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阿尔伯特·马尔凯Albert Marquet

阿尔伯特·马尔凯Albert Marquet(1875年3月27日——1947年6月14日),法国画家。马尔凯在出生于1875年的波尔多。1890年,他移居巴黎参加巴黎高等装饰艺术,在那里他遇到了马蒂斯。他们是一时间的室友,他们相互影响的工作。马尔凯在1892年就开始研究高等美术学院在古斯塔夫·莫罗,一个象征的艺术家是谁的浪漫主义传统的追随者德拉克罗瓦。

  • 中文名阿尔伯特·马尔凯
  • 外文名Albert Marquet
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生地波尔多
  • 出生日期1875年3月27日
  • 逝世日期1947年6月14日
  • 职业画家
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生活和工作

马尔凯在出生于1875年的波尔多。1890年,他移居巴黎参加巴黎高等装饰艺术,在那里他遇到了马蒂斯。他们是一时间的室友,他们相互影响的工作。马尔凯在1892年就开始研究高等美术学院在古斯塔夫·莫罗,一个象征的艺术家是谁的浪漫主义传统的追随者德拉克罗瓦

这些年来,马尔凯展出画作独立沙龙。虽然他不卖许多画,巴黎的艺术社会开始意识到他的工作。通过一个明确的和绘画的他早期的成分进行了表征野兽派的方法,其中他有绘画的精细控制,并回答了光,不仅加剧了最强音,也被看到在配色方面较弱的部分。

1905年他陈列在秋季沙龙,他的绘画作品与那些放在一起马蒂斯莫里斯·Vlaminck,德朗,奥托Friesz,乔治·鲁奥,拉乌尔杜菲亨利Manguin,布拉克路易斯VALTAT,乔治Dufrénoy和吉恩多姆。他成为了马蒂斯的一个世交。 

在这些画中的强烈着色惊惶,批评的反应是命名艺术家“野兽派”,即野兽。虽然马尔凯涂上野兽派多年来,他用明亮的暴力色彩比别人少,并强调通过混合制成的互补不太激烈的色调,从而始终颜色和从来没有像灰色。

马尔凯随后涂在一个更自然的风格,主要景观。 

在1907年年底,他在巴黎逗留和献身,与马蒂斯一起,到了一系列的城市景观。两者的根本区别在于,虽然马蒂斯用强烈的色彩,马尔凯青睐灰色黄色,变灰紫罗兰或蓝色。黑色通常被用作一个强烈的对比,以光的颜色等形式,裸露的树干或calligraphically引起人们用很轻,经常黄色或橙色的街道和人行道对比。另一个不同之处在于马尔凯使用的传统的近似透视,虽然他的颜色和组合物不断提到的矩形,并切断其平面与他们的书法。

从1907年到他去世,马尔凯在他在巴黎和欧洲沿海的许多地区以及在工作室工作之间交替北非。他最涉及阿尔及利亚和阿尔及尔和突尼斯。在他的航行,他画的大海和船舶,而且灯光和城市的生活动画,海滨特别是城市,如阿尔及尔。

在欧洲城市马尔凯仍然特别有印象那不勒斯和威尼斯,在那里他画的大海和船只,重音过水的光。他采用的技术没有像印象派 ',画水作为持有水面的飞机没有幻觉的角度来看,从这些船只出现成不同的平面简单的音调大面积。他的观点在威尼斯泻湖做到这一点非常经济。水停留在一个直角的画面和大型船舶浮自如,用自己的反思完全正确的基调项目所需的空间。他的颜色很像上世纪20年代的马蒂斯,在这里。他生动的色彩对比描述了简单的绘图它伴随着严格遵守所色调大海的波涛,给人平和运动的场景。人类的数字是大大简化,在与日本四条风格工作的方式calligraphically绘制。马蒂斯说,“当我看着葛饰北斋,我觉得马尔凯,反之亦然......我的意思不是模仿葛饰北斋的,我的意思是与他的相似”。 

在他航行到德国和瑞典,他画他通常首选科目为:河景和海景,港口和船舶,也是城市景观。在他的职业生涯中,他经常回到同一科目,甚至几年后,记录在光线的细微差别。他画了几张画像,他在1910年和1914年之间画了一系列的裸体在妓院,并准备对女同性恋情侣作品的插图。但他是最适合他的许多风景而闻名。 

与马蒂斯,还有他的工作变动没有明显的时期。由于马蒂斯的最亲密的朋友之一,他们讨论了以最大的开放彼此的工作。马尔凯的死亡是意外和突然,从一个胆的攻击和后来发现的癌症,因为这在当时没有治疗。他去世塞纳河畔拉夫雷特 1947年6月,14。
 

遗产

虽然他指出,马尔凯传统上被视为一个小画家,英国画家约翰麦克莱恩是那些谁认为当中“他对色彩,它的明暗度和饱和度,它的重量,感觉无外乎令人惊叹。” [6]

