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尼古拉斯普桑Nicolas Poussin

( 古典主义奠基人 )

尼古拉斯·普桑是17世纪法国巴洛克时期重要画家,也是17世纪法国古典主义绘画的奠基人。他崇尚文艺复兴大师拉斐尔、提香,醉心于希腊、罗马文化遗产的研究。普桑的作品大多取材于神话、历史和宗教故事。画幅虽然不大,但是精雕细琢,力求严格的素描和完美的构图,人物造型庄重典雅,富于雕塑感;作品构思严肃而富于哲理性,具有稳定静穆和崇高的艺术特色,他的画冷峻中含有深情,可以窥视到画家冷静的思考。

人物关系
  • 中文名尼古拉斯普桑
  • 外文名Nicolas Poussin
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生日期1594年6月
  • 逝世日期1665年11月19日
  • 职业画家
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人物介绍

尼古拉斯·普桑(Nicolas Poussin ,1594-1665年)是17世纪法国巴洛克时期重要画家,也是17世纪法国古典主义绘画的奠基人。他崇尚文艺兴大师拉斐尔、提香,醉心于希腊、罗马文化遗产的研究。普桑的作品大多取材于神话、历史和宗教故事。画幅虽然不大,但是精雕细琢,力求严格的素描和完美的构图。 《阿卡迪亚的牧人》为其重要代表作。
人物生平普桑出生在法国西部诺曼底的莱桑德利,一个退役军人经营小土地的家庭。家境贫寒,父亲希望自己的独生子能当上律师,可是儿子却迷上了绘画。
普桑在年轻时代曾钻研过希腊、罗马的文学艺术,通晓文艺复兴大师们的诗文、数学、解剖学和透视学,博学对他日后的偏重于理性的古典主义艺术创作奠定了基础。18岁时结识了来故乡教堂作画的外地画家昆廷·瓦连,更坚定了他学画的决心,不久来到巴黎出入于迪南·埃尔的画室,还结识了比他小8岁的画家尚帕涅,并同在卢森堡作画。29岁时为巴黎圣母院画了《圣玛利亚的安眠》,作品风格明朗、典雅而获得好评。这期间有幸结识了意大利诗人马里诺,并为诗人的诗文作插图,在诗人的影响下,他决心到意大利罗马去,这时正好而立之年。30岁以后的普桑艺术活动主要在罗马。1624年春天,画家先到威尼斯,尔后来到罗马,他悉心研究古罗马艺术和拉斐尔的作品,波伦亚学院派的艺术也给了他很大的启发。这个时期的创作,既有巴洛克的倾向,又具有提香的色彩,还带有学院派影子。36岁的画家生了一场大病,多亏一位面包师家庭照顾而康复,病愈后娶了比他小18岁的面包师女儿为妻,过着平静的家庭和艺术创作生活。
旺盛时期1630年至1640年是普桑创作的旺盛时期。普桑为古典的理性所支配,将古典的形式美运用到自己的创作中,他常常在创作的过程中控制着自己的情感,从而不使人物为感情所动,并尽量求得画面统一、和谐、庄重、典雅和完美。他创作了《萨提尔与山林水泽女神》、《花神王国》、《阿卡迪亚的牧人》等一系列出色的作品。其中《阿卡迪亚的牧人》是一件沉静而富有哲理的作品,画中3位牧羊人在艰难地辨识一块墓碑上的铭文:"我曾住在阿卡迪亚……"(阿卡迪亚是希腊传说中的乐土)其中一位年轻牧人以询问的目光注视着一位象征造化的女人。画家借此表达了乐土也有死亡,人生的幸福极为脆弱而造化才是永恒的忧郁思想。

