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埃贡·希勒Egon Schiele

埃贡·希勒Egon Schiele(1890年6月12日——1918年10月31日),奥地利画家。

人物关系
  • 中文名埃贡·希勒
  • 外文名Egon Schiele
  • 性别
  • 国籍奥地利
  • 出生地奥地利
  • 出生日期1890年6月12日
  • 逝世日期1918年10月31日
  • 职业画家
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中文介绍

早期的生活

 

Schiele 16岁,从1906年的自画像

Schiele出生于1890年Tulln,下奥地利州他的父亲是阿道夫·席勒的影子,Tulln站的站长奥地利国家铁路,生于1851年维也纳卡尔路德维希·席勒的影子,德国Ballenstedt和Aloisia Schimak;还有埃贡·席勒的影子的母亲玛丽,nee Soukup,出生于1861年Česky Krumlov约翰·弗朗兹Soukup(Krumau),捷克父亲从Mirkovice,Aloisia Poferl,德国波西米亚母亲从Cesky Krumlov。小时候,Schiele火车,非常着迷,会花很多时间,以至于他的父亲不得不摧毁他的速写。当他11岁的时候,Schiele搬到附近的城市(后来Klosterneuburg)参加中学。身边的他,Schiele被认为是一个奇怪的孩子。害羞和矜持,他在学校表现很差,除了体育和绘画,[3]和通常在类由年轻的学生组成的。他也表现出对他的妹妹乱伦倾向格特鲁德(称为Gerti)是谁,和他的父亲,大多很清楚的行为,一旦被迫分解一个锁着的房间的门,大多和Gerti看到他们在做什么(只发现他们开发一个电影)。当他十六岁时带着12岁的Gerti乘火车的里雅斯特未经许可,花了一个晚上在酒店房间里。

美术学院

Schiele 15岁时,他的父亲死于梅毒,他成为了他的舅舅的病房,奥波德Czihaczek,也是一名铁路官员。[2]虽然他希望Schiele跟随他的脚步,在他缺乏兴趣,不良在学术界,他承认Schiele的绘画天分,漫不经心地允许他导师;艺术家路德维希·卡尔斯特拉赫。1906年Schiele应用Kunstgewerbeschule(工艺美术学院)维也纳,在那里古斯塔夫•克里姆特曾经的研究。在他的第一年,Schiele发送,在几个教员的坚持,更传统那些从事der Bildenden执教职位1906年在维也纳。他的主要教师学院基督教Griepenkerl,画家的严格教义和极端保守的风格沮丧和不满席勒的影子和他的同学那么多,三年后他离开了。

克里姆特和第一展览

 

亚瑟的画像Rossler,1910年

1907年,Schiele寻找古塔夫•克里姆特,他慷慨地指导年轻艺术家。克里姆特年轻Schiele特别兴趣,购买他的图纸,提供交换他们自己的,为他安排的模型,把他介绍给潜在的顾客。他还介绍了席勒的影子维也纳工场制作,工艺品车间与分离1908年Schiele他第一次展览,KlosterneuburgSchiele离开学院的1909年,在完成他的第三年,创立了Neukunstgruppe(“新艺术集团”)与其他不满意的学生。

克里姆特邀请Schiele展示他的一些工作在1909年维也纳Kunstschau,在那里他遇到了的工作爱德华蒙克,Jan Toorop,文森特·梵高等等。一旦自由学院的惯例的约束,Schiele不仅开始探索人类的形式,也是人类性行为。当时,许多发现他的作品令人不安的明确性。

 

还有埃贡·席勒的影子的照片,1914年

从此,Schiele参与众多集团展览,其中包括1910年在布拉格Neukunstgruppe和布达佩斯1912年;Sonderbund,科隆1912年,几个分裂了慕尼黑,从1911年开始。在1913年,Galerie汉斯·戈尔茨、慕尼黑、安装Schiele首次个展。他的个展发生在工作巴黎在1914年。

