保罗·高更Paul Gauguin

   保罗·高更(Paul Gauguin,1848—1903)法国后印象派画家、雕塑家,与梵高、塞尚并称为后印象派三大巨匠,对现当代绘画的发展有着非常深远的影响。
   高更生于法国巴黎,他把绘画的本质看作是某种独立于自然之外的东西,当成记忆中经验的一种创造,而不是一般所认为的那种通过反复写生而直接获得的知觉经验中的东西。和大多数同时代的艺术家相比,他的探索在更大程度上受到原始艺术的影响,特别是他对南太平洋热带岛屿的风土人情极为痴迷,这似乎要从他的家族背景和成长经历中追根溯源了。

  • 中文名保罗·高更
  • 外文名Paul Gauguin
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生地巴黎
  • 出生日期1848年6月7日
  • 逝世日期1903年5月8日
  • 职业画家、雕塑家
  • 主要成就后印象派三杰
  • 代表作品《我们从哪里来?我们是什么?我们到哪里去?》等
最新新闻
保罗·高更名作《海浪》 5月上拍佳士得

中国美术网 09-05 浏览

1888年,保罗·高更在第二次畅游布列塔尼期间创作了《海浪》(La Vague)。在此之前,高更曾在文森特·梵高的介绍下,结识了艺术家艾米尔·伯纳德,他们交流艺...
早期经历

高更出生在法国巴黎,克洛维斯高更和阿丽娜玛丽亚Chazal 6月7日,1848年他的出生正好与革命性的剧变当年整个欧洲。他的父亲,一个34岁的自由记者来自家庭居住在奥尔良小资产阶级企业家。[6]他被迫逃往法国时,他写道:报纸是由法国当局镇压。[7]高更的母亲,22岁的艾琳玛丽Chazal,是安德烈Chazal,一个雕刻师和弗洛拉·特里斯坦,作家和社会活动家在早期社会主义运动的女儿。他们的工会结束了,当安德烈殴打他的妻子植物群和被判刑入狱企图谋杀。[8]
保罗·高更的外祖母弗洛拉·特里斯坦,是泰雷兹Laisnay和唐·马里亚诺·德特里斯坦莫斯科索的私生女。泰蕾兹的家庭背景细节不得而知; 她的父亲,唐马里亚诺,是西班牙贵族和暴徒的官员。[9]富人特里斯坦莫斯科索家族成员持有秘鲁强有力的位置。[10]然而,唐马里亚诺的意外身亡情妇和女儿弗洛拉陷入贫困。[11]当菌群与安德烈的婚姻失败后,她请求并获得来自她父亲的亲戚秘鲁小结算货币。她航行到秘鲁扩大她的特里斯坦莫斯科索家族的财富份额的希望。这从未实现; 但她成功地出版了她在秘鲁的经验,这些推出了她的文艺事业在1838年早期的社会主义社会的积极支持者流行的游记,高更的外祖母帮助奠定了1848年革命运动的基础。根据法国警方监视和过劳的痛苦,她于1844年去世[12]她的孙子保罗“崇拜他的祖母,并保持她的书副本以及他到他生命的尽头。” [13]

1850年,高更克洛维斯在他妻子的南美关系的主持下继续他的记者生涯的希望离开秘鲁与他的妻子阿丽娜和年幼的孩子。[14]他死于心脏发作的途中,和阿丽娜在秘鲁来到一个寡妇与18个月大的保罗和他的2个半岁的姐姐,玛丽。高更的母亲被她的父亲叔祖,他的儿子,女婿不久将承担秘鲁的总统欢迎。[15]为了六岁的时候,保罗享有特权的成长,由nursemaids和仆人出席了会议。他保留了他的童年那段其中灌输的记忆犹新“秘鲁不可磨灭的印象是困扰了他的余生。” [16]

高更的田园诗般的童年是在这个“热带天堂”突然结束时,他的家人在导师于1854年艾琳回到了法国与她的孩子秘鲁国内冲突的政治力量下降,留下保罗与他的祖父,纪尧姆高更,在新奥尔良。由她安排叔祖慷慨年金的秘鲁特里斯坦莫斯科索被剥夺战队,阿丽娜定居巴黎作为一个裁缝工作。[17]

教育和第一份工作
参加了几个当地的学校之后,高更被送到著名的天主教寄宿学校佩蒂特Séminaire去拉沙佩勒圣梅斯曼。[18]他在学校度过了三年。十四岁,他进入了德龙研究所在巴黎,海军预备学校,回到奥尔良把他最后一年在公立中学圣女贞德前。高更签约成为试点在'助理商船。三年后,他加入了法国海军中,他担任了两年。[19]他的母亲于1867年7月去世,但他没有几个月的学习,直到他姐姐的一封信玛丽在印度赶上了他。[20] [21]