探索时期

1640年,普桑路易十三邀请回法国,任宫廷首席画师,并领导装饰王宫的工作。但其他画家的敌视与不合作使他愤然离去。1642年,他离开法国回到意大利,从此再也不愿返回巴黎。1642年,普桑回到罗马以后,不再追求荣誉,只是潜心作画,在永无止境的艺术道路上探索,创作了《七件圣事》、《所罗门的判决》、《利百加》及历史风景画《福西戎的葬礼》、组画《四季》等,这些都是他在生命的最后20年中创作出的杰作,其中,组画《四季》更是超越了传统绘画的寓意语言。
17世纪60年代,普桑已临晚年,逐渐失去作画的能力,在他给友人的信中说:"我没有度过一天无痛苦的日子。"临终前说道:"上帝答应我快要去了,因为生命的折磨对我是太沉重了。"1665年11月19日71岁的大师逝世于罗马。
轶事· 据说在他创作的旺盛期间他经常与友人到罗马郊外旅行,发思古之幽情,创作一些情感高雅的宗教、神话故事和文学题材的画,他的很多名作是在这时期创作的。
· 46岁的普桑收到路易十三和首相黎世留的邀请信,以宫廷首席画家和高薪请他回巴黎为王族服务,回国后受到热烈的接待,住进宫里豪华宅邸,但是失去了艺术上无拘无束的创作自由,他自己说过"像绞索一样套在自己的脖子上"。宫廷的礼节、专横的制度和命令,同行的嫉妒和阴谋等等割断了他艺术的翅膀,这使他十分后悔回国。他说:如果我在这个国家留下来,我就会变成一个拙劣的画家。一直忍受到1642年首相黎世留去逝,他乘机请假回罗马,借故看望有病的妻子,这一去决不再回巴黎,与妻为伴,不求名利,潜心作画,又过起那野鹤云间的自由生活。画家以很大的精力集中于风景画的创作。在他62岁时还拒绝了罗马的圣路加学院的院长之职。
作品鉴赏普桑的艺术素养决定他选择一些具有"崇高风格"的绘画题材,他画的人物也是按照希腊、罗马的雕刻形象来塑造的。他认为这些形象的可贵处,在于符合了一种"典范",所以他画的人物从不来自实际生活。《阿卡迪亚的牧人》《阿卡迪亚的牧人》
​阿卡迪亚的牧人这一幅著名的《阿卡迪亚的牧人》含义较晦涩,一直是美术史上莫测高深的难解作品。"阿卡迪亚",即古代传说中一个世外桃源式的"乐土"。画上展现一块宁静的旷野之地,和煦的阳光照在仅有几棵荒疏林木的墓地前;背景是一片明净的蓝天。四个牧人,头戴花冠,各拿牧杖,正围在一块墓碑前在研读着铭文。一个连腮胡须的牧人跪着读出碑上铭文,并回过头来向右侧的一个女牧人说着什么,石上的拉丁铭文是:"即使在阿卡迪亚也有我。"
据美术史家的解释,这里的"我",是指"死神"。那末,铭文的意思似乎是说: "在美好的乐土里,死也是不可避免的。"显然,这是一种"风光虽好,人生苦短"的感叹。我们从左侧一个伏在墓顶上的牧人的表情看,他低着头,似有缅怀之情,与左边站立着的女牧人形成对比。女牧人身着黄衣蓝裙,是全画最跳突的色彩。这个女性形象费人猜思,据说,她是美好人生的象征。她虽含颌垂首,默默倾听着铭文,却给人以一种抚慰感。疑虑与抚慰,惆怅与哀思,围绕着一个人生的哲理问题,让人紧紧思索。 这里的女牧人与男牧人构成了形象化的一种情绪对比。似乎隐隐地在向观者表白:"死何足惧?阿卡迪亚毕竟是世人的向往之地。"
这种非现实的牧歌式悲凉情调,在一定程度上,表露了画家当时的处境与对艺术的憧憬。画上人物的服饰都是仿效希腊雕刻风格的。他始终把这种形象视为艺术的崇高表现。不过对于西方人来说,也许确能发思古之幽情。

English is introduced

Nicholas Poussin (Nicolas Poussin 1594-1665) is an important period of the seventeenth Century French Baroque painter, seventeenth Century is the founder of French classical painting. He advocates the Renaissance master Rafael, Titian, engrossed in the research of cultural heritage in Rome, greece. Most of Poussin's works are based on mythology, history and religion. The picture is small, but well, to strictly sketch and perfect composition. "Arcadia" is an important representative of the shepherd.
Poussin was born in the west of Normandy, France, in the home of a small family of soldiers in the army of Lysander Leigh. His family was poor, his father wanted his only son to become a lawyer, but his son was fascinated by painting.
Poussin at a young age had pored over Greece, Rome literature and art in Renaissance masters of poetry, mathematics, anatomy and perspective on the day after he learned, emphasis on rational classical art foundation. At the age of 18 met to hometown church to paint field painter Quentin card, strengthened his determination to study painting, and soon came to Paris entry in Dignan El's studio, met 8 years younger than him. Luxemburg and Jerome painter, painting. At the age of 29 for the Notre Dame de Paris painting "Santa Maria" sleeping style, bright, elegant and well received. During this period, Marino met Italy poet, illustrated and the poet's poetry, in the poet's influence, he decided to go to Rome to Italy, then just thirty years of age. After the age of 30 Poussin art activities in Rome. The spring of 1624, the first artist to Venice, and then came to Rome, he carefully studied the art of ancient Rome and the works of Rafael, Bologna academic art also gave him great inspiration. This period of creation, both Baroque tendencies, and Titian's color, but also with the school of shadows. The 36 year old artist gave birth to a serious illness, thanks to a baker family care and rehabilitation after illness, married 18 years younger than him Baker's daughter, lived a quiet family life and art creation.
Vigorous period from 1630 to 1640 is the vigorous period of Poussin's creation. Poussin is the classical rational control, the classical beauty of form to use their own creation, he often in the process of creation and control their emotions, not to let the people to move, and try to get the picture of harmony, unity, solemn, elegant and perfect. He created the "goddess" and she Satir, "kingdom", "flora of Arcadia shepherds" and a series of excellent works. The "Arcadia shepherds" is a calm and philosophical works, the 3 shepherds identification on a tombstone inscription in the difficult: "I have lived in arcadia...... "(Arcadia is the Greek legend of the paradise) in which a young shepherd asked to gaze at a symbol of good fortune. The painter to express the paradise of death, the happiness of life is very fragile and nature is the eternal melancholy thoughts.

