欧仁·德拉克罗瓦Eugène Delacroix

欧仁·德拉克罗瓦(Eugène Delacroix,1798—1863),法国著名画家,浪漫主义画派的典型代表。他继承和发展了文艺复兴以来欧洲各艺术流派,包括威尼斯画派、荷兰画派、P.P.鲁本斯和J.康斯特布尔等艺术家的成就和传统,并影响了以后的艺术家,特别是印象主义画家。

人物关系
  • 中文名欧仁·德拉克罗瓦
  • 外文名Eugène Delacroix
  • 性别
  • 国籍法国
  • 出生地阿尔代什省
  • 出生日期1798年4月26日
  • 逝世日期1863年8月13日
  • 职业画家
  • 毕业院校美术学院
  • 主要成就浪漫主义画派的代表人物
  • 代表作品《自由引导人民》等
中文介绍

早期的生活

 

德拉克洛瓦的画像在他职业生涯的早期

尤金·德拉克洛瓦出生在1798年4月26日Charenton-Saint-Maurice巴黎大区巴黎附近。他母亲名叫维克托瓦尔,女儿的一个橱柜制造者让Oeben他有三个年长的兄弟姐妹。Charles-Henri德拉克洛瓦(1779 - 1845)上升到拿破仑军队的将军。亨瑞特(1780 - 1827)嫁给了外交官雷蒙德·德·Verninac Saint-Maur(1762 - 1822)。亨利出生六年后。在他被杀害了里德兰战役1807年6月14日。[5]

有理由相信尤金的父亲,Charles-Francois德拉克洛瓦,尤金当时不育的概念,他真正的父亲塔列朗,他的一个朋友的家人和继任者查尔斯·德拉克洛瓦作为外交部长,和成人尤金像在外表和性格。[6]在他的职业生涯作为一个画家,他是保护塔,曾先后恢复和王路易·菲利普派遣来华执行,最终法国大使在英国,后来塔的孙子,查尔斯·奥古斯特·路易斯·约瑟夫duc de Morny,同父异母的兄弟拿破仑三世演讲者法国下议院。他认为父亲,死于1805年,查尔斯•德拉克洛瓦和他的母亲在1814年,16岁的Eugene一个孤儿。

在他早期的教育公立中学Louis-le-Grand,在皮埃尔Corneille公立中学在鲁昂[7]他把自己沉浸在绘画的经典和获奖。1815年,他开始了他的训练Pierre-Narcisse吉林在新古典主义的风格雅克大卫一个早期教会委员会,圣母的收获(1819),显示一个拉斐尔戏剧性的影响,但另一个这样的委员会,圣母圣心的(1821),证据更自由的解释。[8]它之前的影响更加丰富多彩,丰富的佛兰德画家风格彼得·保罗鲁本斯(1577 - 1640),法国艺术家西奥多Gericault(1791 - 1824),他的作品标志着浪漫主义艺术的介绍。

Gericault的的影响美杜莎的木筏是深刻的,刺激德拉克洛瓦生产他的第一个主要的绘画,但丁的三桅帆船,这是接受的巴黎沙龙在1822年。工作引起了轰动,在很大程度上是由公众和官员嘲笑,但购买的状态卢森堡画廊;普遍反对他的模式工作,有力的反击,开明的支持,将继续在他的生命。[9]两年后,他又取得了受欢迎的成功希俄斯岛的大屠杀.

职业生涯

希俄斯岛和Missolonghi

 

惨案希俄斯岛(1824),罗浮宫

德拉克洛瓦的绘画大屠杀希俄斯岛显示生病,垂死的希腊平民被屠杀土耳其人的画作之一他的当代事件,它表达了同情希腊引起的他们的独立战争在土耳其,法国人当时流行的情绪。德拉克洛瓦很快被公认的著名画家的新浪漫主义风格,和这张照片是由国家购买。然而,他描绘的痛苦是有争议的因为没有辉煌的事件发生,没有爱国者提高他们的剑在英勇大卫贺拉斯兄弟的誓言中,只有一场灾难。许多批评人士谴责这幅画的绝望的基调;艺术家Antoine-Jean格罗艺术称之为“大屠杀”。[9]哀婉动人的描绘一个婴儿抓着死去的母亲的乳房有一个特别强大的影响,尽管这细节被指责为不适合艺术德拉克洛瓦的批评。观看的画作John Constable和水彩的草图和艺术理查德Parkes Bonnington促使德拉克洛瓦广泛,自由画天空,遥远的景观变化。[10]

