皮耶罗·德拉·弗朗西斯Piero della Francesca（1415年——1492年10月12日），意大利画家。皮耶罗出生在镇博尔戈圣塞坡尔克罗，现代托斯卡纳（他也死了），到贝内代德“切斯基，一个商人，和罗马迪佩里诺达蒙泰尔基，佛罗伦萨和托斯卡纳切斯基贵族家庭的一部分。在1442年，他被列为资格桑塞波尔克罗的市议会。三年后，他收到的委托为麦当娜德拉任凭祭坛的慈悲圣塞波尔克罗的教堂，在早期1460s完成。1449年，他执行了几个壁画Castello Estense城堡和圣安德烈亚教堂费拉拉，也失去了。他的影响力在后来的费拉勒斯寓言作品是特别强科西莫图拉。
皮耶罗的透视理论研究的浓厚兴趣和他沉思的方法来他的画在他的所有工作明显。三通过的论文写的皮耶罗被称为现代数学家：珠算伤寒（Trattato D'阿巴科），短的书在这五种正多面体（Libellus德西洋参Corporibus Regularibus）和在视角绘画（德Prospectiva Pingendi）。涵盖这些作品的主题包括算术，代数，几何和两个创新工作立体几何和视角。大部分皮耶罗的工作后来被吸收到他人写的，特别是卢卡·帕西奥利。皮耶罗对立体几何作品出现在帕茨奥里的“ 德神曲proportione ”，由所示的工作达芬奇。他的赞助人的传记作家费德里科DA蒙特费尔特罗的乌尔比诺，记录，他鼓励追求这是由杜克大学共同看法的兴趣。
Piero was born in Town Borgo San Jose Pohl Clou, Tuscany modern (he also died), Baire Deidre "ceschi, a Rome businessman, and Di Perry Noda Montan Gei, a part of Florence and Toth Khanna Chess Ki of the noble family.
He is the most likely apprentice local painter Antonio Giovanni D'in Anji, because the note in the payment, he and Antonio in 1432 and May 1438 work filein addition, he must notice some work in Siena in his youth activities such as mulberry saypol Kroll sassetta artists. In 1439 Piero received, together with Domenico Veneziano, for his work to pay for the frescoes of St. John's Church in Florence, which is now lost. In Florence, he must have reached the leading masters of the same family as Ann, Luca della Robiya, Donald Taylor, and the president of. The classical Masaccio murals and his grand figure in the virgin carmine is an important source of inspiration to him. Piero's undocumented work dating is difficult because his style does not seem to have been developed over the past few years.
In 1442, the city council he was listed as qualified mulberry Crowe saypol. Three years later, he received the Madonna della Commission at the altar of mercy sansepolcro church, completed in early 1460s. In 1449, he executed several frescoes Castello Estense castle and the Church of Ferrara, also lost. His influence in the later Ferrarese fables was particularly strong for Cosimo tura.
Two years later, he worked for condottiero in Rimini, Sigismund Pandolfo Malatesta. This time, his famous mural in 1451 the implementation of Saint Sigismund and Sigismondo Pandolfo Mara Testa Mara theis provided Sigismondo and Arnold temple, portrait. Rimini Piero may have reached the famous Renaissance mathematician and architect Leon Battista Al Betty, who has redesigned the Mara theis provided Arnold temple; although known Alberti and his boss, his design is to establish the corresponding direct execution of the church. After Piero is active in Ancona, Pesaro and Bologna.
In 1454, he signed a contract with San Augustin Polyptych in San Agostino sansepolcro church. The central panel of this polyptic is lost, the wings of four teams, with the representations of saints, scattered around the world. A few years later, summoned by Pope Nicola V, he moved to Rome: here he executed the mural Cathedral, of which only fragments remain. Two years later, he was the pope in Rome capital, therefore also destroyed Buddhist temple murals.
In the baptism of Christ, in the National Gallery in London, around 1460 S. Giovanni Battista in the Sansepolcro Abbey Church of the high altar execution. Piero della Francesca's mature other famous works are the murals of the resurrected Christ sansepolcro and lady parto in Montel Ki, near sansepolcro.
Francis murals in Arezzo
In 1452, Piero della Francis called to Arezzo, to replace the Bicci di Lorenzo painting murals in the Cathedral of St. francis. The work was completed 1466 years ago, probably between the murals of the period of 1452 and 1456, depicting the true cross legend, which is commonly seen in his masterpieces and those of the Renaissance paintings. In the stories of these murals from the legendary medieval sources as a way to find out how the true relics of the true cross. These stories in the collection of gold legend Jakob Dava Laz (Varagine Yagebuda in mid thirteenth Century).