1871年,高更回到了巴黎,在那里他获得一份工作作为一个股票经纪人。一个亲朋好友,古斯塔夫阿罗萨,让他在工作巴黎交易所 ; 高更是23他成为一个成功的商人巴黎并保持一个为未来11年。1879年,他在他的艺术市场交易的年收入(约$ 125,000美元,2008年美元)30000法郎作为一个股票经纪人,并再次多。[22] [23]但是,在1882年巴黎股市崩盘和艺术市场收缩。高更的盈利急剧恶化,他最终决定追求绘画全职。[24] [25]

婚姻
1873年,他娶了丹麦女子梅特-索菲·盖德(1850年至1920年)。在接下来的十年中,他们有五个孩子:埃米尔(1874年至1955年); 艾琳(1877年至1897年); 克洛维斯(1979至00年); 让勒内(1881年至1961年); 和保罗ROLLON(1883-1961)。到1884年,高更曾与他的家人搬到哥本哈根,丹麦,在那里,他追求的商业生涯作为篷布推销员。这不是一个成功的:他不能讲丹麦语,以及丹麦人不希望法国防水油布。梅特成了养家糊口首席,给法国的教训,学员外交官。[26]

他的中产阶级家庭和婚姻11年后土崩瓦解时,高更被赶出画全职。他于1885年回到巴黎后,他的妻子和她的家人要求他离开,因为他已经放弃了他们共同的价值观。[ 澄清需要 ] [27] [28]高更与他们的最后一次身体接触是在1891年,梅特最终与他分手果断于1894年[29] [30]

首先画
1873年,各地,他成为一个股票经纪人的同时,高更开始在他的空闲时间画。他的巴黎生活集中在巴黎第九区。高更住在15街拉布吕耶尔。[31] [32]最近是印象派常去的咖啡馆。高更还参观了画廊经常和新兴艺术家购买作品。他形成了友谊毕沙罗[33] ,并参观了他周日在他的花园作画。毕沙罗给他介绍了各种其他艺术家。1877年的高更“感动低端市场和过河到较差,更新,城市蔓延”的伏吉拉尔。在这里,在8街Carcel三楼,他的第一个主场,他有一个工作室。[32]他的密友埃米尔Schuffenecker,前股票经纪人谁也渴望成为一个艺术家,被住在附近。高更显示出绘画印象派展览于1881年和1882年举行- (早雕塑,他的儿子埃米尔的,曾在1879年的第四届印象派画展唯一的雕塑),他的作品获得不屑一顾的评论,尽管这些国家,如该伏吉拉尔市场花园,现在都高度重视。[34] [35]

1882年,股市崩盘和艺术市场收缩。保罗·杜兰德-鲁埃尔,印象派'首要的艺术品经销商,特别是受碰撞和今后一个时期的时间停止购买从画家的照片,如高更高更的收入急剧萎缩,并在接下来的两年中,他慢慢地提出了他的计划成为一名全职艺术家。[33]下面的两个夏天,他以画毕沙罗和偶尔塞尚。1883年10月,他写信给毕沙罗说,他已决定从不惜一切代价画使他的生活,并要求对他的帮助,毕沙罗起初容易提供的。翌年一月,高更举家搬迁到鲁昂,在那里他们可以活得更便宜和在那里,他以为他来访毕沙罗当去年夏天已经看出端倪的机会。然而,创业证明是不成功的,并在今年年底梅特回到哥本哈根,高更在1884年11月之后不久之后,他把他的艺术收藏品,随后留在哥本哈根。[36] [37]

生活在哥本哈根被证明同样难以和他们的婚姻变得紧张。在梅特的催促下,她的家人的支持下,高更回到了巴黎来年。[38]

法国1885-86
高更回到巴黎六月1885年,伴随着他6岁的儿子克洛维斯。其他孩子在哥本哈根,因为那里有家人和朋友的支持,同时梅特自己能得到工作作为翻译和法语老师保持与梅特。高更最初发现很难在巴黎重新进入艺术世界,并度过了他的第一个冬天回到了真正的贫困,必须采取一系列的粗活。克洛维斯最终病倒,被送往寄宿学校,高更的妹妹玛丽提供资金。[39] [40]在这第一年,他制作了很少的艺术。他在五月1886年陈列在第八(也是最后一次)印象派画展19画和木质浮雕[41]大部分这些画都是从鲁昂或更早哥本哈根工作,有没有在一些新的真正的小说,虽然他,Baigneuses à迪耶普(“女出浴”)介绍什么是成为一个重复出现的主题,女人的波澜。然而,费利克斯Bracquemond没有购买他的画作之一。本次展会还设立了乔治·修拉领袖前卫在巴黎运动。高更轻蔑地拒绝了修拉的新印象派的 点彩画技术,在今年晚些时候与毕沙罗,谁从这一点上来说是朝着高更,而对立的果断破门。[42] [43]

高更度过了1886年夏天的艺术家的殖民地蓬艾文在布列塔尼。他首先被吸引,因为它是便宜住在那里。但是,他发现自己与谁在夏天蜂拥而至的还有年轻的艺术学生了意想不到的成功。他天生的气质拳击(他既是一位成功的拳击手和击剑)是在社会上轻松的海滨度假胜地没有障碍。他在此期间,尽可能多的为他古怪的外表为他的艺术被人记住。在这些新员工是查尔斯·拉瓦尔,谁陪同高更于次年巴拿马和马提尼克岛。[44] [45]

