皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯Piero della Francesca

皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯Piero della Francesca(1415年——1492年10月12日),意大利画家。皮耶罗出生在镇博尔戈圣塞坡尔克罗,现代托斯卡纳(他也死了),到贝内代德“切斯基,一个商人,和罗马迪佩里诺达蒙泰尔基,佛罗伦萨和托斯卡纳切斯基贵族家庭的一部分。在1442年,他被列为资格桑塞波尔克罗的市议会。三年后,他收到的委托为麦当娜德拉任凭祭坛的慈悲圣塞波尔克罗的教堂,在早期1460s完成。1449年,他执行了几个壁画Castello Estense城堡和圣安德烈亚教堂费拉拉,也失去了。他的影响力在后来的费拉勒斯寓言作品是特别强科西莫图拉。

  • 中文名皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯
  • 外文名Piero della Francesca
  • 性别
  • 国籍意大利
  • 出生地佛罗伦萨
  • 出生日期1415年
  • 逝世日期1492年10月12日
  • 职业画家、壁画家
传记

皮耶罗出生在镇博尔戈圣塞坡尔克罗,[1]现代托斯卡纳(他也死了),到贝内代德“切斯基,一个商人,和罗马迪佩里诺达蒙泰尔基,佛罗伦萨和托斯卡纳切斯基贵族家庭的一部分。

他是最有可能的学徒本地画家安东尼奥·吉奥瓦尼D'安吉里,因为在有关付款值得注意的是,他与安东尼奥于1432年的工作和1438五月文件[2] [3]此外,他肯定了通知一些工作锡耶纳他的青年在活动中桑塞波尔克罗艺术家; 例如萨塞塔。在1439年收到的皮耶罗,连同多梅尼科韦内齐亚诺,为他的工作支付的壁画为圣艾智德在佛罗伦萨教堂,现在失去了。在佛罗伦萨,他一定已经达到领先的主人一样安吉利科,卢卡·德拉·罗比亚,多纳泰罗和布鲁内莱斯基。的古典马萨乔的壁画和他的雄伟身影在圣母胭脂红是他灵感的重要来源。皮耶罗的无证工作的约会是困难的,因为他的风格似乎并没有开发在过去几年。

成熟的作品
在1442年,他被列为资格桑塞波尔克罗的市议会。三年后,他收到的委托为麦当娜德拉任凭祭坛的慈悲圣塞波尔克罗的教堂,在早期1460s完成。1449年,他执行了几个壁画Castello Estense城堡和圣安德烈亚教堂费拉拉,也失去了。他的影响力在后来的费拉勒斯寓言作品是特别强科西莫图拉

两年后,他在里米尼,为condottiero工作西吉斯蒙Pandolfo马拉泰斯塔。在此小住,他于1451年的著名壁画执行圣西吉斯蒙德和Sigismondo的Pandolfo马拉泰斯塔在马拉泰斯提亚诺庙,以及Sigismondo的肖像。在里米尼皮耶罗可能已达到著名的文艺复兴时期的数学家和建筑师莱昂·巴蒂斯塔·阿尔贝蒂,谁曾重新设计了马拉泰斯提亚诺庙; 虽然已知阿尔贝蒂与他的上司建立直接的对应他的设计为教会的执行。此后皮耶罗是活跃安科纳,佩萨罗和博洛尼亚。

在1454年,他签署了一份合同圣奥古斯丁Polyptych在圣阿戈斯蒂诺圣塞波尔克罗教堂。这polyptic的中央面板被丢失,四个小组的翅膀,与圣徒交涉,分散在世界各地。几年后,被传唤教皇尼古拉五世,他搬到罗马:在这里,他执行的壁画圣母大殿,其中仅片段依然存在。两年后,他又在罗马教皇的资金,为此也被摧毁梵宫壁画。

在基督的洗礼,在国家画廊在伦敦,围绕1460 S.乔瓦尼·巴蒂斯塔在Sansepolcro的修道院教堂的高坛执行。皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯卡的成熟的其他著名的作品是的壁画复活的基督圣塞波尔克罗和圣母parto在蒙泰尔基,圣塞波尔克罗附近。