 

希腊的废墟上Missolonghi(1826),美术博物馆,波尔多

德拉克洛瓦产生第二个画支持希腊独立战争,这个时候指的捕捉Missolonghi1825年被土耳其军队。[11]克制的调色板适当的寓言,希腊到期的废墟上Missolonghi显示一个女人抱着她的乳房裸露,在希腊服装武器其中一种恳求的姿态在可怕的场景:希腊人的自杀,他选择了自杀,摧毁他们的城市,而不是屈服于土耳其。一只手在底部,身体已经被瓦砾。整个画面作为纪念Missolonghi人民和自由反对专制统治的想法。这个事件感兴趣的德拉克洛瓦与希腊人不仅对他的同情,但也因为诗人拜伦是德拉克洛瓦非常敬佩的,死在那里。[1]

浪漫主义

 

Sardanapalus死(1827),国家博物馆尤金·德拉克洛瓦

 

1824年一场风暴,马受惊

1825年去英国访问托马斯劳伦斯理查德Parkes Bonington,颜色和处理英语绘画为他唯一的全身像提供了动力,优雅的画像Louis-Auguste Schwiter(1826 - 30)。在大致相同的时间,德拉克洛瓦创造浪漫的众多作品主题,其中许多将继续关心他三十多年了。到1825年,他是生产石版画说明莎士比亚,不久石版画和油画歌德的《浮士德》画如异端的战斗和哈桑(1826),和女人鹦鹉(1827),介绍了主题的暴力和感官享受这将被证明是复发性。[12]

这些不同的浪漫链聚集在一起的Sardanapalus死(1827 - 8)。德拉克洛瓦的绘画之死的亚述王Sardanapalus显示了一个情绪激动人心的场景充满美丽的颜色,奇异的服装和悲剧性事件。Sardanapalus描绘了包围了国王的死冷漠看着保安执行他的命令杀死他的仆人,小妾和动物。文学的来源是一出戏拜伦,虽然未提及任何大屠杀的小妾。[13]

Sardanapalus冷静超然的态度是一个熟悉的姿势浪漫的图像在这个时期在欧洲。这幅画,表现出了多年之后,已经被一些评论家视为涉及死亡的可怕的幻想和欲望。尤其令人震惊的斗争是一个裸体女人的喉咙被削减,一个场景放置在前景最大的影响。然而,感官美和异国情调的色彩使构图显得令人愉快的和令人震惊的同时。

各种浪漫的利益又合成了谋杀的列日的主教(1829)。它还借鉴了文学的来源,这个时候斯科特,描绘了一个场景中世纪谋杀的路易德波本威士忌,列日的主教在一个由他的捕获者,狂欢William de la Marck设置在一个巨大的拱顶,德拉克洛瓦基于在法院属下的草图鲁昂威斯敏斯特大厅明暗对比的戏剧上演,围绕一个点燃的台布。1855年,一个评论家形容这幅画充满活力的处理”没有一幅画完成,比草图完成,谋杀的主教列日当时画家留下的最高的时候一个中风的刷会毁了一切”。[14]

自由引导人民

主要文章:自由引导人民

 

自由引导人民(1830),Louvre-Lens,巴黎

德拉克洛瓦最具影响力与绘画工作是在1830年自由引导人民,选择的主题和技术突出浪漫的方法之间的差异和新古典主义风格。没有那么明显,也不同于浪漫主义的Gericault,以美杜莎的木筏.