那年夏天,他执行的裸体人物柔和一些图纸毕沙罗的方式和那些德加陈列在1886年第八次印象派画展。他主要画风景,如拉白吉尔Bretonne(“布雷顿牧羊女”),其中的人物起着次要作用。他Jeunes布列塔尼金贝恩(“年轻男孩布列塔尼出浴”),介绍他每次回来他访问蓬艾文时间为主题,是在其设计和大胆使用纯色显然受惠于德加。英国插画家的天真图纸伦道夫郝德杰,用来说明在布列塔尼流行的指导书,已经引起了想象力的前卫在蓬艾文学生艺术家,急于从他们学院的保守性中解脱出来,和高更有意识地模仿他们在他的布列塔尼女孩草图。[46]这些草图后来在他的巴黎工作室工作成画回来。最重要的是四个布列塔尼妇女,这显示了他早期印象派风格形成了鲜明对比,以及结合郝德杰的插图天真质量的东西,夸大功能,以漫画的地步。[45] [47]

高更,随着埃米尔·伯纳德查尔斯·拉瓦尔,埃米尔Schuffenecker和许多人一样,重新走访蓬艾文他在巴拿马和马提尼克岛的旅行之后。大胆运用纯净的色彩和象征选择标的物分清什么是现在所谓的蓬艾文学校。与失望印象派,高更认为,传统的欧洲绘画已经变得过于模仿,缺乏象征性的深度。相比之下,非洲和亚洲的艺术似乎对他充满神秘的象征和活力。有在欧洲盛行的时间艺术其他文化,尤其是日本(的JAPONISM)。他被邀请参加1889年展会举办的Les XX。

人物关系

高更梵高
高更马提尼克岛的画都是在他的肤色商人阿瑟·波蒂埃的画廊展出。在那里,他们被看到和欣赏梵高和他的艺术经销商的弟弟提奥·凡高,他的公司古皮尔&Cie公司曾与波特尔往来。西奥购买三高更的绘画作品900法郎安排让他们悬挂在古皮尔的,从而带来了高更富有的客户。同时文森特和高更成了亲密的朋友(在梵高的部分量达一些类似于奉承),他们一起对应于艺术,函授那是在高更制定自己的艺术理念的工具。[54] [55]与古皮尔公司于1891年元月延续过去西奥去世的安排。

高更的文森特关系证明误人子弟。1888年,在西奥的怂恿下,高更和Vincent花9周在文森特的画一起黄楼在阿尔勒。他们的关系恶化,最终高更决定离开。在根据晚得多账户高更的的1888年12月23日晚上,梵高面临高更用刀片。后来当天晚上,梵高割下他的左耳。[56]他用报纸包着被切断的组织,交给了国内工人谁是他的朋友,问她“仔细保留这个对象,在我的记忆。” [57]凡高住院第二天和高更离开阿尔勒。[58]他们再也没有见过对方,但他们仍然一致,且在1890年的高更竟然提出它们形成在安特卫普的艺术家工作室。[59] [60]一个1889年的雕塑自画像的头型壶,自拍似乎引用高更梵高创伤性关系。

高更后来声称一直在影响梵高的发展在阿尔勒一个画家的工具。虽然梵高短暂地做过实验,高更的在绘画的想象绘画理论,如花园在伊顿的记忆,它不适合他,他迅速地从自然界回到绘画。[61] [62]

高更和德加
虽然高更毕沙罗在艺术的世界里取得了一些他早期的进步的,埃德加·德加是高更的最受尊敬的当代艺术家,在他从一开始的工作有很大的影响,他的人物和内饰,以及歌手的雕绘奖章瓦莱丽·鲁米。[63]他对德加的艺术尊严和机智深深的崇敬之情。[64]这是高更的健康,持续时间最长的友谊,跨越他的整个艺术生涯,直到他去世。

除了是他最早的支持者之一,其中包括在购买高更的工作,说服经销商保罗·杜兰德-鲁埃尔做同样的,也从来不是一个高更的公众支持比德加多不动摇。[65]高更也在早期到中期1870年的购买工作,从德加和他自己的monotyping的偏好可能是由德加“在中进步的影响。[66]高更杜兰德-鲁埃尔展1893年11月,这主要是德加组织,评论褒贬不一。其中嘲讽是莫奈皮埃尔·奥古斯特·雷诺阿和以前的朋友毕沙罗。德加,然而,称赞他的工作,采购特faaturuma  (ES)和欣赏高更的异国情调的阔绰唤出的民间传说。[67] [68] [69]在升值,高更呈现德加与月亮和地球,也吸引了最恶劣的批评展出的画作之一。[70]高更的油画后期海滩上的车手(两个版本)回忆说德加的马的照片,他在19世纪60年代开始,特别是赛道和比赛前,证明对他的高更持久的效果。[71]德加后来购买了两幅画在高更1895年拍卖筹集资金,为他的最后一趟大溪地。这些都是Vahine没有TE VI(女子用芒果)和高更马奈的副本奥林匹亚。