壁画圣弗朗西斯在阿雷佐
在1452年,皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯叫到阿雷佐,以取代Bicci迪洛伦佐在画的教堂的壁画圣弗朗西斯。这项工作是1466前完成,可能是1452和1456之间的壁画周期,描绘了真十字架传说,是他的杰作中通常被认为和那些文艺复兴时期的绘画一般。在这些壁画故事从传说中的中世纪来源作为对木材遗物如何得出真十字架来发现。这些故事在收集黄金传说的雅格布达瓦拉泽(雅格布达Varagine在13世纪中叶的)。[4]

皮耶罗在乌尔比诺活动
1469之间和1486皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯在伯爵的服务反复工作费德里科三达蒙特费尔特罗(公爵1474)。据瓦萨里,皮耶罗会为费德里科的父亲Guidantonio,谁在1443年二月去世然而工作,这是不可能的,因为这种说法是没有文件或绘画证实。瓦萨里可能混淆Guidantonio与费德里科。该鞭打被普遍认为皮耶罗的乌尔比诺历史最悠久的工作(约会角1455至1470年)。它是文艺复兴早期最著名的和有争议的图片之一。正如其自己的条目讨论,它是由几何清醒的空气标记,除了提出了一个令人困惑的谜,以三个男人站在前台的性质。

涂在乌尔比诺另一个著名的作品是双人像费德里科和他的妻子巴蒂斯塔·斯福扎,在乌菲齐。在配置文件中的肖像其灵感来自大型铜牌和粉刷的圆形与Fedederico和他的妻子的肖像官。乌尔比诺提出的其他作品是不朽的蒙特费尔特罗祭坛在布雷拉画廊在米兰,以及可能还有西尼加利亚麦当娜。

在乌尔比诺皮耶罗会见了画家美洛佐·达·弗利,弗拉狂欢节和佛兰德贾斯特斯面包车根特(或朱斯面包车沃森霍夫或朱斯托迪甘特),数学家弗拉卢卡·帕西奥利,建筑师弗朗切斯科迪乔治·马天尼,以及可能还有莱昂·巴蒂斯塔·阿尔贝蒂。

晚年

在他的晚年,画家,如佩鲁吉诺和卢卡·西诺莱利经常光顾他的工作室。据记载,皮耶罗租住在里米尼在1482年的房子虽然他可能在晚年放弃了绘画,瓦萨里的言论,他去晚年,并在六十岁时双目失明,都值得怀疑,因为1485年他完成了他在普通固体论文,致力于Guidobaldo达蒙特费尔特罗,儿子和费德里科公爵的继承人,在自己罚款的笔迹。皮耶罗立了遗嘱在1487年,他1492年10月五年后去世,12日,在自己的房子在桑塞波尔克罗。他离开了他的财产给他的家庭和教会。

批判和解释
近日,弗里克收藏在纽约,直到2013年5月19日,被称为收集在美国存在的展览皮耶罗的八个现存画作中的七个。七件在展览中,有评论家杰里萨尔茨书面纽约杂志单挑皮耶罗的圣母子登基随着四位天使,其示范性的特质。萨尔茨说,“圣母子升高两个步骤。他们是世界本身除了从这个世界上除了玛丽是不是在看自己的孩子,而是看他到达了一朵玫瑰。你开始收集的启示她是有。花代表着爱,奉献,和美丽,同时也象征着血液和荆棘基督会穿的桂冠。这孩子谁将会遭受可怕的死亡达到他接受命运。玛丽不拉花回来。你感觉到内部的痛苦,注意到她的深蓝色长袍开到下面露出鲜红的,外向的激情和痛苦来的象征。在画的死者中心垂直线是基督的右掌将被钉在十字架上。“ 萨尔茨接受了这个油画作为陈列在展览皮耶罗的最出色的工作。

在数学和几何学的工作
皮耶罗的透视理论研究的浓厚兴趣和他沉思的方法来他的画在他的所有工作明显。[6]三通过的论文写的皮耶罗被称为现代数学家:珠算伤寒(Trattato D'阿巴科),短的书在这五种正多面体(Libellus德西洋参Corporibus Regularibus)和在视角绘画(德Prospectiva Pingendi)。涵盖这些作品的主题包括算术,代数,几何和两个创新工作立体几何和视角。大部分皮耶罗的工作后来被吸收到他人写的,特别是卢卡·帕西奥利。皮耶罗对立体几何作品出现在帕茨奥里的“ 德神曲proportione ”,由所示的工作达芬奇。他的赞助人的传记作家费德里科DA蒙特费尔特罗的乌尔比诺,记录,他鼓励追求这是由杜克大学共同看法的兴趣。