裸体

Schiele的工作已经大胆,但它又大胆的迈出一步与克里姆特装饰色情的包容和有些人可能喜欢称之为形象扭曲,包括伸长、畸形、和性开放。Schiele的自画像帮助重建这两个流派的能量与他们独特的情感和性的诚实和使用比喻的失真代替传统的理想美。还有埃贡·席勒的影子与举起手(1910)的裸体跪得最重要的裸体艺术作品在20世纪。Schiele激进和发达的方法对赤裸裸的人类形态挑战学者和进步人士。这种非传统的作品和风格对严格的学术界和上升性骚动形象的扭曲线条和沉重的显示表达式。Schiele掌握了轮廓性的工艺被人类表达情感的革命。

争议,成功和婚姻

1911年,Schiele会见了17岁Walburga Neuzil(Wally),和他住在维也纳,担任他的一些最引人注目的作品的典范。所知甚少的她,除了她曾为古斯塔夫•克里姆特和可能是他的一个情妇。Schiele和沃利想逃离他们视为幽闭维也纳环境,去的小镇Česky Krumlov(Krumau)在南波西米亚Krumau Schiele的诞生地的母亲,现在是一个博物馆的网站致力于席勒的影子。尽管Krumau Schiele的家庭关系,他和他的情人被赶出小镇的居民,世卫组织强烈反对他们的生活方式,包括他所谓的城镇的就业作为模型的少女。

Neulengbach和监禁

 

Schiele Neulengbach的监狱里的画

他们一起搬到Neulengbach以西35公里的维也纳,寻求鼓舞人心的环境和一个便宜的工作室工作。在首都,Schiele的工作室成为Neulengbach拖欠儿童聚集的地方。Schiele的生活方式引起了太多的仇恨在镇上的居民,和1912年4月被捕引诱一个年轻女孩岁以下的同意。

当他们来到他的工作室,他被捕,警方查获了一百图纸他们认为色情。Schiele被囚禁在等待他的审判。当他被带到法官,诱惑和绑架的指控被取消了,但展示色情绘画艺术家被判有罪的儿童容易拿到的地方。在法庭上,法官被冒犯的图纸在一个蜡烛的火焰。在押的二十一天他已经花了都被考虑在内时,他被判处进一步三天的监禁。在狱中,Schiele创造了一系列12画描绘的困难和不适被锁在牢房。

婚姻

 

伊迪丝Schiele 1915

1914年,Schiele瞥见姐妹伊迪丝和阿黛尔危害,与父母同住对面他的工作室在维也纳Hietzing区,101年Hietzinger Hauptstraße。他们是一个中产阶级家庭,新教因着信,他们的父亲是一个主人锁匠1915年,Schiele选择嫁给社会接受伊迪丝越多,但显然与沃利将保持关系。然而,当他解释情况,沃利,她又立即离开他,从未见过他。这被遗弃的痛苦使他油漆死亡与少女,沃利的肖像是基于前一个配对,但Schiele刚刚袭击了。(1915年2月,Schiele写信给他的朋友亚瑟Roessler说:“我打算结婚,有利地。沃利。”)危害家庭,尽管有一些反对Schiele和伊迪丝结婚1915年6月17日,Schiele的父母的结婚纪念日。

战争,最后几年和死亡

 

1910年代的照片还埃贡·席勒的影子,

尽管避免征兵了近一年,第一次世界大战现在开始Schiele形状的生活和工作。他结婚三天后,Schiele被命令报告现役军队最初驻扎在他的地方布拉格伊迪丝来和他一起住在酒店,而大多住在一个展厅与他的士兵。他们被允许通过Schiele偶尔看到对方的指挥官。尽管他服兵役,席勒的影子还在柏林展出。在同一年,他也成功的显示苏黎世,布拉格,德累斯顿他的第一职责是保护和护送俄罗斯囚犯。因为他的软弱的心和他的优秀的笔迹,Schiele最终被给定一个职员的工作在镇附近的一个战俘营穆勒