艺术经历

到1890年,高更曾设想让项目塔希提他的下一个目的地的艺术。在巴黎的画作成功拍卖Hôtel酒店德鲁奥在1891年2月,与其他活动,如宴会和慈善音乐会一起,提供了必要的资金。[73]拍卖已经从一个讨人喜欢的评论得到了很大的帮助奥克塔夫·米尔博,通过高更拉拢毕沙罗。[A]拜访他的妻子和孩子在哥本哈根,有什么竟然是最后一次后,高更1891年4月1日起航的塔希提岛,许诺返回一个富人和改弦更张。[74]他公开宣称的目的是逃避欧洲文明和“一切,这是人为的,传统的”。[75] [76]然而,他小心翼翼把他的视觉刺激集合中的照片,素描和版画的形式。[77] 并[b]

他花了前三个月在帕皮提,资本殖民地,并已倍受法国和欧洲文化的影响。他的传记作者贝琳达汤姆森指出,他必须在其原始的田园生活的愿景已经失望。他负担不起享乐的生活方式帕皮提,并在画像的早期尝试,苏珊娜班布里 (FR),没有得到很好的喜爱。[79]他决定成立自己的工作室Mataiea,Papeari从帕皮提,一些45公里,安装在自己的本地风格的竹屋,。在这里,他执行的画,描绘大溪地生活,如经过海中(由海)和IA奥兰纳玛丽亚 (CA)(圣母颂),后者成为他最珍贵的大溪地画。[80] [C]

他的许多画作最好的日期从这一时期。他大溪地模型的第一次画像被认为是Vahine没有TE蒂亚雷 (CA)(带花的女人)。这幅画是著名的与它描绘的关怀波利尼西亚功能。他送画给他的赞助人乔治-丹尼尔·德Monfreid,Schuffenecker的朋友,谁是成为高更在塔希提岛忠实冠军。夏末1892年正被古皮尔在巴黎的画廊显示此画。[81]艺术史学家南希·马修斯Mowll认为,高更与大溪地异国情调的性感,在绘画中如此明显的相遇,是迄今为止他寄居的最重要的方面。[82]

高更借出的副本雅克-安托万Moerenhout的 (FR) 1837年之旅的辅助尔斯杜大洋和爱德蒙得宝维士联'  (FR) 1855参谋部德拉兴业tahitienne A L'Arrivée酒店德Européens,含塔希提岛的被遗忘的文化和宗教的全面帐户。他被账目着迷Arioi社会和他们的神'Oro的。因为这些账户不含插图和大溪地车型均早已销声匿迹任何情况下,他可以到他的想象力自由发挥。他执行了二十几个绘画和未来一年十几木雕。其中第一项是特AA无areois(该Areoi的种子),代表奥罗陆地妻子Vairaumati,目前由持有大都会艺术博物馆。他表示时间的笔记本,ANCIEN Culte Mahorie  (它),在卢浮宫被保留,并发表在传真的形式于1951年[83] [84] [85]

总之,高更在巴黎派他的画九Monfreid。最终,这些被展出在哥本哈根与已故的文森特·梵高的联合展览。报道称,他们已经收到很好的(虽然实际上只有两个大溪地画作的出售和他早期的绘画作品与不利梵高的比较)充分鼓励高更试图用大约七十人,他已经完成了回归。[86] [87]他在任何情况下,大部分资金用尽,取决于国家补助的免费通行的家。此外,他曾诊断为当地的医生,这意味着马修斯可能是的早期迹象心脏问题的一些健康问题,心血管梅毒。[88]

高更后来写一篇游记(初版1901年)题为诺亚诺亚 (CA),最初的设想是在评他的画和描述在塔希提岛的经验。现代的批评者认为,这本书的内容,有一部分被幻想和抄袭。[89] [90]他在文中透露,他已经在这个时候采取了一个十三岁的女孩作为本机的妻子或vahine(在大溪地意为“女人”),在一个下午的过程中染上了婚姻。这是Teha'amana,叫Tehura的游记,谁是怀孕的他通过夏季结束1892年[91] [92] [93] [D]。 Teha'amana是几个高更的画的主题,包括Merahi metua没有Tehamana和著名的死亡的幽灵在注视,还有一个显着的木雕Tehura在现在奥赛博物馆。[95]

回到法国

1893年八月,高更回到了法国,在那里他继续在大溪地科目,如执行绘画Mahana没有阿图阿 (它)(神天)和殿殿MOE (PL)(神圣的春天,甜蜜的梦)。[98] [99]在展览杜兰德-鲁埃尔在1894年11月的画廊是一个相当成功,在相当高的价格展出四十绘画十一销售。他成立了一间公寓,6街韦辛格托里克斯的边缘蒙帕纳斯的艺术家经常光顾的地区,并开始进行每周一次的沙龙。他影响了异国情调的角色,在波利尼西亚的服装打扮,依然在她十几岁进行与一名年轻女子公开恋情,“半印半马来亚”,被誉为阿娜爪哇 (CA)。[100] [101]

