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西奥多卢梭Theodore Rousseau

( 巴比松画派画家 )

艾蒂安石西奥多卢梭 (1812年4月15日–1867年12月22日)是法国画家的 巴比松画派 。他出生在巴黎,一个 资产阶级的 家庭起初他接受业务培训,但很快就显示出绘画才能。虽然他的父亲后悔最初的决定,他并不甘心成为他的儿子放弃生意,在艺术家的生涯(他儿子他活了下来)是一个同情他与他所有的冲突 巴黎沙龙 当局.日é味儿卢梭分享1830浪漫主义画家的困难,在确保他们的照片在一年一度的巴黎展的一个地方。经典训练的艺术家的影响,攻击他们,直到1848是卢梭提出的充分公开。

人物关系
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生日期1812年4月15日
  • 逝世日期1867年12月22日
  • 职业画家
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生活

他出生在巴黎,一个 资产阶级的 家庭起初他接受业务培训,但很快就显示出绘画才能。虽然他的父亲后悔最初的决定,他并不甘心成为他的儿子放弃生意,在艺术家的生涯(他儿子他活了下来)是一个同情他与他所有的冲突 巴黎沙龙 当局.日é味儿卢梭分享1830浪漫主义画家的困难,在确保他们的照片在一年一度的巴黎展的一个地方。经典训练的艺术家的影响,攻击他们,直到1848是卢梭提出的充分公开。 [ 1 ]

他有六工作在1831、1833的美容院,1834和1835,但在1836他的伟大的工作 风景du Jura 【 血统奶牛 ]被沙龙陪审团拒绝。他共派出八个进一步起到1836和1841之间的沙龙;然而他们都不被接受。此后,他停止发送工作沙龙直到1849,当他所有的三份意见书接受。他并不是没有在新闻的冠军,并与”称号 伟大的拒绝 “他通过他的朋友éophile雷神é著述称,评论家后来居住在英国和汉堡写使用的名称。 [ 1 ]

在这些年的艺术流亡卢梭产生了他最好的照片:“栗子大道”、“兰德斯”(现在在沼泽 罗浮宫 ),“Hoar Frost”(今美国);并在1851、1848的沙龙在重组后,他展示了他的杰作,“边缘的森林”(在卢浮宫),一张类似治疗,但稍有不同的主题,组成所谓的“枫丹白露”森林的一块空地,在 华勒斯典藏馆 在 赫特福德 ,伦敦。 [ 1 ]

巴比松画派和成熟
在这一时期卢梭还活着,只是偶尔在 巴比松画派 ,但在1848他拿起他居住在森林里,度过他的大部分剩下的日子在附近。他现在能获得公平和他的照片(只有在他死后三十年其值为十分之一),和一些他的崇拜者增加。他仍然被当局忽视,而 维吉尔的水仙。 骑士was made of the 荣誉军团勋章 1851年,, [ 2 ] 卢梭是左未修饰的此时,但被提名并授予跨不久。他最终会成为军人荣誉博物馆的一员。 [ 1 ]

在1853世界博览会,在那里所有的卢梭拒绝了前二十年的照片都聚集在一起,他的作品被公认为形式的一个最佳的许多精彩的群体呈现。但是,拍卖1861作品成功出售后,他打算离开巴黎 阿姆斯特丹 或者伦敦,或者纽约。 [ 1 ]

以后的几年
卢梭随后遭遇了一系列不幸。他的妻子,曾多年持续的焦虑源,几乎成了绝望的疯子;他年迈的父亲变得依赖他金钱上的帮助;他的顾客很少。此外,虽然他暂时缺席他的无效的妻子,一个青年住在他家(家人朋友)自杀在他的巴比松的小屋;当他参观了阿尔卑斯山1863,画素描 勃朗峰 ,他肺部的炎症变得危险的病;当他回到巴比松,他患有 失眠症 而逐渐减弱。 [ 1 ]

他当选为1867博览会美术评委会主席;然而,他失望的被拒绝更好的奖励可能已经影响了他的健康,在八月他瘫痪了。他稍有恢复,但再次被袭击了几次在秋天。十一月,他的病情恶化,他死在他的终身朋友的存在, 让-弗朗索瓦小米 ,1867年12月22日。小米,农民画家卢梭的人怀有极大的敬意,在他生命的最后一年多的他,在他死亡的精神失常的妻子小米假定电荷。 [ 1 ]

卢梭的朋友和邻居, 朱勒杜普雷 巴比松,他著名的山水画家,卢梭经历的困难是知道当他的照片被完成,和他如何,杜普雷é,有时会带离工作室一些画布,卢梭劳动太久。卢梭是迪亚兹的好朋友,教他如何画树,直到在他的职业生涯,迪亚兹认为他可以只画人物的某一点。
 