他被允许有绘画被俄罗斯军官,和他的指挥官,卡尔•莫泽(假定Schiele是个画家,装饰,当他第一次见到他,甚至给了他一个废弃的储藏室使用作为一个工作室。自从Schiele负责食品商店的营地,他和伊迪丝可以享受食物以外的口粮。到1917年,他回到了维也纳,能够专注于自己的艺术生涯。他的输出是多产的,和他的作品反映了艺术家的成熟完整的命令他的才能。他被邀请参加分裂的第49展览,于1918年在维也纳举行。Schiele五十工作接受了这个展览,他们显示在大厅。他还设计了一个展览的海报,让人想起最后的晚餐自己的肖像,在基督的地方。这个节目是一个胜利的成功,因此,Schiele图纸的价格增加,他收到许多肖像佣金。

死亡

在1918年秋天,西班牙流感流感大流行在欧洲,已造成20000000多人死亡达到了维也纳。伊迪丝,怀孕6个月,10月28日死于这种疾病。Schiele只有三天之后他的妻子去世了。他28岁。他们的死亡之间的三天期间,Schiele伊迪丝画了一些草图。

风格

 

安东的画像Peschka 1909

 

在1911年Neulengbach,客厅

在他的早年,Schiele强烈的影响克里姆特Kokoschka虽然模仿他们的风格,特别是前者,在Schiele明显可见的第一个作品,他很快就发展自己的独特风格。

Schiele最早的作品在1907年和1909年之间包含强烈的相似性与克里姆特,[7]以及影响新艺术派.[8]1910年,席勒的影子在一年内开始尝试裸体和一个明确的风格特色瘦弱,sickly-coloured数据,往往有很强的性色彩。Schiele也开始绘画和绘画的孩子。

 

自画像

逐渐,Schiele的工作变得更加复杂和主题,和在1912年监禁后,他处理的主题如死亡与重生,尽管女性裸体保持他的主要输出。在战争期间Schiele的画变得更大、更详细的,当他有时间来生产这些产品。不过给他有限的时间,和他的输出由线性素描的风景和军官。在这个时候Schiele也开始尝试母亲和家庭的主题。他的妻子伊迪丝是他的大部分女性的模型数据,但是在战争期间由于情况,他的许多模特都是男性。自1915年以来,Schiele富勒的女裸体已经在图,但许多人故意还配有一张毫无生气的娃娃一般的外表。他生命的最后,Schiele引来了无数自然和建筑的主题。他最后几个图纸由女性的裸体,在自慰的姿势。

一些视图Schiele工作是怪诞,色情,色情,或不安,关注性,死亡,和发现。他关注自己以及他人的肖像。在晚年,他还经常与裸体,他们在一个更现实的方式完成。他还画的贡品梵高向日葵的风景和静物画。

English Introduction

Early life

Schiele was born in 1890 in Tulln, Lower Austria. His father, Adolf Schiele, the station master of the Tulln station in the Austrian State Railways, was born in 1851 in Vienna to Karl Ludwig Schiele, a German from Ballenstedt and Aloisia Schimak; Egon Schiele's mother Marie, née Soukup, was born in 1861 in Český Krumlov (Krumau) to Johann Franz Soukup, a Czech father fromMirkovice, and Aloisia Poferl, a German Bohemian mother from Cesky Krumlov.[1][2] As a child, Schiele was fascinated by trains, and would spend many hours drawing them, to the point where his father felt obliged to destroy his sketchbooks. When he was 11 years old, Schiele moved to the nearby city of Krems (and later to Klosterneuburg) to attend secondary school. To those around him, Schiele was regarded as a strange child. Shy and reserved, he did poorly at school except in athletics and drawing,[3] and was usually in classes made up of younger pupils. He also displayed incestuous tendencies towards his younger sister Gertrude (who was known asGerti), and his father, well aware of Egon's behaviour, was once forced to break down the door of a locked room that Egon and Gerti were in to see what they were doing (only to discover that they were developing a film). When he was sixteen he took the twelve-year-old Gerti by train toTrieste without permission and spent a night in a hotel room with her.[4]

Academy of Fine Arts[edit]