尽管他的月展会相当成功,他随后在不明确的情况下失去了杜兰德-鲁埃尔的惠顾。马修斯这一特点为高更的职业生涯一个悲剧。除其他事项外,他失去了介绍了美国市场的机会。[102] 1894年开始发现他使用他的游记提出的实验技术准备木刻诺亚诺亚。他回到蓬艾文夏天。次年,他尝试他在巴黎类似,他曾在1891年举行了一个绘画的拍卖,但没有成功。经销商安布鲁瓦兹沃拉德,然而,表现出他的画在他于1895年三月画廊,但遗憾的是没来在该日期条款。[103]

他提交了一份大型陶瓷雕塑他叫Oviri他已经解雇了先前的冬天了兴业国立美术学院 1895年沙龙在四月开幕。[96]有冲突的版本,它是如何获得:他的传记和诺亚诺亚合作者的象征诗人查尔斯·莫里斯 (FR),争辩(1920)的工作是“从字面上驱逐”从展览,同时沃拉德说(1937年)当项圈威胁要撤销他自己的所有工作工作只承认。[104]在任何情况下,高更趁机写现代陶瓷的状态愤怒的信,以增加他公开曝光晚报。[105]

到了这个时候,它已成为明确表示,他和他的妻子梅特被无可挽回地分离。虽然有和解的希望了,他们很快就争吵过钱的问题既不走访了其他。高更最初拒绝共享一个13000法郎的遗产由他的叔叔伊西多尔,他回国后进入不久的任何部分。梅特最终优1500法郎,但她被激怒了,并从该点上保持在只有通过Schuffenhecker与他联系,倍加磨损的高更因为他的朋友因此知道他背叛的真实程度。