马尔凯特别受到美国画家崇敬利兰贝尔和他的妻子路易莎Matthiasdottir。他也被贝尔的同时代铝Kresch和崇敬加布里埃尔Laderman。由于这两种贝尔和Laderman是教师在几个美国艺术学校,他们不得不对年轻的美国形象化的艺术家的影响和他们的马尔凯的赞赏。[7]

English Introduction

Life and work
Marquet was born in 1875 at Bordeaux. In 1890 he moved to Paris to attend the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs, where he met Henri Matisse. They were roommates for a time, and they influenced each other's work. Marquet began studies in 1892 at the École des Beaux-Arts under Gustave Moreau, a symbolist artist who was a follower of the Romantic tradition of Eugène Delacroix.

In these years, Marquet exhibited paintings at the Salon des Indépendants. Although he did not sell many paintings, the artistic community of Paris became aware of his work. His early compositions were characterised by a clear and painterly Fauvist approach, in which he had a fine control of the drawing and responded to light, not only by intensifying the strongest tones, but also by seeing the weaker ones in coloristic terms.

In 1905 he exhibited at the Salon d'Automne[1] where his paintings were put together with those of Henri Matisse, Maurice de Vlaminck, André Derain, Othon Friesz, Georges Rouault, Raoul Dufy, Henri Manguin, Georges Braque, Louis Valtat, Georges Dufrénoy and Jean Puy. He became a lifelong friend of Matisse.[2]

Dismayed by the intense coloration in these paintings, critics reacted by naming the artists the "Fauves", i.e. the wild beasts. Although Marquet painted with the fauves for years, he used less bright and violent colours than the others, and emphasized less intense tones made by mixing complementaries, thus always as colors and never as grays.

Marquet subsequently painted in a more naturalistic style, primarily landscapes.[2]

At the end of 1907 he stayed in Paris and dedicated himself, together with Matisse, to a series of city views. The fundamental difference between the two is that while Matisse used strong colours, Marquet favored grayed yellows, greyed violets or blues. Black was usually used as a violent contrast to light colors for such forms as bare tree trunks or calligraphically drawn people contrasted with very light, often yellow or orange streets and sidewalks. Another difference is that Marquet used an approximation of traditional perspective, although his colors and compositions constantly referred to the rectangle and cut its plane with their calligraphy.

From 1907 to his death, Marquet alternated between working in his studio in Paris and many parts of the European coast and in North Africa. He was most involved with Algeria and Algiersand with Tunisia. In his voyages he painted the sea and ships, but also the lights and animated life of the city, especially cities on the waterfront, like Algiers.

Among European cities Marquet remained impressed particularly with Naples and Venice where he painted the sea and boats, accenting the light over water. He adopted a technique nothing like the Impressionists', painting water as a large area of simple tone which held the plane of the water surface without illusionistic perspective, from which the ships arise into a different plane. His views of the lagoon in Venice do this very economically. The water stays at a right angle to the picture plane and the large ships float with ease, with their reflections exactly the correct tone to project the required space. His color is much like Matisse of the 1920s, here. His contrasts of vivid colors describe the waves of the sea with simple drawing which accompany the exactly observed color tones, giving a scene of placid movement. The human figures are much simplified, calligraphically drawn in a way related to Japanese Shijo style work. Matisse said, "When I look at Hokusai, I think of Marquet—and vice versa ... I don't mean imitation of Hokusai, I mean similarity with him".[3]

English Introduction

During his voyages to Germany and Sweden he painted the subjects he usually preferred: river and sea views, ports and ships, but also cityscapes. Over the course of his career he often returned to the same subjects, even years later, recording subtle differences in the light. He painted a few portraits, and between 1910 and 1914 he painted a series of nudes[2] in whorehouses, and prepared the illustration of a work on lesbian lovers. But he is best known for his many landscapes.[4][5]

Unlike Matisse, there are no obvious periods of change in his work. As one of Matisse's closest friends, they discussed each other's work with the greatest openness. Marquet's death was unexpected and sudden, from a gall bladder attack and subsequently discovered cancer, for which at that time there was no therapy. He died in La Frette-sur-Seine, on 14 June 1947.

Legacy
Although he notes that Marquet is conventionally regarded as a minor painter, the English painter John McLean is among those who consider that "his feeling for colour, the lightness or darkness and saturation of it, its weight, is nothing less than astounding."[6]

Marquet was particularly revered by the American painters Leland Bell and his wife Louisa Matthiasdottir. He was also revered by Bell's contemporaries Al Kresch and Gabriel Laderman. Since both Bell and Laderman were teachers in several American art schools, they have had an influence on younger American figurative artists and their appreciation of Marquet.[7]
 

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