English is introduced

In 1640, Poussin Louis was invited back to France in thirteen, served as chief court painter, and led the palace decoration work. But other painters hostile and non cooperation make him leave in anger. In 1642, he left France for Italy, never to return to Paris. In 1642, Poussin returned to Rome, not just the pursuit of honor, painstaking exploration in the art of painting, world without end on the road, the creation of "seven sacraments", "Solomon judgment", "Rebecca" and the history of landscape painting "Fu Rong's funeral", "four seasons" series, these are his last 20 years of life to create a masterpiece, which is about "four seasons" is beyond the meaning of traditional painting language.
In 1660s, Poussin was in his late years, gradually lost the ability to paint, in his letter to friends, said: "I did not spend a day without pain. "God promised me that I was going to go," he said, "because the torture of life is too heavy for me. "The 71 year old master died in Rome in November 19, 1665.
It is said that in his anecdotes, exuberant period often with his friend to the outskirts of Rome travel, nostalgia, the creation of some emotional elegant religious and mythological tales and literary themes of the paintings, many of his masterpieces were created in this period.
46 year old Poussin received the invitation letter Louis thirteen and Prime Minister Richelieu, the chief court painter and paid him back to Paris for the royal service, received a warm reception in the palace, luxurious residence, but lost the art of unfettered freedom of writing, he said "like a noose set in his neck. On". The court etiquette, the despotic system and the command, the colleague's jealousy and the plot and so on have cut off his artistic wing, this caused him to regret very much to return to china. He said: if I stay in this country, I will become a bad painter. Always stand by 1642 Prime Minister Richelieu died, he took the opportunity to leave back to Rome to visit sick wife, right, never go back to Paris this, and his wife as partners, not for fame and fortune, he returned to painting, the crane cloud free life. The painter concentrates much on the creation of landscape painting. At the age of 62 he also rejected Rome's director of the St. Luke's college.
The appreciation of Poussin's works of art, he decided to choose some of the "lofty style" of the painting theme, he painted the characters are in accordance with the Greek, Rome carved image to shape. He believes that the value of these images, is in line with a "model", so he painted characters never come from real life. "Arcadia" Arcadia shepherds "shepherd"
Good shepherd this Arcadia a famous "Arcadia" shepherd meaning more obscure, hard work is always too profound to be understood in the history of art. "Arcadia", which is a type of ancient legends of the "land of idyllic beauty". Picture show a quiet desert, the warm sunshine in only a few tree trees rusty graveyard; the background is a clear blue sky. Four shepherds, wearing a crown, each with Crozier, gathered in front of a tombstone with the inscription in the study. A moustache shepherd kneeling monument inscription read, and turned to a woman on the right side of the Shepherd said what, stone on the Latin inscription: "even in Arcadia is also my. "
According to the interpretation of art historians, where "I", refers to "death". The inscription seems to mean that: "in the beautiful paradise, death is inevitable. "Obviously, this is a kind of" scenery is good, life is short "sigh. From the expression of the shepherd on the left side of the tomb, he looked down, as if he were in the mood of nostalgia, and contrasted with the shepherd standing on the left. The shepherd girl in yellow blue skirt, is the most prominent color painting jump. The image of the female people guess, it is said that she is a symbol of a better life. Although she has a jaw down, quietly listening to the inscription, but gives a sense of comfort. Doubts and comfort, melancholy and grief, around a philosophy of life, let people think firmly. There is a vivid contrast between the male and female shepherds. It seems that in the direction of the viewer said: "it is a fear of death? After all, the yearning of the world. "
This idyllic mood sad reality, to a certain extent, reveal the artist at situation and vision of art. The characters are dressed in Greek style. He always regards the image as the sublime expression of art. But for westerners, perhaps can really nostalgia.

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