English Introduction

Gauguin was born in France, Paris, Clovis Gauguin and Alina Maria Chazal in June 7th, 1848, his birth coincided with the revolutionary upheavals in the whole of europe. His father, a 34 year old freelance journalist from a family living in Orlean, a small bourgeois entrepreneur. [6] he was forced to flee to France when he wrote that the newspaper was suppressed by the French authorities. [7] and her mother, 22 year old Aileen Marie Chazal, Andre Chazal, an engraver and Flora Tristan, a writer and social activist in the early socialist movement's daughter. Their Union ended when Andre beat his wife flora and was jailed for attempted murder. [8]
Paul Gaug's grandmother Flora Tristan, is the Thales Laisnay and Don Mariano de Tristan Moscoso's illegitimate daughter. Therese's family background details of her father, Tangmali can make nothing of it; is the Spanish aristocracy and Arnold, a mob of officials. [9] wealthy Tristan Moscow family members hold a strong position in Peru. [10] however, the accidental death of Tangmali Arnold mistress and daughter Flora into poverty. [11] when the group and Andre's marriage failed, she asked for and received a small settlement currency from her father's relatives in Peru. She sailed to Peru to expand her hopes of the Tristan Moscow family's wealth share. This has never been achieved successfully; but she published her experience in Peru, which launched an active supporter of her literary career in early 1838 the socialist popular blogs, grandmother and helped to lay the foundation for the 1848 revolution. According to the French police surveillance and the pain of overwork, she died in 1844 [12] her grandson Paul "worship his grandmother, and keep copies of her book as well as the end of his life to him." [13]
In 1850, Gaug Clovis continued his career as a journalist in Peru under the auspices of his wife's relations with South America, leaving his wife, Alina, and young children. [14] died on his way to a heart attack, and Alina came to Peru with a widow with 18 month old Paul and his sister, aged 2.5, at the age of. Gauguin's mother was her father's great uncle, his son, son-in-law will assume the president of Peru welcome soon. [15] for the age of six, Paul enjoyed the privilege of growing up, attended by nursemaids and his servants. He retains the memory of his childhood, which is instilled in his mind: "the indelible impression of Peru is the rest of his life." [16]
Gauguin's idyllic childhood in the "tropical paradise" suddenly at the end of his family in the tutor in 1854 Aileen returned to France with her children to the conflict in Peru's political power down, leaving Paul with his grandfather, Guillaume Gauguin, in New Orleans. Arranged by her generous pension Peru granduncle Tristan Moscoso deprived clan, Alina settled in Paris worked as a seamstress. [17]
Education and the first job
After attending several local schools, and was sent to the famous Catholic boarding school Petit S minaire to La Chapelle Saint Metz manchester. [18] he spent three years at school. At the age of fourteen, he entered the Delong Institute in Paris naval preparatory school, Orlean returned to his last year in high school before Joan of arc. Gauguin to become a pilot in 'assistant merchant contract. Three years later, he joined the French navy for two years. [19] his mother died in July 1867, but he did not study for several months until his sister's letter Marie caught up with him in India. [21] [20]
In 1871, Gauguin returned to Paris, where he got a job as a stockbroker. A family and friends, Gustav Arosa, let him work in the Paris stock exchange is 23; and he became a successful businessman in Paris and maintain a for the next 11 years. In 1879, he earned an annual income of about $30000 ($125000 in 2008 dollars) in his art market as a stockbroker and again. [22] [23] but, in 1882, the Paris stock market crash and the art market contraction. Gauguin's earnings deteriorated sharply, he finally decided to pursue painting full-time. [25] [24]
Marriage
In 1873, he married a Danish woman Mette Sophie (1850 to 1920) gaide. In the next ten years, they have five children: Amir (1874 - 1955); Aileen (1877 to 1897); Clovis (1979 to 00 years); let Rene (1881 to 1961); and Paul (ROLLON 1883-1961). By 1884, Gauguin and his family moved to Copenhagen, Denmark, where he pursued a business career as a salesman. This is not a success: he can not speak Danish, and the Danish people don't want French tarpaulin. The chief Techeng Mei family, giving French lessons, students diplomats. [26]
His middle class family and marriage after 11 years apart, and were expelled from the painting full-time. When he returned to Paris in 1885, his wife and her family asked him to leave because he had given up their shared values. [[27]] [28] and Gauguin to clarify their last contact in 1891, Hummert eventually broke up with him in 1894 [29] [30] decisively
First drawIn 1873, around, he became a stockbroker. At the same time, Gauguin began painting in his spare time. His life in Paris is concentrated in the Ninth District of Paris. Gauguin lived in 15 Raab Lui Iyer street. [31] [32] has been a popular cafe for the impressionists. Gauguin also visited the gallery and emerging artists often buy works. He formed a friendship with Pissarro [33] and visited him on Sunday in his garden painting. Pissarro introduced him to a variety of other artists. In 1877, Gauguin "touched the low-end market and across the river to the poor, update the city spread" the vaugirard. Here, on the third floor of 8 street Carcel, his first home, he has a studio. [32] his close friend Amir Schuffenecker, a former stockbroker who also aspired to be an artist, was living nearby. Gauguin painting shows Impressionist exhibition held in 1881 and 1882 (early sculpture, his son Amir, who in 1879 fourth Impressionist exhibitions only sculpture), his works have a contemptuous disregard comments, although these countries, such as the Vaugirard market garden, now attaches great importance to. [35] [34]
In 1882, the stock market crash and contraction of the art market. Paul Durand ruel, 'the first Impressionist art dealer, particularly by the collision and for a period of time to stop buying from the artist's picture, such as gauguin. Gauguin's income decline sharply, and in the next two years, he slowly raised his plans to become a full-time artist. [33] the following two summers, he painted Pissarro and occasionally Cezanne. In October 1883, he wrote to Pissarro that he had decided to paint his life at all costs, and to ask for his help, Pissarro was initially offered. The following year in January, and his family moved to Rouen, where they can live cheaper and there, he thought he was visiting Pissarro last summer when the opportunity has been discerned. However, entrepreneurship proved unsuccessful, and returned to Copenhagen at the end of this year's, Gauguin in November 1884 after shortly after, he took his art collection, then stay in Copenhagen. [37] [36]
Living in Copenhagen proved equally difficult and their marriage became strained. At the urging of her mate, family support, and returned to Paris the next year. [38]
France 1885-86