When Schiele was 15 years old, his father died from syphilis, and he became a ward of his maternal uncle, Leopold Czihaczek, also a railway official.[2] Although he wanted Schiele to follow in his footsteps, and was distressed at his lack of interest in academia, he recognised Schiele's talent for drawing and unenthusiastically allowed him a tutor; the artist Ludwig Karl Strauch. In 1906 Schiele applied at the Kunstgewerbeschule (School of Arts and Crafts) in Vienna, where Gustav Klimt had once studied. Within his first year there, Schiele was sent, at the insistence of several faculty members, to the more traditional Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1906. His main teacher at the academy was Christian Griepenkerl, a painter whose strict doctrine and ultra-conservative style frustrated and dissatisfied Schiele and his fellow students so much that he left three years later.

Klimt and first exhibitions

In 1907, Schiele sought out Gustav Klimt, who generously mentored younger artists. Klimt took a particular interest in the young Schiele, buying his drawings, offering to exchange them for some of his own, arranging models for him and introducing him to potential patrons. He also introduced Schiele to the Wiener Werkstätte, the arts and crafts workshop connected with the Secession. In 1908 Schiele had his first exhibition, in Klosterneuburg. Schiele left the Academy in 1909, after completing his third year, and founded the Neukunstgruppe ("New Art Group") with other dissatisfied students.

Klimt invited Schiele to exhibit some of his work at the 1909 Vienna Kunstschau, where he encountered the work of Edvard Munch, Jan Toorop, and Vincent van Gogh among others. Once free of the constraints of the Academy's conventions, Schiele began to explore not only the human form, but also human sexuality. At the time, many found the explicitness of his works disturbing.

From then on, Schiele participated in numerous group exhibitions, including those of the Neukunstgruppe in Prague in 1910 and Budapest in 1912; the Sonderbund, Cologne, in 1912; and several Secessionist shows in Munich, beginning in 1911. In 1913, the Galerie Hans Goltz, Munich, mounted Schiele's first solo show. A solo exhibition of his work took place in Paris in 1914.

Nudes

Schiele's work was already daring, but it went a bold step further with the inclusion of Klimt's decorative eroticism and with what some may like to call figurative distortions, that included elongations, deformities, and sexual openness. Schiele's self-portraits helped re-establish the energy of both genres with their unique level of emotional and sexual honesty and use of figural distortion in place of conventional ideals of beauty. Egon Schiele’s Kneeling Nude with Raised Hands (1910) is considerably the most significant nude art piece made during the 20th century. Schiele’s radical and developed approach towards the naked human form challenged both scholars and progressives alike. This unconventional piece and style went against strict academia and elevated a sexual uproar with its contorted lines and heavy display of figurative expression. Schiele mastered the craft of contouring sexually charged beings to express emotional revolutions.

Controversy, success and marriage

In 1911, Schiele met the seventeen-year-old Walburga (Wally) Neuzil, who lived with him in Vienna and served as a model for some of his most striking paintings. Very little is known of her, except that she had previously modelled for Gustav Klimt and might have been one of his mistresses. Schiele and Wally wanted to escape what they perceived as the claustrophobic Viennese milieu, and went to the small town of Český Krumlov (Krumau) in southern Bohemia. Krumau was the birthplace of Schiele's mother; today it is the site of a museum dedicated to Schiele. Despite Schiele's family connections in Krumau, he and his lover were driven out of the town by the residents, who strongly disapproved of their lifestyle, including his alleged employment of the town's teenage girls as models.

Neulengbach and imprisonment

Together they moved to Neulengbach, 35 km west of Vienna, seeking inspirational surroundings and an inexpensive studio in which to work. As it was in the capital, Schiele's studio became a gathering place for Neulengbach's delinquent children. Schiele's way of life aroused much animosity among the town's inhabitants, and in April 1912 he was arrested for seducing a young girl below the age of consent.