在15世纪50年代后期,皮耶罗复制和说明以下作品阿基米德:[7] 在球体和圆柱体; 在圆的测量; 在Conoids和球体; 在螺旋; 在飞机上的平衡; 在抛物线的正交; 沙览。该手稿由82开本叶。这是集合中举行藏书Riccardiana [8] ,它是由意大利人文主义作出的阿基米德文集的翻译副本Iacopo达圣卡夏诺(也称为Iacobus Cremonensis)

启示
博胡斯拉夫马丁努写了题为乐团三个运行工作莱斯Fresques德·皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯。献给拉斐尔库贝利克,它是由库贝利克和首演维也纳爱乐乐团在1956年的萨尔斯堡音乐节。皮耶罗的几何完美,在他的绘画中光的几乎魔法气息的启发现代画家像契里科马西莫Campigli,菲菲Casorati和巴尔蒂斯。
 

English Introduction

Piero was born in Town Borgo San Jose Pohl Clou, Tuscany modern [1] (he also died), Baire Deidre "ceschi, a Rome businessman, and Di Perry Noda Montan Gei, a part of Florence and Toth Khanna Chess Ki of the noble family.
He is the most likely apprentice local painter Antonio Giovanni D'in Anji, because the note in the payment, he and Antonio in 1432 and May 1438 work file [2] [3] in addition, he must notice some work in Siena in his youth activities such as mulberry saypol Kroll sassetta artists. In 1439 Piero received, together with Domenico Veneziano, for his work to pay for the frescoes of St. John's Church in Florence, which is now lost. In Florence, he must have reached the leading masters of the same family as Ann, Luca della Robiya, Donald Taylor, and the president of. The classical Masaccio murals and his grand figure in the virgin carmine is an important source of inspiration to him. Piero's undocumented work dating is difficult because his style does not seem to have been developed over the past few years.
Mature works
In 1442, the city council he was listed as qualified mulberry Crowe saypol. Three years later, he received the Madonna della Commission at the altar of mercy sansepolcro church, completed in early 1460s. In 1449, he executed several frescoes Castello Estense castle and the Church of Ferrara, also lost. His influence in the later Ferrarese fables was particularly strong for Cosimo tura.
Two years later, he worked for condottiero in Rimini, Sigismund Pandolfo Malatesta. This time, his famous mural in 1451 the implementation of Saint Sigismund and Sigismondo Pandolfo Mara Testa Mara theis provided Sigismondo and Arnold temple, portrait. Rimini Piero may have reached the famous Renaissance mathematician and architect Leon Battista Al Betty, who has redesigned the Mara theis provided Arnold temple; although known Alberti and his boss, his design is to establish the corresponding direct execution of the church. After Piero is active in Ancona, Pesaro and Bologna.
In 1454, he signed a contract with San Augustin Polyptych in San Agostino sansepolcro church. The central panel of this polyptic is lost, the wings of four teams, with the representations of saints, scattered around the world. A few years later, summoned by Pope Nicola V, he moved to Rome: here he executed the mural Cathedral, of which only fragments remain. Two years later, he was the pope in Rome capital, therefore also destroyed Buddhist temple murals.
In the baptism of Christ, in the National Gallery in London, around 1460 S. Giovanni Battista in the Sansepolcro Abbey Church of the high altar execution. Piero della Francesca's mature other famous works are the murals of the resurrected Christ sansepolcro and lady parto in Montel Ki, near sansepolcro.
Francis murals in Arezzo
In 1452, Piero della Francis called to Arezzo, to replace the Bicci di Lorenzo painting murals in the Cathedral of St. francis. The work was completed 1466 years ago, probably between the murals of the period of 1452 and 1456, depicting the true cross legend, which is commonly seen in his masterpieces and those of the Renaissance paintings. In the stories of these murals from the legendary medieval sources as a way to find out how the true relics of the true cross. These stories in the collection of gold legend Jakob Dava Laz (Varagine Yagebuda in mid thirteenth Century). [4]
Piero in Urbino
Between 1469 and 1486 Piero della Francis Federico three Damon repeatedly tefel clenbuterol in the count's service (1474 Duke). According to Piero, who will work for Federico's father, Guidantonio, who died in February 1443, however, it is impossible to say that this statement is not documented or drawn by painting. Vasari may confuse Guidantonio with Federico. The whip is widely considered to be Piero's oldest work in Urbino (dating from 1455 to 1470). It was one of the most famous and controversial pictures of the early renaissance. As discussed in its own entry, it is made up of the geometry of the sober air mark, in addition to presenting a puzzling mystery to the nature of the three men standing in the foreground.
On Urbino, another famous works is double as Federico and his wife Battista Sforza, Ufitsi. The portrait in the profile was inspired by a large bronze and painted circular portrait with Fedederico and his wife. Other works of Urbino proposed is immortal Montefiore Trow altar at the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan, and possibly Madonna sinigaglia.
Urbino Piero met the painter Melozo Da Foley, Fra Carnival and Flemish Justus van Ghent (or Jules van Hof or Euse Torti Gunter Watson), mathematician Flaluca Paoioli, architect Francesco di George Ma Tianni, and possibly Leon Battista Alberti.