“德拉克洛瓦感到他的作文更生动地作为一个整体,认为他的数据和人群类型,并主导他们的符号图共和党自由这是他最好的塑料的发明之一……”[15]

带领着人民的可能德拉克洛瓦最著名的画,自由是一个难忘的巴黎人的形象,拿起武器,前进的旗帜下三色代表自由,平等,博爱。虽然德拉克洛瓦的灵感来源于当代事件调用这个浪漫的形象的精神自由,他似乎试图传达人民的意志和性格,[15]而不是赞美实际的事件,1830年革命查理十世以外的,这并没有带来一个不同的国王,路易·菲利普派遣来华执行权力。战士死了躺在前台提供的辛酸与象征性的女性人物,得意地照亮,好像在聚光灯下。

 

基督的加利利海,1854年

尽管法国政府买了这幅画,官员们认为其自由的赞颂炎症和删除它从公众视线。尽管如此,德拉克洛瓦仍然收到了很多政府委员会壁画和天花板画。

后,1848年革命,路易-菲力浦国王的统治时期,德拉克洛瓦的绘画,带领着人民的自由,最后展出了新当选的总统,路易拿破仑(拿破仑三世)。传统上,可见的罗浮宫博物馆在巴黎,从12月开始,2012年,它一直在展出Louvre-Lens镜头,加莱海峡.[16]

男孩持枪的权利有时被认为是一个灵感的伽弗洛什字符维克多。雨果1862年的小说,《悲惨世界》.[需要引证]

前往北非

 

1838年丹吉尔,狂热者,明尼阿波利斯艺术研究所

1832年,德拉克洛瓦前往西班牙和北非,作为外交使命的一部分摩洛哥后不久,法国人征服阿尔及利亚他主要不是去学习艺术,但逃离巴黎的文明,希望看到一个更原始的文化。[15]他最终产生了100多幅油画和素描作品的场景或基于北非人民的生活,并添加一个新的兴趣和个人章东方主义.[17]德拉克洛瓦是被人们和服饰,旅行会通知主题的许多他未来的绘画。他相信北非洲人,在他们的服装,他们的态度,提供了一个视觉等价于古典罗马和希腊的人:

“希腊人和罗马人在我的门,在阿拉伯人自己封装在一个白色的毯子,布鲁图斯卡托或看起来像…”[15]

 

自画像,1837年。尤金·德拉克洛瓦是一个好奇的混合物的怀疑,礼貌,时髦,意志力,聪明,专制,最后,一种特殊的善良和温柔,总是伴随着天才”。[18]

他设法画一些女性秘密阿尔及尔在这幅画阿尔及尔的妇女在他们的公寓(1834),但通常他遇到困难找到穆斯妇女为他带来,因为穆斯林规则要求女性。更少的绘画是有问题的犹太人女性在北非,作为犹太主题婚礼在摩洛哥(1837 - 41)。

而在吉尔,德拉克洛瓦人和城市的许多草图,科目,他将返回,直到他生命的最后。[19]动物——体现浪漫激情就是融入绘画等阿拉伯马在一个稳定的作战(1860),狮子捕猎(其中存在许多版本,画在1856年和1861年),而且阿拉伯强加于他的马(1855)。

壁画和以后的生活

德拉克洛瓦1838年展出美狄亚杀死她的孩子,这引起了轰动沙龙。他的第一次大规模治疗从希腊神话中一个场景,这幅画描绘了美狄亚抓着她的孩子,匕首在为她放弃复仇杀他们杰森三个裸体人物动画金字塔形式,沐浴在斜光穿透的石窟美狄亚隐藏。尽管这幅画很快就由国家购买,德拉克洛瓦时发送到失望里尔美术博物馆;他给它挂在卢森堡,就连一起的但丁的三桅帆船希俄斯岛大屠杀的场景.[20]

从1833年德拉克洛瓦收到大量的佣金来装饰在巴黎的公共建筑。那一年他开始工作的沙龙du Roi此类des委任,波旁宫,直到1837年才完成。在接下来的十年他画在波旁宫在图书馆和图书馆在宫殿du卢森堡。1843年他装饰教堂圣丹尼斯·杜圣人Sacrement与大量圣母怜子图,从1848年到1850年他画的天花板Galerie d 'Apollon罗浮宫从1857年到1861年他参与的薛潘des和壁画圣教会Sulpice在巴黎。其中包括“雅各与天使之战”,“圣迈克尔杀死龙”,“Heliodorus逐出殿”。[21]这些佣金给他机会大规模组合在一个建筑环境中,这些大师他欣赏,保罗·委罗内塞,丁托列托,鲁本斯

 