When they came to his studio to place him under arrest, the police seized more than a hundred drawings which they considered pornographic. Schiele was imprisoned while awaiting his trial. When his case was brought before a judge, the charges of seduction and abduction were dropped, but the artist was found guilty of exhibiting erotic drawings in a place accessible to children. In court, the judge burned one of the offending drawings over a candle flame. The twenty-one days he had already spent in custody were taken into account, and he was sentenced to a further three days' imprisonment. While in prison, Schiele created a series of 12 paintings depicting the difficulties and discomfort of being locked in a jail cell.

Marriage

In 1914, Schiele glimpsed the sisters Edith and Adéle Harms, who lived with their parents across the street from his studio in the Viennese district of Hietzing, 101 Hietzinger Hauptstraße. They were a middle-class family and Protestant by faith; their father was a masterlocksmith. In 1915, Schiele chose to marry the more socially acceptable Edith, but had apparently expected to maintain a relationship with Wally. However, when he explained the situation to Wally, she left him immediately and never saw him again. This abandonment led him to paint Death and the Maiden, where Wally's portrait is based on a previous pairing, but Schiele's is newly struck. (In February 1915, Schiele wrote a note to his friend Arthur Roessler stating: "I intend to get married, advantageously. Not to Wally.") Despite some opposition from the Harms family, Schiele and Edith were married on 17 June 1915, the anniversary of the wedding of Schiele's parents.

War, final years and death

Despite avoiding conscription for almost a year, World War I now began to shape Schiele's life and work. Three days after his wedding, Schiele was ordered to report for active service in the army where he was initially stationed in Prague. Edith came with him and stayed in a hotel in the city, while Egon lived in an exhibition hall with his fellow conscripts. They were allowed by Schiele's commanding officer to see each other occasionally. Despite his military service, Schiele was still exhibiting in Berlin. During the same year, he also had successful shows inZürich, Prague, and Dresden. His first duties consisted of guarding and escorting Russian prisoners. Because of his weak heart and his excellent handwriting, Schiele was eventually given a job as a clerk in a POW camp near the town of Mühling.

There he was allowed to draw and paint imprisoned Russian officers, and his commander, Karl Moser (who assumed that Schiele was a painter and decorator when he first met him), even gave him a disused store room to use as a studio. Since Schiele was in charge of the food stores in the camp, he and Edith could enjoy food beyond rations.[5] By 1917, he was back in Vienna, able to focus on his artistic career. His output was prolific, and his work reflected the maturity of an artist in full command of his talents. He was invited to participate in the Secession's 49th exhibition, held in Vienna in 1918. Schiele had fifty works accepted for this exhibition, and they were displayed in the main hall. He also designed a poster for the exhibition, which was reminiscent of the Last Supper, with a portrait of himself in the place of Christ. The show was a triumphant success, and as a result, prices for Schiele's drawings increased and he received many portrait commissions.

Death

In the autumn of 1918, the Spanish flu pandemic that claimed more than 20,000,000 lives in Europe reached Vienna. Edith, who was six months pregnant, succumbed to the disease on 28 October. Schiele died only three days after his wife. He was 28 years old. During the three days between their deaths, Schiele drew a few sketches of Edith.

Style

In his early years, Schiele was strongly influenced by Klimtand Kokoschka. Although imitations of their styles, particularly with the former, are noticeably visible in Schiele's first works, he soon evolved his own distinctive style.

Schiele's earliest works between 1907 and 1909 contain strong similarities with those of Klimt,[7] as well as influences from Art Nouveau. In 1910, Schiele began experimenting with nudes and within a year a definitive style featuring emaciated, sickly-coloured figures, often with strong sexual overtones. Schiele also began painting and drawing children.

Progressively, Schiele's work grew more complex and thematic, and after his imprisonment in 1912 he dealt with themes such as death and rebirth,although female nudes remained his main output. During the war Schiele's paintings became larger and more detailed, when he had the time to produce them. His military service however gave him limited time, and much of his output consisted of linear drawings of scenery and military officers. Around this time Schiele also began experimenting with the theme of motherhood and family.[11] His wife Edith was the model for most of his female figures, but during the war due to circumstance, many of his sitters were male. Since 1915, Schiele's female nudes had become fuller in figure, but many were deliberately illustrated with a lifeless doll-like appearance. Towards the end of his life, Schiele drew many natural and architectural subjects. His last few drawings consisted of female nudes, some in masturbatory poses.