Piero in Urbino
Between 1469 and 1486 Piero della Francis Federico three Damon repeatedly tefel clenbuterol in the count's service (1474 Duke). According to Piero, who will work for Federico's father, Guidantonio, who died in February 1443, however, it is impossible to say that this statement is not documented or drawn by painting. Vasari may confuse Guidantonio with Federico. The whip is widely considered to be Piero's oldest work in Urbino (dating from 1455 to 1470). It was one of the most famous and controversial pictures of the early renaissance. As discussed in its own entry, it is made up of the geometry of the sober air mark, in addition to presenting a puzzling mystery to the nature of the three men standing in the foreground.
On Urbino, another famous works is double as Federico and his wife Battista Sforza, Ufitsi. The portrait in the profile was inspired by a large bronze and painted circular portrait with Fedederico and his wife. Other works of Urbino proposed is immortal Montefiore Trow altar at the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan, and possibly Madonna sinigaglia.
Urbino Piero met the painter Melozo Da Foley, Fra Carnival and Flemish Justus van Ghent (or Jules van Hof or Euse Torti Gunter Watson), mathematician Flaluca Paoioli, architect Francesco di George Ma Tianni, and possibly Leon Battista Alberti.
The painter in his later years, such as Luca, Perugino and Riley Masino frequented his studio. According to records, Piero rented house in Rimini in 1482 though he gave up painting in his later years, Vasari's remarks, he went to the old age, at the age of sixty and binocular blindness, is questionable, because in 1485 he completed his ordinary solid papers, dedicated to Guidobaldo Damonte Feelt Lo, son of Prince Federico and heir. In his fine handwriting. Piero made his will in 1487 October 1492, he died five years later, 12, in his own house in mulberry saypol kroll. He left his property to his family and the church.
Criticism and interpretation
Recently, Flicker was collected in New York, until May 19, 2013, known as the collection of eight paintings in the presence of the United States, the existing paintings of the seven of the. Seven in the exhibition, a written New York magazine critic Jerry Salz singled out Piero's Madonna and child enthroned with the four angels, the nature of the demonstration. Salz said, "Notre Dame two steps up. They are the world itself apart from the world in addition to Marie is not looking at their children, but to see him to a rose. You start to collect the revelation she has. Flowers represent love, devotion, and beauty, but also a symbol of the crown of blood and thorns. The child who will suffer terrible death to accept his fate. Marie garland back. You feel the pain inside, and notice that her dark blue robe opens beneath the bright red, outward sign of passion and pain. The vertical line in the dead center of the painting is the right hand of Christ will be nailed to the cross. "He accepted this painting as displayed in the exhibition of Piero's best work.
Work in mathematics and geometry
Piero's theory of perspective is of great interest and his contemplative approach to his painting is evident in all of his work.  three papers written by Piero was called a modern mathematician: abacus typhoid (Trattato D', short book Abaco) in the five regular polyhedra (Libellus de Corporibus Regularibus ginseng) and in the perspective of painting (Prospectiva Pingendi). Topics covered by these works include arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and two innovative work on solid geometry and perspective. Most of Piero's work was later absorbed by others, especially in the case of Luca Paoioli. Piero of solid geometry works appear in Pacioli's "de Divina proportione", as shown by the work of Da Vinci. His patron's biographer Federico DA Castro Montefiore Urbino records, he encouraged the pursuit of the common view of interest by Duke University.
In late 1450s, Piero copy and explain the following: in the works of Archimedes in the round sphere and cylinder; measurement; Conoids and sphere; in the spiral on the plane; balance; in the sand on the orthogonal parabola. The manuscript consists of 82 folio leaves. This is a collection of books held in Riccardiana , which is made by the Italy humanist Archimedes's translation copy of Iacopo San Cassiano (also known as Iacobus Cremonensis)
Bohuslav Martin wrote a work entitled three band les Fresques de Piero de la Francis. For Rafael Kubelik, it was produced by Kubelik and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra premiered in 1956 Salzburg music festival. The perfect geometry of Piero, inspired by modern painter light in his paintings almost magic breath like Massimo Campigli, Casorati Chirico, Fifi and Barr Thys.