English Introduction

The painter in his later years, such as Luca, Perugino and Riley Masino frequented his studio. According to records, Piero rented house in Rimini in 1482 though he gave up painting in his later years, Vasari's remarks, he went to the old age, at the age of sixty and binocular blindness, is questionable, because in 1485 he completed his ordinary solid papers, dedicated to Guidobaldo Damonte Feelt Lo, son of Prince Federico and heir. In his fine handwriting. Piero made his will in 1487 October 1492, he died five years later, 12, in his own house in mulberry saypol kroll. He left his property to his family and the church.
Criticism and interpretation
Recently, Flicker was collected in New York, until May 19, 2013, known as the collection of eight paintings in the presence of the United States, the existing paintings of the seven of the. Seven in the exhibition, a written New York magazine critic Jerry Salz singled out Piero's Madonna and child enthroned with the four angels, the nature of the demonstration. Salz said, "Notre Dame two steps up. They are the world itself apart from the world in addition to Marie is not looking at their children, but to see him to a rose. You start to collect the revelation she has. Flowers represent love, devotion, and beauty, but also a symbol of the crown of blood and thorns. The child who will suffer terrible death to accept his fate. Marie garland back. You feel the pain inside, and notice that her dark blue robe opens beneath the bright red, outward sign of passion and pain. The vertical line in the dead center of the painting is the right hand of Christ will be nailed to the cross. "He accepted this painting as displayed in the exhibition of Piero's best work.
Work in mathematics and geometry
Piero's theory of perspective is of great interest and his contemplative approach to his painting is evident in all of his work. [6] three papers written by Piero was called a modern mathematician: abacus typhoid (Trattato D', short book Abaco) in the five regular polyhedra (Libellus de Corporibus Regularibus ginseng) and in the perspective of painting (Prospectiva Pingendi). Topics covered by these works include arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and two innovative work on solid geometry and perspective. Most of Piero's work was later absorbed by others, especially in the case of Luca Paoioli. Piero of solid geometry works appear in Pacioli's "de Divina proportione", as shown by the work of Da Vinci. His patron's biographer Federico DA Castro Montefiore Urbino records, he encouraged the pursuit of the common view of interest by Duke University.
In late 1450s, Piero copy and explain the following: [7] in the works of Archimedes in the round sphere and cylinder; measurement; Conoids and sphere; in the spiral on the plane; balance; in the sand on the orthogonal parabola. The manuscript consists of 82 folio leaves. This is a collection of books held in Riccardiana [8], which is made by the Italy humanist Archimedes's translation copy of Iacopo San Cassiano (also known as Iacobus Cremonensis)
enlightenment
Bohuslav Martin wrote a work entitled three band les Fresques de Piero de la Francis. For Rafael Kubelik, it was produced by Kubelik and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra premiered in 1956 Salzburg music festival. The perfect geometry of Piero, inspired by modern painter light in his paintings almost magic breath like Massimo Campigli, Casorati Chirico, Fifi and Barr Thys.

参考资料
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