Some view Schiele's work as being grotesque, erotic, pornographic, or disturbing, focusing on sex, death, and discovery. He focused on portraits of others as well as himself. In his later years, while he still worked often with nudes, they were done in a more realist fashion. He also painted tributes to Van Gogh's Sunflowers as well as landscapes and still lifes.

Legacy

Schiele was the subject of the biographical film, Excess and Punishment (aka Egon Schiele – Exzess und Bestrafung), a 1980 film originating in Germany with a European cast that explores Schiele's artistic demons leading up to his early death. The film was directed by Herbert Vesely and stars Mathieu Carrière as Schiele, Jane Birkin as his early artistic muse Wally Neuzil, Christine Kaufman as his wife, Edith Harms, and Kristina Van Eyck as her sister, Adele Harms. Also in 1980, the Arts Council of Great Britain produced a documentary film, Schiele in Prison, which looked at the circumstances of Schiele's imprisonment and the veracity of his diary.[13]

Joanna Scott's 1990 novel Arrogance was based on Schiele's life and makes him the main figure. His life was also depicted in a theatrical dance production by Stephan Mazurek called Egon Schiele, presented in May 1995, for which Rachel's, an American post-rock group, composed a score titled Music for Egon Schiele.[14] For The Featherstonehaughs contemporary dance company,Lea Anderson choreographed The Featherstonehaughs Draw On The Sketchbooks Of Egon Schiele in 1997.[15]

Schiele's life and work have also been the subject of essays, including a discussion of his works by fashion photographerRichard Avedon in an essay on portraiture entitled "Borrowed Dogs."[16] Mario Vargas Llosa uses the work of Schiele as a conduit to seduce and morally exploit a main character in his 1997 novel The Notebooks of Don Rigoberto.[17] Wes Anderson's film The Grand Budapest Hotel features a painting by Rich Pellegrino that is modeled after Schiele's style which, as part of a theft, replaces a so-called Flemish/Renaissance masterpiece, but is then destroyed by the angry owner when he discovers the deception.[18]

Julia Jordan based her 1999 play Tatjana in Color, which was produced off-Broadway at The Culture Project during the fall of 2003, on a fictionalization of the relationship between Shiele and the 12-year-old Tatjana von Mossig, the Neulengbach girl whose morals he was ultimately convicted of corrupting for allowing her to see his paintings.[19]

Sales and collections

Portrait of Wally, a 1912 portrait, was purchased by Rudolf Leopold in 1954 and became part of the collection of the Leopold Museum when it was established by the Austrian government, purchasing more than 5,000 pieces that Leopold had owned. After a 1997–1998 exhibit of Schiele's work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, the painting was seized by order of the New York County District Attorney[20] and had been tied up in litigation by heirs of its former owner who claim that the painting was Nazi plunder and should be returned to them.[21]

The dispute was settled on 20 July 2010 and the picture subsequently purchased by the Leopold Museum for 19 million US$.[22] In 2013, the museum sold three drawings by Schiele for £14 million at Sotheby's London in order to settle the restitution claim over its 1914 Schiele painting Houses by the Sea.[23] The most expensive, Liebespaar (Selbstdarstellung mit Wally) (1914/15), or Two lovers (Self Portrait With Wally), raised the world auction record for a work on paper by the artist to £7.88 million.[24]

The Leopold Museum, Vienna houses perhaps Schiele's most important and complete collection of work, featuring over 200 exhibits. The museum sold one of these, Houses With Colorful Laundry (Suburb II), for $40.1 million at Sotheby's in 2011.[25]Other notable collections of Schiele's art include the Egon Schiele-Museum, Tulln, the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, and the Albertina Graphic Collection, both in Vienna.

On 21 June 2013 Auctionata in Berlin sold a watercolor from 1916, Reclining Woman at an online auction for €1.827 million (US $2.418 million). This is a world record for the most expensive work of art ever sold at an online auction.

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