Gauguin returned to Paris in June 1885, with his 6 year old son Clovis. Other children in Copenhagen, because there are family and friends to support, and at the same time, he can get a job as a translator and a French teacher to keep up with. Gauguin initially found it difficult to re-enter the world of art in Paris, and spent his first winter back to the real poverty, must take a series. Clovis finally fell ill and was sent to a boarding school, and sister Marie funds. [39] [40] in the first year, he produced very little art. He displayed on the eighth in May 1886 (and last) Impressionist exhibition of 19 paintings and wood relief [41] most of these paintings are from Rouen or Copenhagen earlier, have some new real novels, although he, Baigneuses, Dieppe ("female bathing") introduced what is to become a recurring the theme of women waves. However, Felix Bracquemond did not buy one of his paintings. The exhibition also set up a leader in the vanguard of George Shola movement in Paris. Gauguin spurned pointillist technique Seurat's Neo Impressionism, later in the year with Pissarro, who at this point is toward Gauguin, and opposing the decisive break. [43] [42]
Gauguin spent the summer of 1886 the artist colony of Pont aven in Brittany. He was first attracted because it was cheaper to live there. However, he found himself and who in the summer and young art students stampede in the unexpected success. He was born with the makings of Boxing (he was both a successful boxer and fencing) and was a barrier to the seaside resort in the community without obstacles. During this period, as much as possible for his eccentric appearance for his art to be remembered. Among these new employees was Charles Lawal, who accompanied the in the following year on Panama and Martinique. [45] [44]
That summer, he executed the nude figure soft some drawings of Pissarro way and those on display in 1886 eighth Degas Impressionist exhibition. He mainly painted landscapes, such as Labai Gil Bretonne ("Breton shepherdess"), one of the characters plays a minor role. He Jeunes Brittany Kim Bain ("the young boy Brittany bathing"), introduced every time he comes back, he visited pont aven time as the theme, is in its design and bold use of solid obviously benefit from degas. British illustrator Randolph Hao Dejie to illustrate the naive drawings, Brittany in the popular guide book, has caught the imagination of the avant-garde artists at the Pont aven students, eager to escape from their school of conservation, and Gauguin consciously imitate them in his Brittany girl sketch. [46] these sketches were later worked in his Paris studio to draw back. The most important is the four Breton women, which shows his early impressionist style contrasts, and things, combined with Hao Dejie's illustrations of naive quality exaggerated features, to the point of comics. [47] [45]
Gauguin, along with Emil Bernard, Charles Lawal, Amir Schuffenecker and many others, he again visited pont aven in Panama and the island of Martinique travel.In 1890, Gauguin had envisaged for the next destination of Tassi Te Tha's art project. In Paris, H Tel's paintings auction Hotel Drouot in February 1891, and other activities, such as dinner and charity concert together, provide the necessary funds. [73] auction has grown from a delightful love comments helped by Octave Milbo, Gauguin to Pissarro. [A] went to visit his wife and children in Copenhagen, what was the last time after April 1, 1891, Gauguin set sail to Tahiti Island, promised to return a rich and change policy. [74] his avowed purpose is to escape European civilization and "all that is man-made, traditional". [75] [76], however, he was careful to put his visual stimulus in the collection of photographs, drawings and prints in the form. [77] and [b]
He spent three months ago in Papeete, capital of the colony, and has much influence in France and European culture. His biographer Belinda Thomson points out that he must have been disappointed in the vision of his original pastoral life. He can't afford the Papeete happy lifestyle, and try in the portrait of the early, Suzanne Ben Brie (FR), have not been well loved. [79] he decided to set up his own studio Mataiea Papeari, from Papeete, some 45 kilometers, installed in their own local style bamboo house,. Here, he executed the painting, depicting the life of Tahiti, such as through the sea (by sea) and O Lanna Maria IA (CA) (Ave Maria), which became his most precious paintings tahiti. [C] [80]
Many of his paintings date from this period. The first portrait of his Tahiti model was found to be Vahine TE (CA) (Tiare flower woman). This painting is famous with its depiction of the Polynesian care function. He gave paintings to his patron George Daniel de Monfreid, a friend of Schuffenecker, who was to become Gauguin in the island of Tahiti faithful champion. At the end of the summer of 1892 was the Goupil Gallery in Paris shows the. [81] art historian Nancy Mathews Mowll believes that Tahiti and Gauguin exotic sexy, in painting so obvious encounter, is by far the most important aspect of his sojourn. [82]
Jacques - Antoine Gauguin lent a copy of Moerenhout (FR) 1837 tour of the ocean and Edmond Debao DeVos assisted Ersidu Union '(FR) 1855 staff tahitienne A L'Arriv de la Societe e Hotel de Europ e ens, including Tahiti's forgotten cultural and religious comprehensive account. He was fascinated by the accounts of Arioi society and their God'Oro. Because these accounts do not contain illustrations and Tahiti models have already disappeared under any circumstances, he can go to the free play of his imagination. He performed twenty paintings and more than a dozen Woodcarving in the coming year. The first one is the AA areois (the Areoi seed), on behalf of Oro land wife Vairaumati, currently held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. He said the time of the notebook, ANCIEN Culte Mahorie (it), was retained in the Le Louvre Museum, and was published in the form of fax on 1951 [83] [84] [85]
In short, Gauguin sent his painting of nine Monfreid in Paris. In the end, these were exhibited in Copenhagen and the late Vincent VanGhon's joint exhibition. Reported that they have received very good (although actually sold only two Tahiti paintings and his early paintings of Van Gogh and unfavorable comparison) to fully encourage Gauguin about seventy people, he has already completed the regression. [86] [87] in any case, most of the money ran out, depending on the state subsidies for free access to the home. In addition, he has been diagnosed with a local doctor, which means that Mathews may be an early sign of some health problems of heart problems, cardiovascular syphilis. [88]
Gauguin later wrote a travelogue (edition 1901) entitled Noah Noah (CA), originally conceived in his paintings and description on the island of Tahiti experience. Modern critics believe that the contents of the book, some of them are fantasy and plagiarism. [89] [90] he said in the article, he has been at the time to take a thirteen year old girl as the wife or vahine (for "woman" in Tahiti, Italy) in an afternoon in the process of dyeing on marriage. This is Teha'amana, called Tehura's travels, who was pregnant with him through the summer end of 1892 [91] [92] [93] [D]. Teha'amana is a few Gauguin painting themes, including the Merahi metua without Tehamana and the famous spirit of the dead watching, there is a significant Tehura in the wood now Orsay museum.