德拉克洛瓦,狮子猎杀1855

工作疲劳,这些年他遭受日益脆弱的宪法。除了他的家在巴黎,从1844年他还住在一个小别墅Champrosay在农村,在那里他发现喘息。从1834年直到他死,他被他的管家,忠实地照顾玛丽·勒Guillou统计,保护他的隐私,他奉献延长他的生命,他在晚年继续工作的能力。[22]

德拉克洛瓦1862年参与的创建法国国家美术他的朋友,作家讯息Gautier成为主席,画家艾梅小米担任副主席。除了德拉克洛瓦,该委员会是由画家Carrier-BelleusePuvis de通知在参展商Leon Bonnat让-巴蒂斯特·Carpeaux,Charles-Francois Daubigny,古斯塔夫·多尔,爱德华马奈就在他死后1863年,社会组织的248幅油画和版画的回顾展Delacroix-and停止任何进一步的展览。

尤金·德拉克洛瓦死于巴黎,葬在那里父亲Lachaise公墓.

他的房子,以前坐落在运河的马恩高速公路的出口附近,现在主要从巴黎到德国中部。

English Introduction

Early life

Eugène Delacroix was born on 26 April 1798 at Charenton-Saint-Maurice in Île-de-France, near Paris. His mother was named Victoire, daughter of the cabinet-maker Jean-François Oeben. He had three much older siblings. Charles-Henri Delacroix (1779–1845) rose to the rank of General in the Napoleonic army. Henriette (1780–1827) married the diplomatRaymond de Verninac Saint-Maur (1762–1822). Henri was born six years later. He was killed at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807.[5]

There is reason to believe that Eugène's father, Charles-François Delacroix, was infertile at the time of Eugène's conception and that his real father was Talleyrand, who was a friend of the family and successor of Charles Delacroix as Minister of Foreign Affairs, and whom the adult Eugène resembled in appearance and character.[6] Throughout his career as a painter, he was protected by Talleyrand, who served successively theRestoration and king Louis-Philippe, and ultimately as ambassador of France in Great Britain, and later by Talleyrand's grandson, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, half-brother of Napoleon III and speaker of the French House of Commons. His presumed father, Charles Delacroix, died in 1805, and his mother in 1814, leaving 16-year-old Eugène an orphan.

His early education was at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, and at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen[7] where he steeped himself in the classics and won awards for drawing. In 1815 he began his training with Pierre-Narcisse Guérin in the neoclassical style of Jacques-Louis David. An early church commission, The Virgin of the Harvest (1819), displays a Raphael-esque influence, but another such commission, The Virgin of the Sacred Heart (1821), evidences a freer interpretation.[8] It precedes the influence of the more colourful and rich style of the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), and fellow French artist Théodore Géricault (1791–1824), whose works marked an introduction to Romanticism in art.

The impact of Géricault's The Raft of the Medusa was profound, and stimulated Delacroix to produce his first major painting,The Barque of Dante, which was accepted by the Paris Salon in 1822. The work caused a sensation, and was largely derided by the public and officialdom, yet was purchased by the State for the Luxembourg Galleries; the pattern of widespread opposition to his work, countered by a vigorous, enlightened support, would continue throughout his life.[9] Two years later he again achieved popular success for his The Massacre at Chios.

Career

Chios and Missolonghi

Delacroix's painting of the massacre at Chios shows sick, dying Greek civilians about to be slaughtered by the Turks. One of several paintings he made of this contemporary event, it expresses sympathy for the Greek cause in their war of independence against the Turks, a popular sentiment at the time for the French people. Delacroix was quickly recognized as a leading painter in the new Romantic style, and the picture was bought by the state. His depiction of suffering was controversial however, as there was no glorious event taking place, no patriots raising their swords in valour as in David'sOath of the Horatii, only a disaster. Many critics deplored the painting's despairing tone; the artist Antoine-Jean Gros called it "a massacre of art".[9] The pathos in the depiction of an infant clutching its dead mother's breast had an especially powerful effect, although this detail was condemned as unfit for art by Delacroix's critics. A viewing of the paintings of John Constable and the watercolour sketches and art ofRichard Parkes Bonnington prompted Delacroix to make extensive, freely painted changes to the sky and distant landscape.[10]

