangelo's birth, his father was the justice administrator of the small town of Kapp Reese and the local administrator of the west. Michelangelo's mother is DeFrancis Delneri San Miniato Siena.  Buonarrotis claimed that the countess dropped Mathilde from Canossa; this claim has not been confirmed, but Michelangelo believe yourself.  a few months after Michelangelo's birth, the family returned to Florence, where they grew up.
The city of Florence was then the greatest center of art and learning in Italy.  art is by Lord (the Council) sponsored by the merchant guild and affluent customers, such as the odd and the bank.  in the Renaissance, the renewal of classical knowledge and art, in Florence, the first flowering.  in early fifteenth Century, remains of architect Philip Brunelleschi attended Rome classical architecture, and created two San Lorenzo church, and the Church of the Holy Spirit, which embodies the classical precepts.  sculptor Lorenzo Gio Berti has been fifty years to create a bronze door baptism, Michelangelo is described as "the gate of heaven".  the appearance of the church niche Florence michaelsberg Abbey contains Florence's most renowned sculptor Works Gallery - Donald Taylor, Gilbert M Siti, Andre Verrocchio and Nanni Dee bank.  the old church interior covered with murals (mainly in the late Middle Ages, but also in the early Renaissance style), by Giotto and Masaccio in last began to study his works Michelangelo Branca odd - both in the church, and drawing the replication of  in Michelangelo's childhood, the artist team from Florence have called for the decoration of the Vatican the walls of the church. One of them was Domenico, who was a master of the mural, perspective, figure painting, and portraits who had the largest workshop in Florence during that period.
In 1488, at the age of 13 under the tutelage of Ghirlandaio michelangelos. Second years, his father persuaded Ghirlandaio to pay Michelangelo as an artist, this is fourteen rare. When in 1489, Lorenzo de Medici, the ruler of Florence, asked Ghirlandaio two of his best students, Ghirlandaio sent Michelangelo and Francesco Granacci. From 1490 to 92 years, Michelangelo attended the Medici had founded the College of new Platon's line of people. In the college, whether it is Michelangelo's view of the world and his art is the most prominent of the day many philosophers and writers including Marsilio Fecino, Merran Dora and Polly Ciano slightly.  at this time, Michelangelo carved the relief of the following steps of the: (1490-1492) and Centaur War (1491 to 1492). The latter is Polly Ciano based on suggestions by Lorenzo de commissioned a singular theme.  Michelangelo work time sculptor Bertoldo Giovanni. When he was seventeen years old, another student, Peter Torrigiano, hit his nose, this is all caused by the disfigurement in portrait of Michelangelo.
The same year, the expulsion from Florence as a result of the rise of savonarola. Michelangelo left the city before the end of the political turmoil, moved to Venice and then to Bologna.  in Bologna, he was commissioned to carve a few final figures for the completion of st.. When Michelangelo studied the moment steady around the main relief Yagebudela Quercia portal Shengpeite Ronnie church, including the creation of the eve panel is composed of the re emergence in genesis.  close to the end of 1494, the political situation in Florence is calm. This city, before the French threat, is no longer in danger, Charlie VIII defeated. Michelangelo returned to Florence, but Warner did not receive a commission Laura under the new government. He returned to his job. In the first half of the year, he spent in Florence, where he had two small statues, a child of St. John the Baptist and Cubitt. According to Condivi, Lorenzo DI Pierfrancesco Medici, for them, Michelangelo carved the St. John the Baptist, asked Michelangelo to "fix it, make it look like it has been buried so that he could send to Rome... [...] through it as an ancient work, sold much better... "No matter how hard Lorenzo and Michelangelo have been cheated by the middleman, a real value. Cardinal Rafael Riario, who has sold it to Lorenzo, finds it a hoax, but was impressed by the quality of the artist he invited to Rome sculpture.. The apparent success of selling his sculptures abroad and the conservative situation in Florence may encourage Michelangelo to accept the invitation of the bishop.Michelangelo in Rome in June 1496 25, arriving at  at the age of 21 in July 4th of the same year, he began to work as a cardinal Commission of Rafael Riario, a life size statue of Bacchus nectar in Rome. After the completion of the work by the Archbishop refused, then entered the collection of banker Jakob Gary, his garden.