English Introduction

Gauguin and Van Gogh
Gauguin Martinique island's paintings are exhibited in his skin businessman Arthur Poitier gallery. Where they were to see Theo Fango and appreciate Van Gogh and his art dealer's brother, his company has worked with the company with an Cie goupil. Theo bought three more paintings hanging in the 900 francs arrangement for them to bring Goupil, and wealthy clients. At the same time, Vincent and Gauguin became close friends (up to some similar to the flattery in the part of quantitative Van Gogh), together they correspond to art, that is making correspondence of his art concept in Gauguin's tools. [54] [55] and Theo died last Goupil & CIE arrangement in January 1891.
The proof of the relationship fraught with Vincent gauguin. On 1888, at Theo's urging, Gauguin and Vincent spend 9 weeks in Vincent's paintings with yellow building in Arles. Their relationship deteriorated, Gauguin eventually decided to leave. According to the account in the much later and the night of December 23, 1888, Van Gogh faced with a blade of gauguin. Later that night, Van Gogh cut off his left ear. [56] he wrapped up the newspaper with a severed tissue, handed over to a domestic worker who was his friend, and asked her to "carefully keep this object in my memory." [57] Van Gogh hospitalized for second days and Gauguin left Arles. [58] they haven't seen each other, but they are still consistent, and in 1890 and should put forward they are formed in the Antwerp studio. [59] [60], a 1889 self portrait sculpture head pot, Gauguin and Van Gogh seem to self reference traumatic relationship.
Gauguin later claimed that Van Gogh has been in effect in Arles as a painter and tools. Although Van Gogh briefly experimented in painting Gauguin's imagination painting theory, such as the garden in Eaton's memory, it is not suitable for him, he quickly returned to painting from nature. [62] [61]
Gauguin and Degas
Although Gauguin in Pissarro in the art world has made some progress in his early, Edgar Pedja Gauguin's most respected contemporary artists, has a great influence on his work from the very beginning of his character and interior, and singer Valerie Nurmi carved and painted medal. [63] he Degas's artistic dignity and wit deep reverence. [64] this is Gauguin's health, the longest lasting friendship, spanning his entire career, until his death.
But he is one of the earliest supporters, including in the purchase of Gauguin's work, Paul Durand ruel persuade them to do the same, also never a high public support does not shake Peter cadogan. [65] also to mid 1870 to buy more work in the early days, from Degas and his own monotyping preferences may be influenced by Degas "in progress. [66] and Du Lande ruel show in November 1893, which is mainly Degas organization, mixed reviews. The irony is Monet, Pierre August Renoa and former friend, Pissarro. Degas, however, praised his work, purchasing faaturuma (ES) and enjoy the exotic rich evocation of Gauguin folklore. [67] [68] [69] in appreciation, Gauguin showed Degas and the earth and the moon, one of the paintings also attracted the most severe criticism on display. [70] and oil painting on the beach later driver (two version) recalls Degas photographs of horses, he began in 1860s, especially the track and before the game, to prove his Gauguin lasting effect. [71] later bought two Degas painting and raise funds in the 1895 auction, for his last trip tahiti. These are not Vahine TE VI (woman with Mango) and Gauguin Manet's copy of Olympia.

In August 1893, Gauguin returned to France, where he continued in Tahiti subjects, such as the implementation of Mahana painting without Atua (it) (God) and Dian MOE (PL) (holy spring, sweet dreams). [98] [99] at the exhibition Du Du Reuel Gallery in November 1894 was a fairly successful, very high price display on forty paintings in the sales of eleven. He set up an apartment, 6 street Wei Singer Tuolikesi edge artist Montparnasse frequented areas, and started the weekly salon. He influenced exotic character, dressed in Polynesia clothing, still in her teens and a young woman public affair, "half half - Malaya, known as the Ahna Java (CA). [101] [100]
Even though his monthly show was a success, he lost Du Lande Reuel's patronage in the absence of clarity. The characteristics of Mathews Gauguin's occupation career a tragedy. Among other things, he lost the opportunity to introduce the American market. [102] 1894 found that the experimental techniques he used his travels to Noah Noah put wood. He returned to pont aven in summer. The following year, he tried his similar in Paris, he had held a painting auction in 1891, but did not succeed. However, Bruce wollard dealer Ann oise showed his, in his March 1895 painting gallery, but unfortunately did not come to terms on that date. [103]
He submitted a large ceramic sculpture he called Oviri he had fired the previous winter 1895 opening of the Societe Generale national Academy of Fine Arts in April. There is a conflict [96] version, it is how to get his biography and Noah Noah the symbol of the poet Charles Maurice (FR), (1920) argue that work is "literally expelled from the exhibition at the same time," said Volard (1937) when he threatened to withdraw from the collar all work has only admitted. [104] in any case, the state took the opportunity to write modern ceramics and angry letters, to increase his public exposure of evening news. [105]
By this time, it has become clear that he and his wife, Mette, have been irrevocably separated. Although there is hope of reconciliation, they soon quarrel money neither visited other. Gauguin initially refused to share a 13000 francs legacy by his uncle Isidore, after his return to any part of the near. Mette finally you 1500 francs, but she was enraged, and from that point on only remain in contact with him through Schuffenhecker, more wear Gaug because his friends so he know the true extent of betrayal.

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