Delacroix produced a second painting in support of the Greeks in their war for independence, this time referring to the capture of Missolonghi by Turkish forces in 1825.[11] With a restraint of palette appropriate to the allegory, Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghidisplays a woman in Greek costume with her breast bared, arms half-raised in an imploring gesture before the horrible scene: the suicide of the Greeks, who chose to kill themselves and destroy their city rather than surrender to the Turks. A hand is seen at the bottom, the body having been crushed by rubble. The whole picture serves as a monument to the people of Missolonghi and to the idea of freedom against tyrannical rule. This event interested Delacroix not only for his sympathies with the Greeks, but also because the poet Byron, whom Delacroix greatly admired, had died there.[1]

Romanticism

A trip to England in 1825 included visits to Thomas Lawrenceand Richard Parkes Bonington, and the colour and handling of English painting provided impetus for his only full-length portrait, the elegant Portrait of Louis-Auguste Schwiter(1826–30). At roughly the same time, Delacroix was creating romantic works of numerous themes, many of which would continue to interest him for over thirty years. By 1825, he was producing lithographs illustrating Shakespeare, and soon thereafter lithographs and paintings from Goethe's Faust. Paintings such as The Combat of the Giaour and Hassan(1826), and Woman with Parrot (1827), introduced subjects of violence and sensuality which would prove to be recurrent.[12]

These various romantic strands came together in the Death of Sardanapalus (1827-8). Delacroix's painting of the death of the Assyrian king Sardanapalus shows an emotionally stirring scene alive with beautiful colours, exotic costumes and tragic events. TheDeath of Sardanapalus depicts the besieged king watching impassively as guards carry out his orders to kill his servants, concubines and animals. The literary source is a playby Byron, although the play does not specifically mention any massacre of concubines.[13]

Sardanapalus' attitude of calm detachment is a familiar pose in Romantic imagery in this period in Europe. The painting, which was not exhibited again for many years afterward, has been regarded by some critics as a gruesome fantasy involving death and lust. Especially shocking is the struggle of a nude woman whose throat is about to be cut, a scene placed prominently in the foreground for maximum impact. However, the sensuous beauty and exotic colours of the composition make the picture appear pleasing and shocking at the same time.

A variety of Romantic interests were again synthesized in The Murder of the Bishop of Liège (1829). It also borrowed from a literary source, this time Scott, and depicts a scene from the Middle Ages, that of the murder of Louis de Bourbon, Bishop of Liège amidst an orgy sponsored by his captor, William de la Marck. Set in an immense vaulted interior which Delacroix based on sketches of the Palais de Justice in Rouen and Westminster Hall, the drama plays out in chiaroscuro, organized around a brilliantly lit stretch of tablecloth. In 1855, a critic described the painting's vibrant handling as "Less finished than a painting, more finished than a sketch, The Murder of the Bishop of Liège was left by the painter at that supreme moment when one more stroke of the brush would have ruined everything".[14]

Liberty Leading the People

Main article: Liberty Leading the People

Delacroix's most influential work came in 1830 with the painting Liberty Leading the People, which for choice of subject and technique highlights the differences between the romantic approach and the neoclassical style. Less obviously, it also differs from the Romanticism of Géricault, as exemplified by The Raft of the Medusa.

"Delacroix felt his composition more vividly as a whole, thought of his figures and crowds as types, and dominated them by the symbolic figure of Republican Liberty which is one of his finest plastic inventions..."[15]

Probably Delacroix's best-known painting, Liberty Leading the People is an unforgettable image of Parisians, having taken up arms, marching forward under the banner of thetricolour representing liberty, equality, and fraternity. Although Delacroix was inspired by contemporary events to invoke this romantic image of the spirit of liberty, he seems to be trying to convey the will and character of the people,[15] rather than glorifying the actual event, the 1830 revolution against Charles X, which did little other than bring a different king, Louis-Philippe, to power. The warriors lying dead in the foreground offer poignant counterpoint to the symbolic female figure, who is illuminated triumphantly, as if in a spotlight.

Although the French government bought the painting, officials deemed its glorification of liberty too inflammatory and removed it from public view. Nonetheless, Delacroix still received many government commissions for murals and ceiling paintings.