In November 1497, the French ambassador to the Vatican cardinal Jean de Bilel -Lagraulas, principal he carved the Pieta, shows a sculpture of the virgin Maria Memorial in Jesus's body. The theme, which is not part of the biblical narrative on the cross, is a common religious sculpture of medieval northern Europe, originally familiar to cardinals.  the contract was agreed in August of the following year. Michelangelo was 24 at the time of its completion.  it was soon seen as one of the masterpieces of the world's greatest sculpture, "all the potential and Inspiration of the art of sculpture". Contemporary observations are summarized by Vasari: "it is certainly a miracle that the stone invisible block can have been reduced to perfection, nature is rarely able to build in the flesh" it is now located in Papal Basilica of Saint Peter.
With the completion of David came to another committee. In early 1504 Da Vinci was commissioned to paint the battle of the Anghiara in the old palace conference room, painted between Florence and the battle of Milan in 1440 and then commissioned Michelangelo painting Kasina battle. The two works are very different: Leonardo depicts the soldiers fighting on horseback, and Michelangelo soldiers were ambushed, because they were bathing in the river. No matter the work has been completed, the two sides have lost forever when the room renovation. These two works are very greatly, and leave a copy of them, Leonardo's work has been replicated by Bastiano Lubensi and Michelangelo Da Sangallo hotel.
In the meantime, Michelangelo was commissioned by Doni Angelo to paint a "Holy Family" as a gift to his wife, Mr. Lena Strozzi. This is called the Holy Family with Saint John and the Uffizi Gallery in the magnificent original frame, Michelangelo may have been designed to hang. He may also painted Madonna and child with John, known as the Madonna is now in the National Gallery, london.
At the same time, "he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, which lasted nearly four years (1508 to 1512). According to Condivi's account, Bramante, who is committed to the construction of St. Peter Cathedral, Michelangelo hated commissions for the Pope's tomb, and persuaded the Pope entrusted to him he was not familiar with, so that he can fail in a task of media. Michelangelo was originally commissioned to paint the twelve page that is supported by the upper triangular ceiling, and to pay and the central part of the decorative ceiling. Michelangelo persuaded Pope Julius to give him a free hand, put forward a different, more complex scenarios, representing innovation in human depravity, save the promise by the prophets and christ. This work is part of the grand plan for representing the majority of the Catholic Church's internal decoration of the church.
Consisting of more than and 500 square meters of ceiling, which contains more than 300 figures. At the center of the nine book of Genesis, the book is divided into three groups: God created the earth; God created man and God's grace for their faults; and finally, the state of the human being expressed as Noah and his family. Who foretold the coming of Jesus in support of the ceiling painted twelve men and women, Paige, five Sibyls, seven prophets of Israel, prophetic women of the classical world. The most famous paintings on the ceiling are Adam, Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, the flood, the prophet, the and the Cumaean witch.
In 1520 the Michelangelo comes back with another grand proposal, this time for the Church of San Lorenzo church funeral home. Fortunately for future generations, this project, which occupied the artist for many 1520s and 1530s, was more fully realized. The odd Chapel Michelangelo with his own decision to create, there are two young members of the Medici family, Giuliano, Duke of Nemours and the tomb of Lorenzo, his nephew. It is also to commemorate his own famous predecessors, Lorenzo's magnificent and his brother, Giuliano, who was buried in the vicinity. The tomb shows two odd statues representing the characters of the night and day and dusk and dawn. The church also includes Michelangelo Madonna medici. Drawings were found on the walls of a hidden corridor in 1976 with the church itself.