工作

卢梭的照片在字符总是庄重,与精致的忧郁的空气。他们很好的完成时,他们自称是完成的图片,但卢梭花了这么多时间发展他的臣民,他绝对完成的作品相对较少。他留下了许多油画部分的图片在细节和其余的有些模糊的实现;同时还有相当数量的素描和水彩画图。他的笔在纸上是罕见的单色工作。有一些好照片,他在卢浮宫,和华勒斯集合包含一个对他最重要的巴比松画。还有一个例子在艾奥尼迪斯收集在 维多利亚和Albert Museum 在伦敦。

English is introduced

He was born in Paris, of a  bourgeois  family. At first he received a business training, but soon displayed aptitude for painting. Although his father regretted the decision at first, he became reconciled to his son forsaking business, and throughout the artist's career (for he survived his son) was a sympathizer with him in all his conflicts with the  Paris Salon  authorities. Théodore Rousseau shared the difficulties of the romantic painters of 1830, in securing for their pictures a place in the annual Paris exhibition. The influence of classically trained artists was against them, and not until 1848 was Rousseau presented adequately to the public. [1]

He had exhibited six works in the Salons of 1831, 1833, 1834 and 1835, but in 1836 his great work Paysage du Jura  [ La descente des vaches ] was rejected by the Salon jury. He sent a total of eight further works to the Salon between 1836 and 1841; and yet none of them were accepted. Thereafter, he ceased sending work to the Salon until 1849, when all three of his submissions were accepted. He was not without champions in the press, and with the title of " le grand refusé " he became known through the writings of his friend Théophile Thoré, the critic who afterwards resided in England and wrote using the name Burger. [1]

During these years of artistic exile Rousseau produced some of his best pictures: "The Chestnut Avenue", "The Marsh in the Landes" (now in the  Louvre ), "Hoar-Frost" (now in America); and in 1851, after the reorganization of the Salon in 1848, he exhibited his masterpiece, "The Edge of the Forest" (also in the Louvre), a picture similar in treatment to, but slightly varied in subject from, the composition called "A Glade in the Forest of Fontainebleau", in the  Wallace Collection  at  Hertford House , London. [1]

Barbizon and maturity
Until this period Rousseau had lived only occasionally at  Barbizon , but in 1848 he took up his residence in the forest village, and spent most of his remaining days in the vicinity. He was now able to obtain fair sums for his pictures (but only about one-tenth of their value thirty years after his death), and the number of his admirers increased. He was still ignored by the authorities, for while  Narcisse Virgilio Diaz  was made Chevalier of the  Legion of Honour  in 1851, [2] Rousseau was left undecorated at this time, but was nominated and awarded the Cross soon afterwards. He would eventually become an Officer of the Legion of Honor.  [1]

English is introduced

At the Exposition Universelle of 1853, where all Rousseau's rejected pictures of the previous twenty years were gathered together, his works were acknowledged to form one of the best of the many splendid groups there exhibited. But, after an unsuccessful sale of his works by auction in 1861, he contemplated leaving Paris for  Amsterdam  or London, or even New York. [1]

Later years
Rousseau then suffered a series of misfortunes. His wife, who had been a source of constant anxiety for years, became almost hopelessly insane; his aged father became dependent on him for pecuniary assistance; his patrons were few. Moreoever, while he was temporarily absent with his invalid wife, a youth living in his home (a friend of his family) committed suicide in his Barbizon cottage; when he visited the Alps in 1863, making sketches of  Mont Blanc , he became dangerously ill with inflammation of the lungs; and when he returned to Barbizon he suffered from  insomnia  and became gradually weakened.  [1]

He was elected president of the fine-art jury for the 1867 Exposition; however, his disappointment at being denied the better awards may have affected his health, for in August he became paralyzed. He recovered slightly, but was again attacked several times during the autumn. In November his condition worsened, and he died in the presence of his lifelong friend,  Jean-François Millet , on December 22, 1867. Millet, the peasant painter, for whom Rousseau had the greatest regard, had been much with him during the last years of his life, and at his death Millet assumed charge of the insane wife. [1]

Rousseau's other friend and neighbor,  Jules Dupré , himself an eminent landscape painter of Barbizon, relates the difficulty Rousseau experienced in knowing when his picture was finished, and how he, Dupré, would sometimes take away from the studio some canvas on which Rousseau was laboring too long. Rousseau was a good friend to Diaz, teaching him how to paint trees, for until a certain point in his career Diaz considered he could only paint figures.

Work
Rousseau's pictures are always grave in character, with an air of exquisite melancholy. They are well finished when they profess to be completed pictures, but Rousseau spent so much time developing his subjects that his absolutely completed works are comparatively few. He left many canvases with parts of the picture realized in detail and with the remainder somewhat vague; and also a good number of sketches and water-color drawings. His pen work in monochrome on paper is rare. There are a number of good pictures by him in the Louvre, and the Wallace collection contains one of his most important Barbizon pictures. There is also an example in the Ionides collection at the  Victoria and Albert Museum  in London.
 

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