Following the Revolution of 1848 that saw the end of the reign of King Louis Philippe, Delacroix' painting, Liberty Leading the People, was finally put on display by the newly elected President, Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III). Traditionally, it has been visible in the Louvre museum in Paris; beginning December, 2012, it has been on exhibit at Louvre-Lens in Lens, Pas-de-Calais.[16]

The boy holding a gun up on the right is sometimes thought to be an inspiration of theGavroche character in Victor Hugo's 1862 novel, Les Misérables.[citation needed]

Travel to North Africa

In 1832, Delacroix traveled to Spain and North Africa, as part of a diplomatic mission to Morocco shortly after the French conquered Algeria. He went not primarily to study art, but to escape from the civilization of Paris, in hopes of seeing a more primitive culture.[15] He eventually produced over 100 paintings and drawings of scenes from or based on the life of the people of North Africa, and added a new and personal chapter to the interest in Orientalism.[17] Delacroix was entranced by the people and the costumes, and the trip would inform the subject matter of a great many of his future paintings. He believed that the North Africans, in their attire and their attitudes, provided a visual equivalent to the people of Classical Rome and Greece:

"The Greeks and Romans are here at my door, in the Arabs who wrap themselves in a white blanket and look like Cato or Brutus…"[15]

He managed to sketch some women secretly in Algiers, as in the painting Women of Algiers in their Apartment (1834), but generally he encountered difficulty in finding Muslim women to pose for him because of Muslim rules requiring that women be covered. Less problematic was the painting of Jewish women in North Africa, as subjects for the Jewish Wedding in Morocco (1837–41).

While in Tangier, Delacroix made many sketches of the people and the city, subjects to which he would return until the end of his life.[19] Animals—the embodiment of romantic passion—were incorporated into paintings such as Arab Horses Fighting in a Stable (1860), The Lion Hunt (of which there exist many versions, painted between 1856 and 1861), and Arab Saddling his Horse(1855).

Murals and later life

In 1838 Delacroix exhibited Medea about to Kill Her Children, which created a sensation at the Salon. His first large-scale treatment of a scene from Greek mythology, the painting depictsMedea clutching her children, dagger drawn to slay them in vengeance for her abandonment byJason. The three nude figures form an animated pyramid, bathed in a raking light which penetrates the grotto in which Medea has hidden. Though the painting was quickly purchased by the State, Delacroix was disappointed when it was sent to the Lille Musée des Beaux-Arts; he had intended for it to hang at the Luxembourg, where it would have joined The Barque of Danteand Scenes from the Massacres of Chios.[20]

From 1833 Delacroix received numerous commissions to decorate public buildings in Paris. In that year he began work for the Salon du Roi in the Chambre des Députés, Palais Bourbon, which was not completed until 1837. For the next ten years he painted in both the Library at the Palais Bourbon and the Library at the Palais du Luxembourg. In 1843 he decorated the Church of St. Denis du Saint Sacrement with a large Pietà, and from 1848 to 1850 he painted the ceiling in the Galerie d'Apollon of the Louvre. From 1857 to 1861 he worked on frescoes for the Chapelle des Anges at the Church of St. Sulpice in Paris. They included "The Battle of Jacob with the Angel", "Saint Michael Slaying the Dragon", and "The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple".[21] These commissions offered him the opportunity to compose on a large scale in an architectural setting, much as had those masters he admired, Paolo Veronese, Tintoretto, and Rubens.

The work was fatiguing, and during these years he suffered from an increasingly fragile constitution. In addition to his home in Paris, from 1844 he also lived at a small cottage in Champrosay, where he found respite in the countryside. From 1834 until his death, he was faithfully cared for by his housekeeper, Jeanne-Marie le Guillou, who zealously guarded his privacy, and whose devotion prolonged his life and his ability to continue working in his later years.[22]

In 1862 Delacroix participated in the creation of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. His friend, the writer Théophile Gautier, became chairman, with the painter Aimé Milletacting as deputy chairman. In addition to Delacroix, the committee was composed of the painters Carrier-Belleuse and Puvis de Chavannes. Among the exhibitors were Léon Bonnat,Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Charles-François Daubigny, Gustave Doré, and Édouard Manet. Just after his death in 1863, the society organized a retrospective exhibition of 248 paintings and lithographs by Delacroix—and ceased to mount any further exhibitions.

Eugène Delacroix died in Paris and was buried there in Père Lachaise Cemetery.

His house, formerly situated along the canal of the Marne, is now near the exit of the motorway leading from Paris to central Germany.

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