Pope Leo ten died in 1521, was the severe temporary success of Adrian VI, and then by his cousin Giulio Chi as Pope Clement vii. In 1524, Michelangelo received a commission from the Lauren library building in the Church of San Lorenzo Medici pope. He designed the library itself and its vestibule, using architectural forms with which it was seen as the forerunner of this dynamic effect, the architecture of both the internal Baroque architecture. It was left to the assistant to explain his plan and to direct it. The repository was not open until 1571, and vestibular imperfections continued until the year of 1904.In 1527, the citizens of Florence, encouraged by Rome's sack and thrown back and the Republic of china. A city siege occurred, the city defense fortifications work and Michelangelo to his beloved Florence's help, from 1528 to 1529 the city fell in 1530, and the odd recovered power supply. Michelangelo fell out of favour with young Alessandro Chi, who was installed as the first Duke of Florence. Fearing for his life, he fled to Rome, leaving the assistant to complete the odd chapel and the Lauren library. Although Michelangelo's support of the Republic and the odd resistant rules, he was Pope Clement, who restored him previously awarded artist allowance and with him in the tomb of Pope Julius proposed new contract welcome.
Michelangelo worked in many construction projects at this time. Including the ancient bronze statue of Aurelius and the European mountain square display design of the Kirbys ladder. He designed the Palazzo Farnese and the upper church inside Santa Maria Degli Angeli, he transformed the ancient Rome beach in the inner arch. Other works include Florence Juan temple, Sforza Lee Chapel (Gapele Sforza) in the Basilica of Notre Dame and pia.
In December 2007, the dome of Papal Basilica of Saint Peter red chalk drawing, may finally put forward by Michelangelo before he died in the Vatican Archives, 7. It is extremely rare because he ruined his design in the later life. Sketch is one of the towering St. Peter radial roller column part of the plan.
Michelangelo was a devout Catholic whose faith deepened at the end of his life. He was in control of his personal life, once told his apprentice, Ascanio Condivi: "but the rich may also be mine, and I have been living like a poor man. "Condivi said he was indifferent to food and drink, eat more" out of necessity, not happy, "he" often slept in his clothes and boots....... His biographer, Paul Giovio, said, "his nature is so rough and rude that his domestic habits are incredibly dirty and deprived of who might follow the descendants of his students."  he may not mind, because he is born a lonely and melancholy man, bizzarro of the SDL, a person who "from the company to withdraw from the man himself."
It is impossible to know exactly whether Michelangelo had physical relations (Condivi due to his "chastity" ascetic) , but the nature of his sexuality in his poetry became obviously. He wrote three hundred and fourteen lines of poetry and pastoral. Show a great Romantic Friendship is the longest sequence, to Tommaso Decavalieri (1509 to 1587), who is 23 years old when he met Michelangelo in 1532, in these 57 years to make up for the poem's first big sequence in any modern tongue about one person to another, earlier than Shakespeare sonnet by fifty years fair youth: Cavalieri replied: "I promise to return your love I never loved someone more than I love you, never have I wish the friendship more than I want for you." Cavalieri worked on Michelangelo until he died.
Michelangelo in 1542 to meet the CECCHINO generation Bracci who died after only a year, inspired Michelangelo to write 48 funeral. Some of Michelangelo's feelings for his poetry object and subject, while he: model FEBO Di Italy response love poem ask money, second models, Gherardo perigny, stole from his shameless.
The nature of the openly gay poetry is not a source of discomfort for posterity. Michelangelo's nephew, Michelangelo Jager, published in 1623 the pronoun of poetry and change of sex,  not until John Addington Simonds translated them into England in 1893, the original sex is restored. Even in modern times, some scholars continue to insist that, despite the restoration of pronouns, they represent the "Platon dialogue, that erotic poetry is regarded as a refinement of the emotional expression of feelings and the refinement of the imagination."
In his later years, Michelangelo nurtured the poet and the noble widow of a great love of the Rome type of Cologne, Vitoria, where he met in 1536 or 1538, who was in her late 40s. They wrote sonnets and were in regular contact with each other, until she died. These sonnets mainly deal with those who occupy their mental problems.  Condivi recalls Michelangelo as saying that his only regret in life is that he did not kiss the widow's face in the same way that he had her hand.